You need to get yourself a Ph.D. in astronomy.
While doing that, your dissertation advisor will
provide you with advice on what kinds of jobs will
be available, although most of the jobs that are
likely to exist will either be at universities,
planetariums, or government agencies (e.g. NASA).
Getting into a Ph.D. program in astronomy can
be approached from several different directions in
college as an undergraduate. For example, if you
want to study stars, you probably should major in
physics; if you want to study planets, you should
look into an undergraduate degree in geology; if
you want to study cosmology, perhaps you should
get yourself a background in mathematics (or
physics). In any case, you'll probably want to
take college classes that bridge the fields - for
instance, if you're majoring in geology because
you want to study other planets, you should take
enough astronomy to know what the other planets
are and how they interact with each-other and the
other things in the solar system (for example you
ought to make sure that you understand why
Jupiter's moon Io is as volcanically active as it
is, or what it means that Neptune is an "ice"
Astronomy is a pretty uncommon major, so you
should ask a college course counselor (ideally an
astronomy professor) where to go and whom to take
classes from. Most of the University of California
schools - certainly UC Los Angeles, Santa Barbra,
Santa Cruz, and Berkeley - have pretty good
astronomy programs or have in the past, but you
might want to look into the University of Arizona
or Hawaii, too, especially for graduate school.
Still, as a 10th grade high school student, you
have plenty of time to decide, so make sure you
take a good look around before you choose (also,
keep looking around - schools change, so which one
is best for right you now might not be best when
it's time to apply to a Ph.D. program, and
And make sure you take AP physics in high
school, and as much math as possible. Also, take
geology if you can (my high school offered it, but
not all high schools do).
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