There are two possible answers to this
question (so I'll try to answer both!).
If you mean table salt, or the salt that we
often buy from the grocery store and add to our
food, this is made from the two elements sodium
and chlorine. Due to the way that these two
elements exist, sodium has an electron that is
easily given away, and chlorine wants to take on
an extra electron. Chlorine does this naturally
by forming a covalent (or sharing) bond with its
self, and is found as a gas, that is toxic.
Sodium does this by making a solid structure
made of all sodium that is highly reactive to
water (and will explode/catch on fire). When the
two are combined however, they exchange one
electron and then have opposite charges, which
attract, and can make the solid, non-toxic solid
we use to add flavor to our foods.
In general, a salt is made of at least two
different types of atoms, one positively
charged, and the other negatively charged, such
that when they are present together they form an
ionic bond. An ionic bond, unlike the covalent
bond, takes the electron (non-sharing) and
creates two charged atoms, and is in general
weaker. In addition, when molecules with this
type of bond are added to water, they dissolve
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