|What elements are in diamonds, gold, and rust?
What is the scientific name for rust?
|Question Date: 2005-09-25|
Diamond is 100 % Carbon, atomic number 6 on the
periodic table.Gold, symbol Au is atomic number 79
and is like diamond, a pure substance.Rust on the
other hand is ferric oxide or
Fe2O3. The mineral is called
Hematite. It has a blood red streak. That is if
you think you have some hematite, rub the mineral
on an unglazed ceramic tile (called a streak
plate) and the streak is blood red.
The element in diamond is carbon (symbol C). Try
and find C in the periodic table. Diamonds,
particularly high quality ones, are very pure
carbon. Sometimes however, small amounts of
carbons neighbors in the periodic table, such as
boron (symbol B), and Nitrogen (symbol N) are also
found in diamond. These tend to give diamonds
Gold is an element
(symbol Au). The element symbol Au comes from the
Latin word for gold which is aurum. Pure gold is
usually only used to store money in banks. In
jewelry (which is the biggest use of gold) the
gold is usually mixed with some copper (symbol Cu)
to give it more strength.
Rust is usually a
mixture of iron (symbol Fe) oxygen (symbol O) and
some hydrogen (symbol H). Most rust has the
chemical formula FeO2H, also written as
FeO (OH), and mineral name of this material is
lepidocrocite (pronounced lay-pedo-kro-kite)
First, gold is an element. It is very malleable
and ductile. Since pure gold is fairly soft, it
is often combined with other metals to make alloys
to make it a little stronger. The alloys are what
you typically find in jewelry,
Diamonds are made up of the element
carbon. Also, graphite is also made up of carbon.
The only difference between the two is the way
that the atoms are bonded together.
Interestingly, graphite is the more stable form of
carbon, so diamonds will eventually turn into
graphite (diamonds aren't really forever!).
However, this process takes thousands of
Rust is the common name for iron
oxide, which as the name implies, is made up of
the elements iron and oxygen. The compound is
Fe2O3. Iron combines
quickly with oxygen, and the process of turning
iron to iron oxide is an example of corrosion.
You can see things like steel rust because steel
The quick answer is: Diamond is a pure element,
carbon; gold is a pure element, gold; and rust is
a compound, Iron Oxide, of iron and
Diamond is pure elemental carbon,
compressed to its crystal form, under extreme heat
and pressure deep within the Earth. The symbol for
carbon is C.
Gold is also an element, in
and of itself. Its symbol is Au. It does not
easily form compounds so it is found by itself, in
stream beds (placer deposits) or in veins in
Rust is a compound: Iron Oxide. It
is found all over; everywhere iron and oxygen come
in contact! Both iron and oxygen form compounds
quite easily, so they are not readily found alone.
(The oxygen you breathe is O2, not
Rust can come in
different forms, because iron (symbol Fe) normally
gives up 2 or 3 electrons when it forms compounds.
We call these "oxidation states." When iron gives
up 2 electrons, it gets a +2 charge, and when it
gives up 3 electrons, it gets a +3 charge. To make
a neutral compound it must then bond with some
element in the proper ratio so as to remove
its"excess" positive charge (or, replace its
deficit negative charge).
Oxygen (symbol O)
normally takes 2 electrons when bonding with
metals (including hydrogen). So, for a balanced
compound of iron oxide, you have either FeO or
Fe2O3. Here's what I mean:
For FeO, you have one Fe(+2) and one O(-2) = FeO.
This compound is also called Iron(II)Oxide. It is
one form of rust. The charges balance like
this:(+2) + (-2) = 2-2=0.
The other form
of rust, Fe2O3, is two
Fe(+3) and three O(-2), written
Fe2O3, and also called
Iron(III)Oxide. The charges balance like
this:2(+3) + 3(-2) = 6 - 6 = 0.
I hope this
Diamond is a polymorph of the element carbon (C).
To give you an idea of the many uses of carbon,
the macromolecules in our bodies, including
DNA,proteins,sugars, and lipids, all contain
carbon. Also, the soft lead in your
pencil,graphite, is also made up of carbon.The
element in gold is of course, gold (Au). The most
pure form of gold jewelry as you probably know is
24 karats meaning no other elements are present
within the stone. Common impurities in lower
karat gold include silver (Ag), copper(Cu), and
palladium (Pd). Rust is iron-oxide consisting of
the elements iron and oxygen. When water touches
an iron surface the water starts reacting with
carbon dioxide in the air and forms carbonic acid,
a weak acid. The presence of the acid causes the
iron to dissolve. At the same time, the water
starts breaking apart into oxygen and hydrogen.
The oxygen from the breakdown of water reacts with
the dissolved iron forming iron oxide, rust.
Gold is an element, meaning that it
consists only of one type of atom that cannot be
chemically broken down into smaller parts. The
only way to break gold down into smaller
components would be through nuclear reactions that
change the number of protons and electrons, the
positively and negatively charged particles,
inside the gold atoms. The element gold is
denoted by the symbol Au in the Periodic Table of
Elements. Gold is characterized by having79
protons and, in its elemental or uncharged state,
also has 79 electrons. In its most common
isotope, gold has 118 neutrons. Gold is typically
found in nature in very small quantities mixed
into a type of rock called ore, but can also be
found in riverbed sediments. The extraction of
gold from the earth is explained at the following
more about gold in
are composed almost entirely of the element
carbon, often with some other impurities in them,
such as nitrogen (i.e., pure diamonds are entirely
carbon). The element carbon comes in three
different natural forms, or allotropes: diamond,
graphite, and amorphous. Although each of these
forms is composed entirely of carbon, the carbon
atoms are organized and bonded differently,
creating unique properties for each. Diamonds are
formed under extreme pressure and heat, 100-200
kilometers below the Earths surface, by bonding
carbon into a three-dimensional crystal network.
Diamonds are the hardest natural substance known
to us. Graphite differs from diamonds in that the
carbon atoms are bonded into flat sheets, creating
a black, slippery substance that is one of the
softest substances known to man. Graphite is what
pencil lead is made out of. Amorphous carbon,
otherwise known as soot, forms when a carbon-based
material burns, or combusts, without enough oxygen
to convert it completely to carbon
Carbon is characterized by having
6 protons and 6 electrons, and usually 6neutrons.
This isotope of carbon is called carbon-12, with
the number12referring to the atomic mass, or
number of neutrons plus protons. Carbon also
exists in the isotope carbon-14, with 8 neutrons,
but this form is unstable (a radioactive isotope)
and decays into nitrogen-14 over time by releasing
an electron and converting a neutron into a
proton. For more information about carbon, see
is a molecule that is composed of two elements:
iron (Fe, atomic number26) and oxygen (O, atomic
number 8). The chemical formula for rust is
Fe2O3,which is called iron oxide, but is also
known as ferric oxide or hematite,among other
names. The word ferric refers to iron ions with a
+3 charge (or with 23 electrons), whereas ferrous
refers to iron ions with a +2 charge (or with 24
electrons). I think these words may have a Latin
derivation, although I am not certain what their
Latin meanings or root is.
Rust forms when
the oxygen in air or in water combines with iron,
which is a major component of steel, for example.
Each oxygen atom essentially steals two electrons
from the iron, forming oxygen atoms with a 2
charge (O-2 ions), while each iron atom donates
three electrons to the oxygen, forming iron atoms
with a+3 charge (Fe+3 ions, also known as ferric).
Since the oxygen ions are negatively charged and
the iron ions are positively charged, they attract
and create an ionic bond that forms rust. This
type of reaction is known as a reduction-oxidation
reaction, or a red-ox reaction, where oxygen is
said to be reduced (hence the reduction, or
decrease, in oxygens electric charge) and the iron
is said to be oxidized by the oxygen. The
chemical equation for the formation of rust
4(Fe) + 3(O2) =
4(Fe+3) + 6(O-2) = 2
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