Lemon does not directly produce
electricity. However, you can produce
electricity using lemon and the right device. The
idea behind it is simply the energy conversion:
from the chemical energy to electric
energy. This is actually the same principle
for battery in our daily life.
Ok, back to the question, to produce the
electricity, you need two different pieces of
metal such as Zn (Zinc) and Cu (Copper) and a
conducting wire like Cu as well. The acid inside
the lemon are chemicals and has chemical energy
and it can serve as the electrolyte. When
the two pieces of metal are in contact with the
acid, they are served as the electrodes.
One of the electrodes will gain electrons and the
other will lose electrons. When you connect the
two electrodes, the electrons will flow along the
conducting wire, that is the electricity.
There is a good website and a really good
cartoon explaining the details:
lemon and electricity
Lemon juice contains citric acid, and so
contains hydrogen ions. Electrons flow from
the metal that has a higher electropositive
potential (e.g. copper) to the metal with a lower
electropositive potential (e.g. zinc).
Meanwhile, to balance the charges, the
positively-charged hydrogen ions in the citric
acid, oxidizing the copper and reducing the zinc.
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