Electrons were discovered by the British
physicist J.J. Thomson. He was following the
long puzzle of rays from a cathode. Based on his
experiments, he made a bold speculation that those
new charged particles are even smaller than atoms
and could be the constituent of atoms, which were
turned out to be correct.
There wasn't a single person who discovered it,
but a series of people who discovered
successively more about electrons over an extended
period. Eugen Goldstein discovered that
what we now call electrons can cast a shadow as
particles or waves, and so could be considered the
first person to recognize them as such. Hendrik
Lorentz predicted the mass and charge of them,
and the trio of J. J. Thompson, John Townson,
and A. J. Wilson confirmed Lorentz'
predictions. There were others, too, but these are
the closest answers I can give to this (admittedly
I am not an expert on particle physics).
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