There are interesting websites where you can
find answers to your question. Anyway, here is
the information that looks clear and well
The Earth's seasons are not caused by the
differences in the distance from the Sun
throughout the year (these differences are
extremely small). The seasons are the result of
the tilt of the Earth's axis. The Earth's axis is tilted from perpendicular to the plane of the
ecliptic by 23.45 degrees. This tilting is what gives us the four seasons of the year - spring, summer, autumn (fall) and winter. Since the axis is tilted, different parts of the globe are oriented towards the Sun at different times of the year.
The bottom line for the changes from season to
season is the average daytime temperature. This depends on the amount of heating that the earth receives in a single day throughout the year, and this depends on how many hours the sun is above the horizon and exactly how long it spends at its highest elevation above the horizon.
Summer is warmer than winter (in each
hemisphere) because the Sun's rays hit the Earth
at a more direct angle during summer than during
winter and also because the days are much longer than the nights during the summer. During the winter, the Sun's rays hit the Earth at an extreme angle, and the days are very short. These effects are due to the tilt of the Earth's axis.
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