Emitting a laser is where the frequency of
the light emitted by the excited atoms
(containing excited electrons) stimulates the
emission of more light of the same frequency,
which is what the LASER acronym "Light Amplified
by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation" means.
The wavelength is determined by the amount of
energy per photon, which is in turn equal to the
drop in potential energy of the electrons
falling to lower (unexcited) energy states.
Different electron shells would make for lasers
of different wavelengths, so presumably argon
can make more than one different wavelength of
laser with different states of excitement, but I
don't know specifically for argon what those
are. The formula for the frequency of the laser
(which is the speed of light divided by the
wavelength), is f = E/h, where E is the energy
per photon and h is Planck's constant.
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Argon lasers emit at 13 wavelengths through
the visible, ultraviolet, and near-visible
spectrum, including: 351.1 nm, 363.8 nm, 454.6
nm, 457.9 nm, 465.8 nm, 476.5 nm, 488.0 nm,
496.5 nm, 501.7 nm, 514.5 nm, 528.7 nm, 1092.3
The most prominent and most used wavelengths in
the argon laser are the 514.5 nm green line and
the 488.0 nm blue line.
Depending on the optical design one or more of
these transitions can be lasing
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