The short answer is definitely yes. The comet
is half the size, and that's quite big. The mass
could be much smaller than Earth, probably only
0.1% or less compared to the mass of Earth, but
still non-negligible. Basically what you imagined
is another version of moon to Earth, slightly
larger in size but lighter (density of a comet is
usually smaller than Earth). You already know that
how important the moon is to our daily lives.
Imagine another moon that could affect the Earth.
Let's think about two possibilities: the comet
will be captured or escape from the Earth. It is
apparent that it will have a huge impact if the
comet is captured. The worst scenario would be
that the comet will hit the Earth, and you know
that would be a big disaster. Another scenario
would be the comet is captured but not hitting
the Earth, or the comet ended up with
orbiting around the Earth. Since the mass of
the comet is not that small and depending on how
close the comet is to the Earth, it could
affect the spinning and orbital of the Earth
around the sun. And there are other possible
effects because of the gravitation from the comet.
Another scenario is the comet will escape
from the Earth. Since it is only temporary,
the disruption would be much smaller than
the scenarios introduced before.
In short, depending on how fast the comet
travels and how close it is to the Earth, it could
have different levels of disruption to the Earth.
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