Lack of water is especially detrimental to
plants because they end up closing their stomata
to conserve water. Healthy plants take in
carbon dioxide through their stomata. However, at
the same time, open stomata means that a little
bit of water vapor (water in the form of gas) also
escapes through them. Now, if there's not enough
liquid water to absorb, plants will close their
stomata in order to prevent more water vapor from
escaping. This means that plants also don't take
up as much carbon dioxide as they need.
Therefore, photosynthetic activity slows down.
On the other hand, too much water can also
negatively affect plants. Their roots needs access
to oxygen as well, but when there's too much
water, the roots are 'clogged' and can't
'breathe'. They could also rot from sitting in a
pool of water for too long. Lack of oxygen is a
vital component of photosynthesis, so you can see
that too much water is not good either.
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