I think the phenomenon you are describing is an
inelastic collision. This occurs when part
of the kinetic energy of a moving object is
changed or dissipated into another form of energy.
If you throw a ball vertically downwards on the
ground and the ball stays there, then all of the
kinetic energy has either been absorbed by the
ground, by the ball, or dissipated as another form
of energy such as heat. Typically when you throw a
ball against the ground, it comes back up to you,
in which case not all of the kinetic energy was
absorbed or dissipated by the ground.
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