The gravitational acceleration that we feel on the surface of the Earth is (approximately) governed by the following equation:
a = GM / R^2
G = the Gravitational constant (which presumably is the same everywhere in the universe)
M = mass of the Earth (in kilograms, for example)
R = radius of the Earth (in meters, for example)
For the Earth, if you plug in the appropriate numbers, you get
acceleration a equals 9.8 meters per second squared.
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