The seemingly simple question of “how did the
solar system form?” is still plaguing astronomers
and astrophysicists in one way or another. The
most commonly accepted theory of our solar
system’s creation is called the
The Nebular hypothesis says that our solar
system condensed out of a part of a Giant
Molecular Cloud filled with hydrogen gas about 4.6
billion years ago. While the cloud was somewhere
around 60 light years across, the clump that would
later form our solar system was around one third
of a light year across. From there, the cloud of
gas concentrated in its center due to gravity, and
when the pressure and temperature inside became
hot enough, the center of the
Clump in the cloud became the star that we know
today as the Sun.
So in answer to your question: Yes! Our solar
system and pretty much every other Solar system
starts with a star in the center.
Due to some complicated astrophysics, the
process of creating a star like ours creates a
thin Protoplanetary Disk of dense gas around the
star (rather than a big cloud). From there, the
rockier inner planets were formed from dust grains
in the disk near the sun and the gas giants were
formed from the gasses further from the sun.
There’s a lot more information about the
formation of the solar system in this Wikipedia
if you want to tackle this subject in greater
depth. It also talks a little bit about some
quirks in the current theories of how the solar
system formed. (For example, some scientists
believe that Uranus and Neptune may have formed in
between the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn and later
migrated outward away from the sun!)
Here’s a short video describing the basics of
our solar system’s formation!
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