In general, the equator is hot because the sun
shines directly on the equator as the Earth moves
around the sun. The more "direct" the sunlight,
the "stronger" the sunlight. "Stronger" sunlight
feels warmer. Because the Earth is round, any
place far away from the equator is tilted away
from the direct sunlight. Places that are tilted
away from the sunlight will be colder because the
sunshine will be "weaker".
This is similar to why it feels hottest during
the middle of the day when the sun is directly
above us. When the sun is setting, the sunlight
doesn't feel as warm. The sunlight is not as
strong during a sunset because it is not as
direct. Likewise, the sun shines directly above
the equator (making it hot), and other places in
the world are cooler because the sunlight is not
as direct (not as "strong").
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