Let's first talk about blue and yellow light. Both
of them are electromagnetic waves, in the
narrow range of visible light to our eyes. In
physics, we use photons to describe those
electromagnetic wave as particles, which is
justified because of the wave and particle duality
nature of the electromagnetic wave. There is one
key difference between the visible light: the
wavelength or the frequency. Blue and purple
light has a shorter wavelength than yellow and red
light. In other words, blue light has higher
energy than yellow light per unit (photon). Then
it is understandable that it is directly
related to the temperature.
You would probably find both blue and yellow
flames in gas stove and candle. A blue gas flame
means the complete combustion. Therefore, the
local temperature around the blue flames are
typically higher than those yellow flames,
which are usually produced as a result of lacking
enough oxygen for complete combustion.
In short, the key difference between gas
blue and yellow is the temperature (or the
energy), depending on whether the combustion
process is complete or not.
The difference between a blue gas and a yellow gas
is exactly that: one appears blue and the other
appears yellow. Without more information, I don't
think we can guarantee anything else.
Color is a property of matter that comes
from how it deals with light. The blue gas
appears blue because it reflects light in the blue
range and absorbs most other colors of light. The
yellow gas appears yellow because it reflects
yellow light and absorbs other colors of light.
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