Answer 1:
The gravitational acceleration that we feel on the surface of the Earth is (approximately) governed by the following equation:
a = GM / R^2
where: G = the Gravitational constant (which presumably is the same everywhere in the universe) M = mass of the Earth (in kilograms, for example) R = radius of the Earth (in meters, for example) For the Earth, if you plug in the appropriate numbers, you get acceleration a equals 9.8 meters per second squared.
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