Sapphire, like many other gem stones, is formed
when minerals in the earth undergo transformations
due to extreme heat and pressure. Chemically,
sapphire refers to an aluminum oxide mineral
called corundum that usually contains very
small amounts of elemental impurities. The
impurities are what give it a non-white color. If
the impurities include iron and titanium, then the
sapphire will be blue (which is the color most
people think of when they hear ‘sapphire’). If
the impurities include a lot of chromium, then the
sapphire will be red – this is actually a ruby!
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