When an object is catapulted, it is subject to both the force of gravity and the force from the catapult. The catapult applies a force to the object in both the horizontal (forward) and vertical (upward) directions, and gravity pulls the object vertically downward. The horizontal component of the catapult force makes the object go forward in the direction the catapult throws the object, and the vertical component of the catapult force allows the object o go up. At the same time, the downward force of gravity means that the object will only go up a certain distance before it starts to come down again.
Combining the two vertical forces and one horizontal force, we will then see the object make an arc in the air and eventually land. Depending on how heavy the object is and how much surface area it has, air resistance may also affect the object. If the object has a large surface area, air resistance will act against the horizontal force of the catapult and slow down the object, making the object not travel as far as another object that has less surface area.