Great question. This is difficult to answer in
a satisfying scientific way. Generally, in
science, we ask questions that are
testable--that is, we should be able to verify
(or debunk) our hypothesis with an experiment. So
the best that science can say here is: we think
the speed of light is the absolute speed limit
because we've never observed anything traveling
And we've tried many times, for example in
particle accelerators such as the famous Large
Hadron Collider (LHC). All the experiments
we've done seem to be consistent with Einstein's
theory of special relativity (and his later
expanded theory of general relativity).
It turns out that when you give particles more
kinetic energy near the speed of light, you end up
increasing their relativistic mass instead of
Fundamental physics (or arguably science in
general) is often a huge guessing game. We come up
with a model or a theory and assume that it is
true. Then we run experiments that either help us
build on our model, or invalidate it and force us
to start over. These theories are usually
impossible to prove, only possible to disprove.
If we can't disprove a theory, and it can
explain things that nothing else can explain, that
theory has scientific value.
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