It sure does, but that depends on what you
mean by the "temperature" of the candle. The
way a candle works is by burning off wax:
because a candle flame is hot, the wax around
the flame melts and becomes liquid. This liquid
wax is absorbed into wick, where it's burned and
creates the flame.
So, if the candle flame is hotter (or
bigger), it'll melt wax at a faster rate, so the
candle will be used up at a faster rate.
However, the temperature of the wax
throughout the candle is less important, since
the flame is so much hotter than the rest of the
candle: it's really the flame temperatures that
matters the most.