With our current technology, the way we clone
animals is to take a somatic cell (not
sperm or egg) from the animal we want to clone.
The DNA from this somatic cell is combined with an
egg cell from the same species of animal, either
by injecting the nucleus of the somatic cell into
the nucleus-less egg cell, or using electricity to
fuse the somatic cell with the egg cell. Then, the
completed egg is allowed to grow into an animal
embryo in a test tube before being placed into an
adult female animal of the same species. When the
female gives birth, the resulting animal will have
the same DNA as the original animal from which the
somatic cell came.
With this method, we have cloned a variety of
animals, including sheep, cow, cat, dog, rat, and
a few others. These animals were the exact same
copies as the animals the cells came from, but we
have not been able to make many of these animals
because the cloning process is difficult, and
the cloned animals require a lot of attention to
survive and grow.
To clone an animal, you can take a cell from
that animal and transfer its nucleus (the part of
the cell containing DNA) to an egg cell from
an animal of the same species, and allow that egg
to grow into an adult animal. In theory, you could
keep cloning the same animal as long as you have
cells to borrow a nucleus from!
Different animals do it differently and I'm not
sure of the particulars in all case. Most clonal
animals do so by budding, where a growth
off of an existing animal grows into a new animal.
This is how corals and bryozoans do it.
Human technology can clone animals by taking
cells from a body and then confusing said cells
into thinking that they are embryo cells , and
then implanting the embryos into a mother and
growing them as children. For any animal with a
complex nervous system and even some that don't,
the result will not be exactly the same, since
the clone will not have any of the learned
knowledge of the template.
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