This is a complicated question, but it is an
important one. Many people now have trouble
controlling their blood sugar due to diet, lack of
exercise, or just bad luck in their genetics.
Let’s start with sugar itself. Your brain
needs it. All of your cells need some kind of
fuel, but your brain is especially picky.
Carbohydrates are just sugars and chains
(polymers) of sugars like starch. When the sugars
bond together, this is a condensation reaction.
It’s called that because water is one of the
products. Processes that put small biomolecules
together to make bigger ones are called anabolic
When a carbohydrate chain breaks into smaller
pieces, this is called hydrolysis. “Lysis” means
to break down. “Hydro” means water. Processes
that break big molecules down into small ones are
Enzymes are the body’s toolkit. Specific
enzymes put the sugars together and take them
apart. For example, sucrase is the enzyme that
breaks table sugar (sucrose) into two sugars
(fructose and glucose).
When we haven’t eaten in a while, and blood
sugar is low, enzymes break down long chains of
sugars (like starch) into small sugars. The
hormone that tells our cells that we need sugar is
After we eat carbohydrates, sugars are released
into our blood from the digestive system. The
hormone insulin tells the cells to take the sugar
out of the blood. Cells in our liver, muscles,
and fat tissue make fat or long chains of
carbohydrates called glycogen. This stores the
energy for when we need it later.
Insulin and glucagon are both made in the
pancreas, an organ near our stomach. It senses
the blood sugar level and releases either glucagon
to raise blood sugar or insulin to reduce it.
This controls our blood sugar levels.
What happens if our bodies don’t respond to
Thanks for asking,
Click Here to return to the search form.