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Chlorophyll is found in the chloroplasts of plants and there are many different types of the compound. Chlorophyll has many forms and gives plants their green color. The key element in chlorophyll is magnesium (Mg). The chlorophylls are magnesium porphyrin compounds in which a cyclic tetrapyrrole is attached to a single central magnesium atom. They contain two more hydrogen atoms than do other porphyrins. The various forms differ in minor modifications of side groups attached to the pyrrole groups. In higher plants, chlorophyll is bound to proteins and lipids aschloroplastin in definite and specific laminations in bodies called chloroplasts. The combination of chlorophyll with protein in chloroplastin is of special significance, because only as a result of the combination is chlorophyll able to remain resistant to light.
The molecules of chlorophyll are large (C55H70MgN4O6). They are not soluble in the aqueous solution that fills plant cells.
Another pigment found in the leaves of many plants is carotene. Carotene absorbs blue-green and blue light. The light reflected from carotene appears yellow. Carotene is also a large molecule (C40H36) contained in the chloroplasts of many plants.
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