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What are the various Genetic Engineering techniques currently used in science?
Question Date: 2019-01-18
Answer 1:

Genetic engineering refers to causing deliberate alterations in DNA. Broadly, this entails taking a gene (a sequence of DNA that codes for a specific function) from one organism and inserting it into the DNA sequence of another. There are many techniques which may be used, too many to describe in detail. However, some approaches include using bacteria which can insert their DNA into other cells, "shooting" pellets covered with DNA into cells, electrical impulses, direct injection of DNA, and viruses.

CRISPR technology is a relatively new and powerful method to introduce new genes into a DNA sequence. It is derived from defense mechanisms of certain microorganisms. These microorganisms chop up DNA at specific sequences, causing a cell's repair mechanisms to start up and begin piecing the DNA back together. By introducing appropriate DNA strands, new genes can be incorporated into the repaired DNA sequence.

Answer 2:

Too many to list, and more are being discovered all of the time. In general, I believe that the most prevalent is insertion of genes from one organism into another, e.g. causing a bacterium to produce a human protein.

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