This is a wonderful question and you should think long and hard about this! One thing you need to know is that the distance will be determined by two things: nozzle size and pressure in the bottle -at the time of opening-. That is, once you open the bottle you will have to be generating pressure at the rate it is released to maintain a steady stream at some size.
What does the amount of baking soda in the bottle change? A useful analogy is how does the amount of gas in your car affect its maximum speed (it doesn't)? Why is this?
This problem combines a number of important engineering principles: fuel supply, power generation (how fast you can generate force), and conservation laws (why does the size of the nozzle change the distance of the stream? Mass is conserved so how does the height of a fat cylinder change if you squeeze its radius smaller while keeping the volume constant?)
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