Predictions of El Nino and La Nina events are made using climate models . At a very high level , when equations are given a bunch of numbers describing current conditions and produce future conditions like those of past El Ninos/La Ninas, scientists feel confident in saying that they expect such an even in the near future.
These models take in readings from observation sensors located throughout the Pacific Ocean. Some of the variables include water and air temperatures, wind speeds and directions, and air humidity.
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