Each element in the periodic table has a
number of electrons moving around the nucleus.
These electrons are organized into different
layers and the outermost layer may contain from 1
to 8 electrons depending on which element it
An atom is most stable when there are 8
electrons in the outer layer but most elements do
not have this.
An ionic bond between atoms
forms when the electrons in the outer layers of
two different atoms will add up to 8, so they can
combine to make a "compound" with a full outer
layer of electrons. The two different atoms are
able to combine their electrons to become
stable. When the bond is formed between the two
atoms they are very close together and form a new
material. For example:
Sodium is a metal
with 1 electron in the outer layer and Chlorine
has 7 electrons in the outer layer. These two
atoms will go together to form an ionic bond
because the 7 electrons from chlorine and +1 from
sodium = 8!!
The ionic bond of these two atoms
gives us Sodium Chloride.....or table
salt. Also, when sodium gives off the one
electron it gets positively charged and chlorine
that takes up the electron gets negatively
charged. Positively and negatively charged
molecules are called ions (That is why it is
called ionic bond).
The overall charge of the salt
molecule, however, is neutral because we have as
many positively charged particle as negatively
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