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75 questions in the Category: metrology.

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1: Are ther any charts that shows the stages of rotting for any type of produce?
2: Hello- My partner and I are doing a science project on Hydroplaning. We're having trouble findind a way to test different tire designs, because our project is on the best tire design to lessen hydroplaning. So our question is How can we test different tire designs on hydroplaning?
3: Serratia marcescens is red at 25 C and white at 37 C. I did an experiment and checked it in a book. I know that this is due to a pigment. But, if the colonies thrive at both temperatures why the change in color? Is one more helpful or protective?
4: How can you calculate your age on the Sun?
5: Imagine that you make contact with an extraterrestrial intelligence. What units would you use to communicate ideas about how our planet or solar system operates? It seems that the units of time, distance, and mass which we use are based on features of our own system and wouldn't necessarily make sense to an intelligence from somewhere else (e.g. Second, Hour, Day, Year, Lightyear, AU, Kilogram, Meter, are all arbitrary or based on the location or movement of the Earth). What are units which anyone from our universe (but not necessarily our planet) would be able to recognize?
6: If the density of the ostrich shell is about 3000 Hounds field Units, or 38 Grams/cm3 for a new egg... and the natural loss reduces the density for an egg of an ostrich to 28 around the year 1850, to 25 around 1750 and to 23 around 1700, and to 20 around 1600 and to 18 around 1500, or the weight of about 125 grams. Can this decline of density be a proof of the age of an un-mounted, engraved ostrich egg?
7: I wish to find out the speed of sound in air, but I am having trouble thinking up an experiment to do so ? What materials will I need and how do you think I can possibly do it at home?
8: How waves can lead to theories about the internal structure of Earth?
9: What would be used for a wave that has the wavelength of about the size of a molecule of water?
10: What is heat measured with?
11: If I wanted to do a science project having to do with does middle school math stay with through adulthood? Should I test them on basic everyday life questions or more complicated math that is not used in everyday life?

Hello, my name is Jenna. I am an 8th grade student at La Colina J.H. I am currently working on my science fair project. My Science fair question is:

How does a wetsuit affect drag?

My procedures are:
1.Wear a competition swimsuit.
2. Swim in 25m pool
3. Swim 100m.
4. Measure and document time of 100m swim.
5. Rest 2 minutes.
6. Repeat steps 1-5 nine times.
7. Average the times of all 100m swim sets.
8. After a week of rest, wear a triathlon swimming wetsuit of 3mm thickness neoprene with no arms.
9. Repeat steps 2-7 wearing wetsuit.
My hypothesis is: If the wetsuit does create drag then I think the competitive swimsuit will provide better speed and time then the wetsuit. IF you have the time I would really appreciate answers to these questions.
a. Do my procedures sound like they would work for my experiment?
b. Is there anything I could do to make my experiment better?
c. Would it be better to do five trials of the competition suit and then five trials of the wetsuit on one day then do the same thing a week later?
d. Is there any vital information about drag I should know before conducting my experiment?
e. What is the best way to measure drag?


Hi scientists,
I am in 8th grade and I\'m starting to work on the science fair project. The question for my project is:
How does sight affects taste?

I will test that by having 3 equal amounts of soda drinks in clear cups. One will be cherry, one will be grape and one will be lemon/lime. The volunteers will first taste each drink and try to guess the flavors. Next, I will blindfold the volunteers and have them guess again. Then I will add food coloring to the drinks to make the cherry look like grape, lemon/lime look like orange and grape look like root beer or cocoa cola. The volunteers will then test each drink and tell me what they think each flavor is. My hypothesis is that on the control and blindfolded test, most people will guess correctly. On the incorrect colored test, I think people will guess the cherry to be grape, the lemon/lime to be orange and the grape to be coca cola.

a. Do you think that the procedures should be done differently in order to answer my question (How does sight affects taste)?
b. Do you think the colors of each flavor make a difference, or should I change them?
c. Do you think my hypothesis is correct?
d. Is there anything important that I need to know before I start conducting the experiment?
e. How many volunteers do you think I should have to make the experiment reliable?
f. How do you think I should graph this information?
g. Do you think this are too many variables to deal with, and should I make it to just one flavored drink?
h. Is there anything else you know about why sight effects taste that you think is important to conduct this experiment?
i. What do for your career, and what is your knowledge in this topic?
Thank you so much for your time and expertise on this subject. This will help me greatly on my science project.

14: How wide is a gray whale?
15: 1. What do you think the effects of magnetism will have on plants? 2. What did you major in? 3. Do you think weather will play a role in magnetism affecting plant growth? 4. Do you think lettuce or pansies will have a greater increase of growth based on the affects of magnetism? 5. How many plants should I use to be sure my experiment is based on the fact that magnetism affected the growth?

In my experiment, I will be testing how effective the pinky is at estimating the temperature of water. I was wondering how many sensor cells there are in the human pinky?

I recently did some research on how the brain gets these sensory details from the skin and found that the part of the brain that receives these signals is called the Hypothalamus. Where in the brain is the Hypothalamus and how large is it in comparative size to the rest of the brain.?

What is the rate of temperature increase or decrease to room temperature for water that I should use in my experiment?

When using statistical analysis, what is the most effective way to have realistic numbers?

I plan on using set ranges of temperatures for people to estimate the temperatures for. I am going to tell them what these ranges are; just that they are hot, room temperature, and cold. I plan on having the cold at around 30-40 degrees, the room temperature from 60-75, and the hot at 100-110. Do you think this is a good idea or should I just have a set temperature for each section of the test?

Thanks for answering these questions for my Science Fair Project

17: How would I be able to measure the texture of a cake according to its fluffiness?

My project is what is the fastest way to cool a beverage. The beverages I am using are coke, sprite, cow milk, and goat milk.I am going to put each beverage into 3 coolers. One cooler with ice, another with water and ice, and the last one with water, ice and salt. I have a few questions about my project and about you.

1. What is your career choice?

2. How would I find the starting temperature of the cooler?

3. What do you think will happen?


4. What do you have your crudentials in?

5. How does salt affect the freezing rate?

19: What is the main difference between a Newton meter and a spring balance?
20: I'm doing my science fair project on black holes. I learned that inside a black hole there is a very strong gravitational pull. My hypothesis is that around the black hole there might be a spinning force (similar to tornadoes)as the galaxy rotates around it. This spinning force should draw objects toward the black hole. Am I on the right track? Do you have any suggestions about how to test my hypothesis?
21: I am doing a science project on which a bat hits a baseball farther, a bat made of wood or aluminum? Do you have any idea of how can I set up my experiment?

According to question: click here please
So since i'm doing 5 cakes using whole eggs and 5 cakes using egg whites. Would I compare the density of the whole egg cake with the density of the egg white cake and then from comparing both densities I would find which one is fluffier right?

23: My science project is about the conductivity of different metals (such as copper, aluminum, brass, etc.) Which of your topics relates to my question? What can you tell me about the conductivity of metals? How would you test this?
24: For my science project I am testing to see the most efficient way to generate geothermal energy using a pinwheel and boiling water. The dependent variable is how many times the pinwheel spins in a full circle in a 20 second time span. How many variables do you think are necessary for a decent grade? Is one data table enough or should I have more? What type of graph should I use. Also, could you be sure to finish this before my project is due? The date is January 22, 2013. Thanks!
25: About how many stars are in space?
26: What is the biggest star that scientists know?
27: How small can a particle be?
28: What are different types of Newton meters used for?
29: Why is the sun so bright and hot?What instruments do scientists use to study the sun?How big can a solar flare get?
30: What evidence and experiments show the core of the Earth to be made of iron and nickel?
31: 1) How do scientists calculate and work out the density of the earth? 2) How do scientists know the different dimensions of the earth?
32: How do satellite guided missiles, drones, and intercontinental ballistic missiles work? These are devices that are capable of autonomous flight. How is the technology of these devices related to that of the auto pilot on private and commercial aircrafts?
33: Thank you very much for opening this fantastic forum to benefit students from all over the world. My question is if the planet Earth emits heat from radioactive decay, I will also be right to say that it emits all the dangerous radiation as well. If so, why are humans more afraid of a nuclear explosion when we have been exposed to dosage and dosage of nuclear radiation naturally? And we seem to careless about it.
34: If I am going to grow plants exposed to different types of light, which will be my independent variable, and which will be my dependent one?
35: Can you tell me how bright is the sun?
36: What is the principle for measurement of Precipitation? How it is measured?
37: How do scientists explore the crust of the Earth?
38: I would like to know how does it work the conductivity of electricity in metals and which are the units that scientists use in this process. I would also like to know the several ways for determining electrical conductivity of metals. Thank you.
39: How do we know the distance that a star is from earth? How is it calculated? Also how do we know how hot stars are? And how do we know that there is plasma on them?
40: How do we measure the radius of other planets? Thanks.
41: How can I know how many moles are in 4.0 grams of Hydrogen gas(H2)? And then how do I convert that into molecules and atoms of H?
42: How did the earth layers form?
43: How "Avogadro constant" was invented and how scientists calculated it for the first time?
44: How do I measure Happiness indirectly and reliably, using a survey?
45: How many tornadoes do we have every year?
46: How can we locate earthquakes?
47: What evidence supported Wegener's theory of continental drift?
48: How well can scientists predict earthquakes? What are some of the different ways to make these predictions?
49: What does each dark, long line on the spring scale represent? And what do the lighter smaller lines on a spring scale represent?
50: When drilling stopped in 1994, the hole was over 7 miles deep (12,262 meters),(572°F), that's pretty HOT! My question is that if that's the deepest humankind has gone, 7 miles deep & Earth has continental crust of 35-40km which is 21-24 miles thick (33,796 meters). How do we know Earth's insides, like how were told in the books & by the professors that there is a mantle & a core beneath Earth's crust when we haven't gone that deep? It is easy to go deep into space because it's empty, but going deep into Earth, theirs a lot of pressure.
51: I put 8 oz. of water in a cup and added enough ice to make it 12 oz. When the ice melted it was still 12 oz. So if the polar ices melted, would it not cause flooding because it is all the same volume?
52: Why is weather important in people's lives?
53: What is the highest frequency that most humans can hear?
54: My son Max is investigating which materials are the best conductors. He built a circuit with a 6V battery and a light bulb, hoping to distinguish which materials are the best conductors by the brightness of the light bulb. The experiment worked, but the results were not satisfactory to Max. The ligh bulb was either on or off, and it was difficult to tell if one material was better than the other. He asked if there was a way to measure the conductivity of materials with another instrument. I purchased a multimeter from Radio Shack hoping to measure the conductivity/resistance of the materials. However, I am not sure I am properly operating the instrument. We removed the test material from the circuit and set the multimeter to the OHMS setting. The results for the metals (copper, aluminum foil, a nickel, and a penny) bounce all over the place and often end at zero, and the non-conductors do not show any change on the screen so the end result is also zero.I would really like to help Max find more specific results, but I am not sure what else to do. Is there a particular bulb that would show more variety in the intensity? He has shown such a curiosity about this. I sincerely hope there is a way to help him! Thank you for your time. Max's mom.
55: How many people are on earth?
56: What instrument did you use to gather information about stars?
57: How does a pendulum clock work?
58: How can we measure the speed of light?
59: What is the principle of piezoelectric transducers?
60: Hello! I am teaching 6th-11th grade sciences. I have a B.S. in science, but only took a year or so of microbiology in college. Every year we have students who want to do microbe projects for science fair. We have good success growing microbes in petri dishes. As yet, my best method for measuring microbe growth is to give students a 5mm x 5mm grid which they lay on top of the petri dish and have them estimate how much of these boxes are filled with the microbe that has grown. Then they add up the portions of the boxes or whole boxes filled by the microbes and arrive at an mm squared value. One science fair judge asked about the height of microbe growth. I guess students could arrive at an estimate of height by the same method. I have done online searches which have only yielded dilution methods. We do not have any specialized equipment for observing microbes in dilution, nor do I have stains for the various microbes to show up on a microscope slide. Any websites or suggestions you can give a generalist 6th-12th grade science teacher would be very much appreciated. Thank you!
61: Why does not all rising air form clouds?
62: What is a measure of energy?
63: If I use a balance pan what physical property of the object am I measuring?
64: Does drinking caffeine increase your reaction time dramatically or noticeably?
65: How will the melting of the glaciers on Greenland and Antarctica affect global circulation?
66: Why do astronomers use astronomical units to measure distances in our solar system?
67: My son is doing a science experiment on which color of shirt dries the fastest - black, red, blue, white. Of course he hypothesized that the black shirt would dry the fastest. He also got many helpful info regarding his topic on your wonderful site.BUT, he really have to perform the procedure and test by measuring the amount of moisture on all shirts when left outside to dry. What would be the best way to measure the amount of moisture? He thought about getting a soil or wood/humidity meter but he is not sure if that would work, he plans on sticking it to the fabric, wrapping it around, but it might not give an accurate reading. He did further research and came across a portable moisture meter that is industrial grade and is used in the textile industry (this would really work because the device has a ring that can be gently rubbed on the cloth and has an indicator if its wet or dry) but the $$$$ is way out of reach---starts at $1200! So he saw your site and is asking for your help on other ways to measure the moisture content of a 100% cotton shirt. Thanks in advance for your help.
68: Between which lines on a ray diagram will you measure an angle of reflection?
69: How do scientists measure precipitation?
70: What is density?
71: What is the average radius of the sun, in meters?
72: My name is Charlotte and I am a biology student in 8th grade. We are doing an Independent Research Project, and my topic question is "What Enzyme causes gelatin to lose its setting properties and how, and what fruits contain this Enzyme in addition to pineapples?" I was wondering if you could provide me with more information on how you found out that the certain Enzyme that causes gelatin to stop working and how it does so. Thank you so much,
73: How much time does it take for an ice cube to melt completely?
74: The current that runs along the East Coast eventually reaches England. England is at the same latitude as far north as Canada and Northern Europe, yet it has a much more mild climate. Then why does England has a milder climate?
75: How far is the sun?
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