Great question! As you might already know, the
answer has to do with quantum mechanics and how
subatomic particles (like electrons) behave. In
fact, it turns out that at microscopic scales,
subatomic particles exhibit behavior that makes
them look like waves. If this sounds weird to
you, you're not alone: it's one of the weirdest
features of modern physics! Nevertheless,
experiments tell us that this is how nature works.
So then the question of determining the precise
location of an electron becomes that of
determining the precise location of a wave. But
by their nature, waves are always spread out! (If
it helps, think of an ocean wave - you can usually
say that the wave is "more or less" over there,
but you can't pinpoint its location exactly
because it has some spread). More importantly,
it's not that we can't determine the precise
location of a wave - it's that it doesn't even
make sense to talk about a wave's precise
location, because the wave is spread out. This is
why you can't determine the exact location of an
electron - an electron simply doesn't have an
exact location, because it acts like a wave.
I hope this helps!
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