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481 questions in the Category: environmental science.

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1: How does the type of soil, light, and water affect a plant?
2: How long does it take for a swell shark egg to hatch? How big will the swell shark be and how does it know how to survive?
3: My classes have been watching a video produced by the Discovery Channel on bacteria. At one point in the video, the narrator says that human babies are born "bacteria free" but within a few hours hundred of kinds of bacteria colonize them. I can't believe that we are born bacteria free. Is this true or is this a mistake in the video?
4: Why is there so much sand in the desert?
5: What are the global consequences of all the fires burning in the Northern Hemisphere (i.e. Western U.S., Russia etc.) Would there be any connection with the amount of rain for the season, since water vapor must have something to condense on. THANK YOU
6: Why does it hail ?
7: Why can I not find numbers on how much we have heated the oceans by using them as heat dumps for engines, nuclear plants, and nuclear vessels? Do you know where to get these answers?
8: What is weather? What is climate?
9: I read an article about food chains and it talked about microzooplankton. What is that?
10: How do people store nuclear atoms?
11: I am doing a research project on the ocean's hadal zone and what type of life lives there. I was wondering if you could help me. Is it true that creatures in the hadal zone don't have ears or heads because of pressure? And is there any type of fish or plants in the hadal zone, like fish that glow in the dark, or is that just a myth?
12: The land over in Iran is extremely rich with oil. How did that oil get there? I understand there has to be anticlines & synclines but what tectonically occurred to make these? Also--oil is usually formed when phytoplankton & zooplankton die, accumulate on the ocean floor, get covered up & baked slowly at low temperatures. Where did these plankton come from? Was there an ocean or sea in the area at one time? If so, what was it called?
13: I've heard a little about salt glaciers in Iraq. I understand salt deposits can form along with oil. How large are these salt glaciers and how exactly are these formed?
14: Are there specific weather patterns that would make these massive sand storms we keep hearing about on the news about Iraq? If so, does it have something to do with the weather coming off the Mediterranean Sea?
15: I tried to do some research on what cause the different mass extinctions. I know there are different theories but I only found concrete info on the 65 million years ago extinction. What was the cause of the 245 million years ago mass extinction? Thanks.
16: Can you please list different ways that nuclear power plants are being safe. What items are there and what are researchers researching about Nuclear Energy Safety?
17: The question is about oil or petroleum. Does this come from animals or also from plants. Why is petroleum a liquid and coal solid? Is it that coal is older and pressed down longer?
18: Why is it that tornadoes do not form on coastal states like California, but they form more in the central states such as Kansas?
19: Why did large animal evolve in nature? Aren't they kind of useless like too big need lots of space and food?
20: Serratia marcescens is red at 25 C and white at 37 C. I did an experiment and checked it in a book. I know that this is due to a pigment. But, if the colonies thrive at both temperatures why the change in color? Is one more helpful or protective?
21: How do different biome affect population ecology?
22: Why does all the smoke in the air change the ozone amount? We were not allowed to play outside yesterday at our school because the air was so bad.
23: If in the Inertidal zone there are organisms in the water how can they survive in the water with nothing to eat? What do they eat? How? How warm must the water be? Can they live if the water gets hotter or colder? How? Why?
24: Why do different animals live in different zones of the ocean?
25: What cleansing procedures do personnel destined for Biosafety Level Four have to go through?
26: I've heard that according to Darwin's theory of evolution Man and monkey have a common ancestor is this true and what is this ancestor?
27: Why is the ozone layer disappearing only in Antarctica ?
28: What is acid rain and what causes it?
29: I was mixing up a solution or iron (III) nitrate for my chemistry class to do a lab on equilibrium. Of course, as the iron nitrate dissolved, the solution took on a brownish color, characteristic of the Fe (III) ion. The solution needed to be mixed with a few ml of conc. nitric acid. When the acid was added to the solution, the brownish color left, and the solution became clear - colorless with maybe a slight purple tint. OK, what happened to the color? The Fe(III) is still in solution (I think)...seems like it should retain the color. Could it have been oxidized to something higher that is colorless? What's with the purple? Help.
30: Yesterday my teacher saw a lot of robins, between 50-100, all standing still facing the south as if at attention. They were not moving for several minutes. Can you explain this? We had some severe weather later in the day and evening that included very high winds and according to the weather maps, the storms were from the south. Is this related?
31: What is a fossil in which minerals replace all or part of an organism called.
32: My dad told that when low pressure system moves in (like before a storm) some animals reduce their activity. He said, that some people thought that this was natures way of making animals bed-up to be safe before and during a storm , it this true.
33: I want to do an experiment on the affect of thickness and substance of a bottle on the water it contains under 3 conditions (heating, cooling, room temp). I thought I could use the thin see through plastic water bottles, the non see through plastic water bottles, Nalgene water bottles and Polycarbonated bottles & somehow test the water inside to see which bottle makes the water most contaminated. Does anyone know the specifics of how & what I could test in the water?
34: Forest have been called America's renewable resource. Under what circumstances might woods,trees or forests be a nonrenewable resource? What are the processes for preserving forests as a renewable resource?
35: When do you think the world will end?
36: Hello, I was wondering, do Fresno Kangaroo Rats (Dipodomys nitratiodes exilis) have a subspecies? Everywhere I looked they said not certain or unknown. Thanks again!
37: Hi. My name is Chase Melton. I am a seventh grader at Santa Barbara Junior High School. I am doing a research report on the Desert Slender Salamander (Batrachoseps aridus). I would like to ask you some questions. How long have Desert Slender Salamanders been living for? How much they weigh? Thanks for your time.
38: What are the historic and current populations of the Mission Blue Butterfly?
39: Is there a way to re-thicken our ozone layer?
40: How much will the sea level rise if we don't stop global warming?
41: How many forests get destroyed over the years?
42: To hatch an egg, why does it have to be warm? Why cant it be room temperature?
43: What are some ways animals use colours?
44: If the buildings were knocked down where once a vernal pool was, would they be able to restore it?
45: The other day I was at East Beach in Santa Barbara, and there were piles of foam sitting on the beach. It looked like soap suds in big piles, and they were blowing around the beach. I was wondering what causes foam like that and to sit on the beach and if there was some bacteria or something that was in it? Thanks for your time!
46: Are oil rigs good for our community or not? And if it is how?
47: What are greenhouse gases? How do greenhouse gases affect the earth?
48: Would it be possible to get energy from ocean waves?
Has anyone ever tried to do this?
If so, where can I find other information about it?

49: Can you give me some info on mass land movement?
50: How do we use wind energy?
51: I was wondering is a large amount of rainfall affects the density of a small body of water? For example if it rains a lot in a pond will the density change or stay the same?
52: I have a few questions regarding the plants and animals on the Channel Islands.

After learning from Dr. Atwater about the geological origin of the islands and their trip up from the San Diego area by way of plate movement I became curious about the Torrey Pine being in both the San Diego area and on Santa Rosa Island.

Does this mean the pines traveled up on the island?
Could this also mean other plants made their way up in the same way?
Are there certain plants that did not exist at that time indicating a trip across the channel the only logical explanation?
Might animals have traveled up on the island the same way or is millions of years too long ago for contemporary animal species?
What animals other than the Pygmy mammoth were once out there but are now no longer around?
We are studying about plant and animal dispersal and the effects of island isolation on these plants and animals and these and other questions arise. We are aware that certain conditions must be present for a plant or animal to establish itself on the island but we would like to know if there is any evidence of species being there but not making it to present day, either due to climatic changes, predation, influence of man, or some other reason.
Any information or direction towards sources would be greatly appreciated.

53: How do small animals protect their young?
54: Are there clouds on other planets? If so, wouldn't there have to be water to form the coulds?
55: What does math have to do with an Air Quality Engineer?
56: What will happen if the greenhouse effect of Earth's atmosphere keeps on increasing?
57: Why is it that the Europeans evolved at a higher rate than any people on the planet? How did this happen? Are Europeans genetically superior or did their different environments contribute or hamper their technological progress?
58: Why do some people have allergies and some people don't?
59: What role does the ocean play in precipitation?
60: What are some advances of the flowering plants that contribute to the successful growth to great heights?
61: How do fluids affect meteorology?
62: Why is it that dogs and cats that are reared with humans cannot learn to understand english like babies can ?
63: How do plants sense a change in the environment?
64: What is in Carbon Dioxide that can kill you?
65: Do we need sun to survive?
66: What caused the planes in the Bermuda triangle to go down?
67: What happens to moss when there is a tree right on the equator? What side of the tree does it grow on?
68: How can a cloud carry so much water?
69: Why did people evolve into different races?
70: What came first the chicken or the egg?
71: If dolphins and whales are ocean mammals, how is that whales are large and dolphins small? I am asking this question because I read here that whales being mammals can grow large as they don't have the physical restrictions they would have on land. So why does it not apply to dolphins?
72: Why do paradoxical frogs shrink as they grow older?
73: Iceland characterizes for its eruptions and earthquakes. How do Icelanders take advantage of Iceland’s volcanic nature?
74: When do sperms come in the human body?
75: How are hurricanes named? I would like to know how Hurricane Isaac got its name.
76: Why Europe does not have any tropical climates?
77: Are any organisms' habitats being fragmented or destroyed in the arctic wetlands?
78: Why isn't Venus livable if it's just like Earth?
79: I live in the Catskill Mountains. My grandma has polliwogs in a pond near her house. It's going to be freezing in a couple of nights. Will the polliwogs all die?
80: Which is the hottest desert in the world?
81: What is goldfish? How do goldfish live? Where do goldfish live? What do goldfish eat? What are some goldfish habitats?
82: Why people living in India and UK have different eye color ?
83: Why was hurricane Katrina so devastating?
84: What do plants need to grow?
85: How does erosion affect us?
86: How does magnetism affect Earth?

My science experiment is about plants adjusting to their environment to reach light.I have one plant in each of my three boxes. In each box there is a cut out hole and the hole is in a different area, in which the plant must adapt. My first question is:

1. I have planted my sweet peas but it takes them around 10 days to sprout. When do I record in my data table?

2. How should I record its growth when it hasn't even sprouted ?

3. Once it sprouts, should I record its growth as day 1?

Then, should I record every 2 day or 3 days?

Thank you very, much for your help !

88: Are there any diseases borne in or more importantly on the skins of bananas which could adversely affect human health? What kinds of chemical agents are used in the fumigation of bananas to kill pests or "hitchikers" in transit from the growing fields to our homes?If bananas are treated with chemicals en route from the fields to our homes, can the chemicals 1) leech deep into the skins of the fruit and 2) can\'t they leech into the boxes the bananas are shipped in making the boxes unsafe for re-packing other food products in? Thanks.
89: Say, I was lost in the wilderness. All I could see was moss. I was really cold. Would I be able to use that moss as some type of blanket?
90: How is sound energy used in this world?
91: What are the effects of melting ice in the North/South Poles?
92: Why doesn't it snow in Santa Barbara?
93: I've been searching for an eco-friendly Science project to do and I can't find one.. Any ideas?
94: How do the clouds move?
95: How do people help plants?
96: If a bus with passengers is moving an amount of CO2 released by the vehicle itself as well as by the passengers, is this amount of CO2 greater or smaller than the CO2 released only by the passengers if they were riding their bikes?
97: What is an ecosystem and what is it made of?
98: Is it possible to refill the holes of ozone? Can a new compound be discovered which could act as a protective covering for earth from harmful rays of the sun? If this is possible, please tell me the elements which are protective in function to UV rays . Can you send me related web sites where I could learn more?
99: Does the amount or intensity of light affect a plant's phenotype?
100: How fast or slow do coral reefs grow?
101: Can a plant move from one place to another?
102: Hi, I am a parent at Laguna Road Elementary School. I have been reading online about Wi Fi radiation (EMF or high radio frequency) and the health risk in children. I am concern about it and heard that in France they are pursuing "wired" technology in their schools. Our school plans to implement iPads (wireless) next year for each child as part on the 21st Century Technology Initiative. Do you have or know of any research that can help me understand this further? What are the risks since the technology is fairly new? I know that the FTC's guidelines are outdated since their standards are based on the 1950's or something a long time ago. I have looked at EMF portal's website and found things but I think we need someone (ie. Physicist or person who works in the field) who is more knowledgeable to put things in perspective. I think of UV radiation and smoking when I think of WiFi radiation. I would not like to find out years later of the harmful effect. I would rather have it tested out to be safe then use it, if possible. There will be many children affected by this. Please help us understand better.Thank you for your time. Lily
103: How do pandas look like?
104: If dinosaurs became extinct 65 million years ago and humans only came about .25 millions ago, our perception of dinosaurs and how they look (courtesy movies such as Jurassic Park) is just conjecture- albeit a brilliant one- is it not? We can't really know what they looked like, can we? Even the accuracy of our technology ca\'t ever be truly determined, can it?
105: Do invertebrates change colors like the chameleon's do?
106: How do fraternal twins differ from identical twins?
107: Are their any fossils that haven't been found yet?
108: How does weather and climate affect human activities?
109: Why did some ships and planes disappear in the Bermuda Triangle?
110: What causes small animals to grow, while big animals tend to shrink? (over long periods of time) My teacher was talking about how for example spiders used to be bigger? But how can that be? Yes I learned some things about evolution and how over long periods of time things tend to change, but why shrink? Why grow?
111: Why does the central US have the most tornadoes in the US? What are the causes? Thanks
112: How does a tree get turned into paper?
113: What is the most dangerous storm?
114: What kind of storms happen in winter?
115: What is a storm?
116: What is the process that makes fruits and vegetables to grow?
117: Who discovered lighting?
118: Why is it detrimental to the environment and humans when batteries are not disposed of in a responsible way?
119: Why can one volcanic eruption produce more deadly gases than all the emissions of every car that has ever been used. And why is the average temperature of the earth getting colder?
120: Why is there no snow on the ground near the edges of large lakes?
121: Why whales cannot breathe in water?
122: My husband was bitten/stung by something - we think a spider of some sort, last May. The bite was painless. It started as mosquito bite size and went through the same progression/symptoms as a Hobo spider bite. I had the same thing happen 3 weeks ago and am still recovering from the "bite". Do we have Hobo spiders in Santa Barbara? We never saw what bit us, what could it be? I'm still recovering.Thank you.
123: Why do plants need water?
124: I cannot find the kind of degrees that an oceanographer needs. Can you help me?
125: How do acid rain works?
126: I am from Texas and I'm doing a project over the pros of desalination for school. I was wondering if you could give me any insight to the advantages of desalination and is desalination going to be used a lot more in the USA. What are the cost and resources? In your opinion, will desalination be are main source of fresh water in 20-30 years. Any information is greatly appreciate.
127: Is it true that the earth's core is made of metals iron and nickel, and that the earth's crust is made of mostly the elements of silicon and oxygen? Why?
128: Are humans responsible for global warming? How much co2 does a volcano emit?
129: How much salt water is in the ocean, and how much fresh water is there?
130: Is the amount of rainfall in an area correlated to the amount of litter in local creeks and streams? How? Is there a small or large correlation?
131: How many tornadoes do we have every year?
132: How did dolphins evolve from dogs that lived by the ocean?
133: Why do we use nuclear energy?
134: Why do we use nuclear energy? What are some constructive examples of nuclear energy? What are destructive properties of nuclear energy?
135: What do Meerkats need to survive?
136: I am doing a science fair project over the amounts of BPA found in soda. I was wonder if it is possible to test BPA in soda and how do I measure this? Do I need to use a machine to calculate this and where would I get access to one?
137: How do animals help the environment?
138: How the owl camouflage to survive?
139: Do you know how climate change accurs and why it happens? Do you know what wwf-international is doing about it?
140: The ice on the North and South Pole appears to be melting, and this appears to be from burning fossil fuels. nComparing continuing to burn fossil fuels with suddenly switching to solar roofs and bicycling and walking and not flying in airplanes, what would be the difference in future world temperatures, and how would this affect world food supplies?
141: How much space does the nuclear waste from a power plant take up?
142: What would happen if there were no trees in the world?
143: Thank you for your time. I live in Mexicali, Mexico. The temperature here goes from 30F to 70F in Winter, and from 80F to 124F in Summer. I want to install solar cells in my backyard, how does temperature affect the production of electricity?
144: What is the difference between a "Biome" and an ecosystem and why are there different numbers of Biomes?
145: Why is global warming so confusing?
146: Does the amount of water change the color of the grass?
147: In the future, how do you think we will "protect" ourselves from global warming?
148: A few of my classmates and I are preparing a demonstration lab for our college chemistry class. We want to do the “carbon snake” where nitro aniline and sulfuric acid is heated to 392 degrees Fahrenheit but we can’t find how to properly dispose of the tower that is formed. We know that the gases formed can go out the fume hood but don’t know about the remains. Our teacher won’t let use preform the experiment unless we get answers. Thanks

Much of science fascinates me and I find that the more I learn, the better I understand the world around us. One of my main interests was herpetology and having observed different lizards in the wild as well as consulting various knowledgeable people in the field it has in fact brought me to ask a few questions about humans and why we do what we do. I am currently studying psychology. With slight variations within a species having created a sub-species it begged the question about humans and namely racial variations. On researching it on the internet it brought me to your website and namely this one:

click here

Does this imply that there are indeed sub-species of Homo sapiens? If so; what are they? Are there any scholarly articles about this subject?

If you could point me in the right direction, I would appreciate it.

Kind regards,
150: Compared to several decades ago, do you think the Internet has changed people's lives?
151: DPA was recently removed from sandwich bags. Why? Did they do something to the food inside?
152: Hi, I am a freshman in high-school and I was wondering if magnets can cause any long term affects like cancer or some other type of disease. I would like to hear back. Thank you for your time.
153: Hi! My AP Environmental Science class is in the midst of learning about renewable & nonrenewable resources. We are also talking about oil drilling in Santa Barbara County.We are wondering what the main difference is between fracking and cyclic steaming. What are the pros and cons involved with each and what types of drilling is best for our environment.We look forward to hearing from you. We are hoping to get some different perspectives on this--like from geologists, biologists, chemists & environmentalists. Thanks! Laura :)
154: How does the aftermath of wars affect the environment?
155: What are some causes that are making the ozone layer disappear?
Thank you

156: Hi Scienceline, My friend and I need a bit of information on Salinity in the Murray Darling Basin. How does salinity get into the Murray Darling Basin? Has the salinity rates gone higher or lower? How does the Murray River flow into the ocean? Is the poor irrigation getting worse?
157: Hello, my name is Will and I am an AP Chemistry student at Milton High School in Massachusetts. For our final project, my partner and I are really interested in the explosive polymerization of 4-nitroaniline reaction that you had on your website click here. We have access to all the chemicals, yet we want to be as safe as possible. Since we are not exactly sure what the reaction produces, would a high school fume hood be sufficient protection? Also, how should we safely dispose of the product?

Thank you very much for your time,
158: How do clouds contain water? And how do clouds absorb water?
159: By providing artificial light during nights when the sun does not shine, will it be possible to get crops faster?
160: I want to know about apex predators. Why are they so important for nature? When no one hunt them, how is their population controlled by nature?
161: Can you tell me why the atmosphere is important?
162: When was first dinosaur fossil discovered?
163: I put 8 oz. of water in a cup and added enough ice to make it 12 oz. When the ice melted it was still 12 oz. So if the polar ices melted, would it not cause flooding because it is all the same volume?
164: Why humans do not have tail?
165: Why is it colder at a higher altitude when technically it is closer to the sun?
166: We all know that plants do respiration at night and give CO2 at night, but in the morning when they have just started photosynthesis and giving oxygen we go on a morning walk and we say that we are taking oxygen in the morning!Is not the concentration of CO2 going to be higher in the morning!!?
167: Why do we have hair?
168: Is it possible that a fossil could make its way from South America to Australia, and only be found in those countries?
169: Why is weather important in people's lives?
170: Dear Scientists,
We all know that skin types were best suited for people in their own natural habitat and countries, what would be the Fitzpatrick skin type best for Toulouse, France and Aix en Provence, France. Is it skin type II or Skin type III or which Fitzpatrick type? Thank you

171: How tall was Mt. Everest before wind erosion and water erosion happened?
172: Why plants cannot move from place to place?
173: What will happen if people want to visit Earth's crust, will they die because it is so hot or is it just really dangerous? What will also happen if you die right in the middle of the crust?
174: What is the easiest way to distinguish a type of dinosaur?
175: How does the level of light affect the rate of photosynthesis?
176: Say all of the plants on Earth were to die off tomorrow, what could be some possible causes and could humans survive it?
177: How does the sun warm the earth ?
178: What kind of paper absorbs more heat? What color paper absorbs the most heat? Does paper absorb heat under a light bulb?
179: what happens during lightning?
180: Where does lightning come from?
181: In what form is most of Earth's fresh water found?
182: Hello, Science Line,
Although Nitrogen can combine with chemicals to produce unpleasant byproducts as a result of fuel combustion (nitrogen oxides in smog, etc.), I was wondering if atmospheric nitrogen can actually be harnessed (somewhat like atmospheric oxygen) to produce power in any way? Although nitrogen has a strong tendency for inertness, since it makes up the bulk of air, it is a shame that it cannot be harnessed somehow -- are there any oxidizers/fuels which can be made to react energetically/explosively with nitrogen gas, especially under heat and/or pressure? Thank you very much.

183: Why does the moon turn red at times? And why is the sky blue? Can the sky turn into another color, and if so what color?
184: Why does the inner core is solid state though the temperature is very high?
185: What things do people make out off nuclear energy?
186: What are the predictions of earth's climate in the future?
187: Hello, People evolved and selected by the genes which adapted to the environment that are favor to them. So, for example, people who live at the higher latitude area have lighter skin color, and vise verse, people live near the equator have darker skins for the ultra-violate protection reason. If a white couple (their grandpa and grandma and the past generations are all white) move to somewhere near equator, and then the generations past on (and all of their offspring mate with pure white people), will their skin color change because of any environment reason? Thank you so much for taking time to answer this!
188: How were the bones preserved from the La Brea tar pits?
189: How different is the sky in the morning and the sky at night? Why we can not see the stars in the morning or in the day?
190: How do plants interact with their environment? Please give me an answer.
191: Why are whales mammals and not fish?
192: What angle from a solar panel receives the most power from the sun? My groups hypotheses is a 60* angle but so far from now a 90* angle is receiving more power, WHY?`
193: How dose weather affect our daily lives?
194: Does the temperature of the water affect submarine activity?
195: How does extreme weather effect climate change?
196: What causes global warming?
197: How much land would be covered if the ice caps of the South Pole melted? I did not include the North Pole because I know it would not effect anything!THANKS!
198: What is the temperature in the North and South Poles?
199: Why are people going through puberty at younger ages than they used to?
200: How many times has the earth experienced complete ice cap melt? Is there a pattern?
201: Where does most hurricanes occur in the United States?
202: Why does not all rising air form clouds?
203: What would happen if there were no deserts?
204: When did humans first start roaming the earth about how many years ago ?
205: What is one weather condition that can limit the growth of a population?
206: If stingrays like warm water which we had in Ventura a month ago, where do they go now that the water is like 55F, cold!? I know they liked the water because I got stung by one.
207: How are tornadoes being affected by climate change?
208: I often hear this phrase, when discussing the California drought, "We are just letting the water go down into the ocean!" How does the water that goes "into the ocean" replenish our environments own water supply? What do we risk by damning the water?
209: What is the most abundant greenhouse gas? What are the things that produce that specific chemical? What are the things that produce the most carbon dioxide?
210: I am doing a project on animal migration and my question is what animals migrate in the pond and where?
211: What would the world be like without the Earth's layers?
212: Given that many modern day containers, utensils, cookwear, clothing,...are coated or composed of types of plastic which are publically recognized as having the ability to transfer\'estrogeni\' chemicals to whatever they come in contact with, is it possible that these 'estrogenic' compounds may be a contributor to decreases in fertility, neurological conditions and obesity in the population as a whole? Could this also be a contributor to a decreased sex-drive in women, given that testosterone is the 'sex-drive hormone'? Thank you for your time.
213: Does the earth create more dirt? Why do all past civilizations have to be "dug up"?
214: I have heard that the icecaps and such are not melting and instead they have doubled in size since the last two years. Is this true? I heard that it was sponsored and they basically lied to the public and if there is any chance for us to go into another ice age, it is higher now. But not in a very very very long time. Can you explain?
215: Could the regeneration process in some animals be quickened by selective breeding or cross breeding with two animals that both poses this function? Could one animal that poses the regeneration function breeding with an animal that does not have it; if so would the offspring have the function of regeneration of limbs or other body parts?
216: In books it says if the earths temperature rises 3 1/2 degrees the pole ice caps would melt but how is that possible if the temperature changes more than 3 degrees all the time?
217: Why do plant cells need to live?
218: As a physics teacher I've always been puzzled by the movement of weather systems from west to east. Seems to me the rotation of the Earth and the low frictional drag on the atmosphere would result in a east to west movement?
219: Why and how does the atmosphere help the earth?
220: What kind of animals eats elephants? What kind of animals eats cheetahs,lions, tigers, leopards,and wild cats?
221: Why the ocean is clear in the tropical latitudes and more turbid, cloudy, murky off the California coast?
222: What is the difference between producer, consumer, and decomposer?
223: How can the wind help the plants and animals to reproduce?
224: Which ocean moderates the temperatures of eastern Canada?
225: Global warming is causing the melting of glaciers. Consequences of this is that sea level is increasing but it is said that rainfall is decreasing in spite of increasing due to high evaporation rate made by increasing in the temperature of sunlight reaching Earth that causes evaporation. Why is it so?
226: How does precipitation affect humans?

Does hydrogen peroxide have cellular damage to Citrobacter bacteria?

I am a Water Treatment Operator and have thought about using Hydrogen Peroxide as a form of disinfection hoping that the creation of hydroxyl radicals will be what eliminates the bacteria problem I have in a water well. However, I was reading that these types of facultative bacteria also have an enzyme called "catalase" that catalyzes the reaction of hydrogen peroxide to O2 and water.

Will the catalase eventually cease its reactions and allow for the Hydrogen Peroxide to begin its cellular damage to the bacteria?

228: Do ocean wind/currents affect temperature?
229: How close or, far out is science in creating a plan to help advance the repairing of the ozone layer?
230: I am doing a project on hurricanes and I need to know how tall a hurricane can be and what the biggest hurricane was?
231: I am trying to find a way to collect rainwater and preserve it's pH so that it can be titrated to find the Molar concentration and then the pH. (No cheating with a pH probe :)!) I have searched and not found a direct answer to be sure that the collect rainwater does not change pH levels. I have no specialized equipment... Any suggestions? Thanks for any help you can offer!
232: How do deep sea fishes survive in such water pressure?
233: Can we invent a machine which could launched in that part of the sky where pollution is intense and by that machine we can use pollution as a source of energy to generate electricity?
234: Has a dinosaur ever been found that was split between two continents? As in, part of the body found on one continent and the rest on another continent?
235: How does salinity, water temperature, depth, waves, tides, and ocean currents affect starfish?
236: What type of problems would result if everyone heated their home with coal?
237: What is weather?
238: Why dinosaurs become extinct?
239: Can moss determine direction when you are lost?
240: I am teaching an upper-level environmental science course, the lecture is on photosynthesis, respiration, and global climate change. A student in the class, in looking at the chemical equations for both processes, is trying to reason things through about the impact that increased levels of CO2 might have on the levels of oxygen in the atmosphere. The student can make an argument that the oxygen levels will decrease, but can also provide a counter argument that it will increase. The student is thoroughly confused and really frustrated. How do you help your student with this?
241: What type of damage can tornadoes do?
242: Questions for expert regarding Climate Change.
1.What are a couple of examples of how animals have changed because of climate change?
2. What is some evidence that proves that climate change is happening?
3. Can people die because of too much carbon in the atmosphere?
4. Where is climate change effecting in the world the most?
In your opinion, can climate change be stopped?
5. What year is climate change going to stop?
We are in an investigation project for school and are trying to get these questions answered by Tuesday, May 31. If you are able to answer them, we would REALLY appreciate it and were wondering if we could also add a picture of you as our expert that we asked questions from. If that is fine, can you also send a picture with your answers. We are using our teachers email because we do not have one. Thank you sooooo much.

243: On a weather map , how can you tell what direction a front is moving?

1. How do tsunamis happen?
2. How long do tsunamis last?
3. What is the difference between a tsunami and a hurricane?
4. What are the similarities of a hurricane and a tsunami?
5. Where do tsunamis happen most in the world?
6. Which is most destructive, a tsunami or a hurricane?

245: I seem to recall reading somewhere that crystal clear sea water was not actually a good indicator of a healthy environment from a wildlife perspective. My understanding is that crystal clear water is that way because it contains no sediment/nutrients (which make the water cloudy) and therefore, nothing for microbial life to consume. This in turn feeds up the food chain meaning that, while clear water appears ideal from a human perspective, the reverse is actually true and that it is bad from an ecological point of view?
Can you confirm this?

246: Why are all humans different? We are all animals. Is it because are we different species or race?
247: Is it possible for a fish to be frozen in a block of ice (suspended animation?) and survive? My friend says that sometimes fish in Canada get frozen and will thaw out in the Spring/Summer.
248: How did animals come to be after the big bang?
249: How much time does it take for life to first appear on a fresh lava flow, if the lava flow is near the equator? Or if you see grass and or ferns starting to grow on a lava flow; what can you say about the age of the lava flow?
250: Why do cats have an extra toe on their front paws?
251: I wonder why we have thunders?
252: What came first the chicken or the egg?
253: What is the eye of the storm?
254: I wonder why overtime my hair stopped being curly and is now wavy.
255: How do tornadoes form?
256: Does the change in weather affect the magnitude in an earthquake?
257: How does mental health conditions like schizophrenia occur? How does it get into your brain?
258: What are the mechanisms behind human speech?
259: What is the mechanism behind fear?
260: How do droughts happen?
261: Is cancer hereditary? If so, how can you prevent it?
262: Why do clouds appear to have a fluffy kind of look?
263: Why can't some animals not sweat?
264: Why do people kill each other?
265: How was the first animal tamed?
266: I wonder why people and animals talk different languages
267: Why do animals that live in salt water only survive in salt water and not in fresh water?
268: I wonder why there are more boys than girls in different parts of the world?
269: Where did we (human beings) come from? Are we monkeys? Are we fish or will we never know? I think we are monkeys but not a similar one as in the zoo, I think we are a type of monkey that we don't know about.
270: Why do plants need water to survive?
271: What does oxygen in plants mean?
272: How are birds similar to dinosaurs?
273: How do scientists measure precipitation?
274: How does the sun produce wind and surface ocean currents on earth?
275: Is the Coriolis force affected by climate change on Earth?
276: In which way do air conditioners contribute to harm our environment and to global warming?
277: What would be the devastation of the most powerful nuclear bomb dropped on New York City, within 2 miles, within 6 miles, within 10 miles, within 30 miles?
278: Why is pollution bad? And what will happen if we continue life as we already do with the same pollution rates as we do today?
279: I'm doing a speech on pesticides and how their a major factor in killing off bees. 1)Do the pros outweigh the cons of pesticides? 2)Is there anyway to make pesticides poisonous to a specific bug so it doesn't kill off other insects? 3)Are the bugs the pesticides being used for that disastrously bad on farms? Thank you.
280: What are the ocean currents that affect the United States?
281: How did oil form in Alaska and how did it shape Alaska?
282: How do we get wind?
283: Why does a kangaroo have a pouch?
284: Can animals survive if moved to a different ecosystem?
285: Why the tail of house lizard can grow again and that of cow cannot?
286: From your experience, what type of plants work best with organic fertilizer and as with inorganic?
287: Can we describe viruses as being parasitic?
288: How can a fossil provide evidence that a certain animal existed?
289: If we would be able to cool Venus down and make it habitable, how would we benefit from it?
290: What would happen if all convection currents on Earth stopped?
291: What are different ways a human being can get sick and how can you get rid of it?
292: Hello! I am doing a school project on trees. I saw your article on the question "How come plants produce oxygen even though they need oxygen for respiration?" I have a similar question. I am wondering if there is a way to make trees produce more oxygen. I know that they produce oxygen during their photosynthesis by using carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight but I wonder if there is any way to make them produce more by giving them large amounts of those things. Thank you for your consideration of my question.
293: What is a penguin?
294: Which are factors that does not affect fossilization?
295: How the extreme weather affects non-living things?
296: What are the two boundaries where volcanoes form?
297: What do you think the world would be like if the continents never separated?
298: Tell me about tornadoes.
299: What are ways that animals respond to their environment?
300: How much CO2 does a cow emit in its lifetime? Is there significant contribution through its waste?
301: Etna volcano is active with eruptions right now. Is it the impact that Etna could have as disastrous as Mountain Vesuvius was almost 2000 years ago? I mean it in terms of the magnitude of the explosion, not the effects of it on the people or the cities around.
302: Before photosynthesis appeared on the planet, from what did the autotrophs made their food?
303: How does poop help plants grow?
304: What are the potential/occurring impacts of global warming? Will the effects of climate change be enough to cause the extinction of humans? If not, what is the most probable way humans that will become extinct?
305: What is a pesticide?
306: What physical objects or methods can help me make non-sterile soil, sterile?
307: Since Ocean Acidification is becoming more of a severe problem, can us people take the CO2 from the H2O and make it more purified instead of leaving it as H2CO3?
308: How are organic seedless grapes possible? Which is to say how can you have seedless grapes without genetic modification?
309: The question I was wondering about is related to the other extinct species of humans. Are there people living today who are related to them? How and why did they die out and what enabled Homo Sapiens to outlive them? And what would the world be like if at least a few of these extinct human species were still living today and how would they compare to modern Homo Sapiens in intelligence and capability?
310: How come the whale bones you can find on the beach do not look like other bones?
311: Why do spiders have eight legs?
312: Why do we have not useful body parts in our body that can be removed with no effect?
313: My question to you is, can there ever be a man made substitute for water that give us the same benefits of water? I thought of this question because I once heard that if water did not have exactly what it has right now, we would not be able to rely on it and we would not be able to live. I wanted to know if that was true and if we could use an alternative for every single molecule that water has. In my opinion, it would be awesome if people that did not have access to fresh water could have another option to gain the nutrients and hydration that water provides
314: What is the effect of weather on agriculture?
315: Can the apocalypse actually happen?
316: Do rocks really tell a story? If yes, what do they tell?
317: Do plants that are different color have a different efficiency of photosynthesis?
318: How did animals evolve into what they are now?
319: How did humans get to earth or how were they created?
320: Because Ocean Acidification is becoming a world problem, is there any way of separating CO2 from H2O?
321: What kind of soil would last better in a flood?
322: Why do different continents have different types of living organisms?
323: How do plants react to their surroundings?
324: Will there ever be a time in the future where the sun will be harmful to humans, and if so, when will it be?
325: How can I help combat global warming and change my lifestyle to reduce the negative impact I have on the Earth?
326: How come geckos have the ability to regenerate limbs and tails but can still pass away from internal bleeding?
327: Why are elephants so big?
328: Is the earthquake which recently took place in Mexico City related to the previous one close to the Ithsmus of Tehuantepec?
329: What happens when warm air rises and cold air sinks?
330: If there are stationary fronts, when the two fronts stay in the spot, what makes the weather go into a stop, and how do the fronts move away?
331: What gases are more responsible for the greenhouse effect?
332: If the sun blew up, would there be any way to know before our demise? (As in like a final 5 minutes before everyone dies.)
333: Will humans be on earth in 3029? I am afraid we are consuming lots of plants and stuff so I hope you text me back.
334: What is the difference between a animal population and the difference between the animal community?
335: I'd like to do a science experiment to see if different size plastic particles clog up fish gills. Any suggestions on how best to prove out what size particles become problematic for different levels of membrane porous?
336: What are all the ingredients of fertilizers?
337: How come the oxygen supply in the water does not run out?
338: What are the pros and cons of using pesticides? Do the pros outweigh the cons? Are there safe and environmentally- friendly pesticides? Is it really better to only farm/ purchase organic food?
339: Since Ocean acidification is becoming a bigger problem, is there any way to take CO2 molecules from H20?
340: How do you know about the water cycle?
341: A student was wondering how much an increase of energy a 2 degree change would be. This question is in context of climate change and the goals of the Paris Climate agreement. Obviously if we go to zero degrees Celsius we don't have absolute zero energy. So if the Earth's average energy goes up by 2 degrees from pre-industrial levels how much of a percentage increase is that to Earth's energy budget?
342: What happens to the plants' roots in the different environments?
343: During a fog bank in the ocean, what is the temperature of the water when the fog bank is happening ? What is the temperature of the air during a fog bank?
344: Can you explain human evolution?
345: Do animals need sun or not?
346: Why do leopards have spots on their fur?
347: Why doesn’t marine life die from ammonia poisoning from dead organisms?
348: What is the ozone layer made of?
349: How does water's heat capacity contribute to wind patterns in California?
350: Is it possible to make a rocket ship that can put trash in the sun to reduce trash in landfills, throwing trash into the sun without damaging the craft? Would a space cannon (not meant to be funny) with already compressed air launch the rocket into space, unload the trash and just wait for it to reach the sun?
351: Can global warming be a direct result of all the oil we have removed, since oil I’m sure acts like an insulation from the Earth's core temperature?
352: How does the atmosphere help life on Earth?
353: What would happen if we didn't have seeds?
354: What is Roygbiv?
355: How can we protect endangered aquatic species that are isolated by dams?
356: How do you decide which mountain lions are tagged and which ones are not? and what are the challenges when tagging a mountain lion and how often are they tagged? and lastly, how often do hikers encounter mountain lions in the Santa Monica Mountains?
357: What is a subduction zone?
358: Can plants use CO2 released during respiration for photosynthesis?
359: What are some constructive and destructive forces of the Colorado plateau and grand canyon?
360: How do the plants get the items needed to make food?
361: How does emission of carbon dioxide lead to global warming?
362: Do rats fart more or less than cows?
363: What causes a population to change? Is it natural selection, variation, and adaptation?
364: How does the climate (cold, hot, rain, etc.) affect the marine life?
365: How do fossils provide evidence of continental drift?
366: Why it is windy by the sea side?
367: Do you guys help save the Monarch butterflies?
368: Why do the Inuits have dark skins given that they live close to the North Pole?
369: What is the most amount of hurricanes ever to happen at one point in time?
370: What happens to a flower when it dies?
371: What animals reproduce both asexually and sexually?
372: Why do redwoods grow to be so tall?
373: What is the effect the Channel Islands have on the beaches near Goleta and the Channel? How would beaches nearby look different if the Channel Islands weren’t there?
374: Why is air at sea level denser than air at high altitudes?
375: Why is everyone so different? How come some people allergic to stuff while others aren’t? Is it that some peoples DNA and molecules react to foods and/or any kind of product differently than other peoples' DNA?
376: How can twins look so different?
377: What causes Black Mold? Can we develop some sort of disinfectant to prevent Black Mold?
378: Does different light tolerances affect the metabolic rate of a plant?
379: How long can a pizza last?
380: What makes supercells?
381: What would happen if a whale didn't have a blowhole?
382: Are whales fish?
383: When was the last time it snowed in Santa Barbara, and when will it happen again?
384: I am trying to understand if plants and animals use the water that is released in the process of aerobic respiration? I am teaching a class and I want to better understand what happens to the “waste” water.
385: How do bears know when to wake up?
386: Is snow edible?
387: Why is it so cold these days in the northeast of the United States of America?
388: How much wood could a woodchuck chuck?
389: What are the "pros" of pesticides?
390: How do reptiles regenerate their body parts? Which parts do they regenerate? How do they do that? How many times? When?
391: Why is the temperature of the atmosphere 1700 degree Celsius?
392: I still don't understand why there are no snakes in Hawaii. I though some snakes can swim. If some snakes can swim then can they swim to Hawaii and live around there?
393: Our 2.5 acre pond dried up in the extreme heat this past summer, through evaporation and I have some questions. Our pond is not only filled by rainwater and runoff, but by a pond above our pond. When the creek between the ponds dries up, we have discovered that the rainfall is not enough to keep our pond full. If we add aerators to our pond with the intent of bringing colder water to the surface, will the water in our pond remain for a longer time?
394: Does a fast moving river respond to environment? Would you say that a fast moving river grows and develops over time? Thanks!
395: Do squids squirt ink?
396: Would pre-Cook Hawaiians have been able to extract any usable metals from the land? (This goes along with questions about whether most pre-Western cultures were hampered by their environment-not their culture or race.)
397: How do cacti obtain water?
398: Hi,I am teaching geology for my first time (new NGSS topic for 8th grade). I have been searching for interesting tidbits in this area (fossil and evolutionary finds, geological formations, etc). Can you point me to documents or share info that my students might find interesting? Thanks.
399: When Antarctica melts, how much land will be left?
400: Why are pandas black and white?
401: Why were dinosaurs alive? Why did they die?
402: Hello, I have a question about whether any attempt has been made to boil sea water using parabolic mirrors and then use that steam to condense it to get water or use that steam to generate power (via turning a turbine)? Thank you for your help.
403: Which plants produce the most Oxygen in the quickest way?
404: Why did Jane Goodall wanted to learn about chimpanzees?
405: When people are done with their napkins where do they go and what happens to them?
406: Is the weight of buildings in Venice the reason the city gets floods every year? Is the city really sinking?
407: Why was hurricane Katrina so destructive to New Orleans?
408: Does our drinking water contain dead skin cells? I've been pondering this question for quite sometime.
409: Could you please refer to me a chart of gases in the stratosphere? The question comes from this observation: if the troposphere is comprised of 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, .09% Argon, along with other trace gases, what are the relative percentages for gases in the stratosphere considering that Ozone is most prominent in the stratosphere? Would seem that percentage of Nitrogen, Oxygen, etc., would be decreased by presence of more Ozone? Have searched wide for the answer. Hope you can help. Thank you.
410: Do carnivorous plants have both animal and plant cells or just one or the other?
411: I was told the chirping sounds birds make in the mornings trigger leaves to release the oxygen. Is this true?
412: When water has been purified with ozone, are the resulting gases toxic? Is it safe to breath them?
413: What role does gene expression play in determining traits of an offspring?
414: What would life be like if the earth was covered with water and humans survived?
415: How much does the temperature rise in a room according to the number of people who are in it?
416: Why is CO poisoning most likely to occur in homes that are well sealed during cold winter months?
417: What are the reasons the atmosphere is important, and why?
418: I'm currently working on a project on deforestation and I was tasked to find out more info about deforestation. May you please give me info and explain how it affects biodiversity?
419: What is the relation between continental drift and the evolution? How four very different kinds of ant/termite eaters could occur in India, Africa, South America, and Australia?
420: Can Wildfires be put out with liquid nitrogen? I read an article on your website that said that fires can be put out with liquid nitrogen but can forest fires or any larger fires also be put out with nitrogen?
421: How does the lithosphere affect other layers of Earth?
422: I'm doing a debate for Science and it is about the difference between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere. Can you help me?
423: Will humans need to evolve anytime soon? If so, what will it entail?
424: For every pound of beef how much greenhouse gas is produced/released?
425: Is there anyway we can prevent climate change from getting worse?
426: How do plants sense seasonal change? In other words, how can plants tell apart the seasons.
427: Why do we get the most fog in the months of June and July, when December and January are the months of year where there is the most moisture/humidity in the air? (And rainfall)
428: Can we go further than Mars with our nuclear waste?
429: Dear USCB Science Line, Hello! How are you all are doing? With all do respect I have read your story online about cows that fart and burp on your website that was dated back in 2011 ( here. I wanted to let you know that not only cows fart and burp but all animals and us humans burp and fart too sometimes. Now I’m all for improving the environment and climate and healthy food from plants which provide health benefits. So why should we do something about cows when all animals and humans do the same thing? I don’t see what will solve the problem when it comes to burps and farts. Can you please email me back with an answer? I’m sorry, please do forgive me for sending this email if you all happen to not like what I wrote here. Thanks and God Bless!
430: Hi, I am an 8th grade student who is taking living environment. In the cellular respiration and photosynthesis explanation for plants, some information says the plant “makes” energy. Although it might turn stored energy into usable energy, energy cannot be created nor destroyed.What do you mean when saying that a plant “makes” energy? Just wanted to clear up any further misconceptions as it is just a minor detail that could lead to someone seeking information having the wrong idea. I appreciate your time and help your website has given me!
431: How do human and natural factors impact the atmosphere and weather?
432: Hi! I teach an AP Environmental Science class. We are currently talking about pestilence & diseases. Our conversation turned to STDs, crabs and eyelash mites. (I know, students bring up the oddest things.) My students suddenly turned to a very odd question that is borderline appropriate but they really want to know the answer. Here it is: Do skin cells cover the testicles on a male or are they covered in taste bud cells like those that would be found on our tongue? (I guess there are websites out there & something on Tick-Tock about how the skin on the testicles are actually made of taste buds.) I hope to hear from you because this question actually got my mind wondering....
433: What would happen if you are in a hurricane or a tsunami?
434: Why do we need trees to survive?
435: How long would humans last if there were no more trees?
436: How do animals help with plant growth?
437: What body structure protects the lungs from outside harm?
438: Why do Inuit people have dark skin?
439: What is the future of biological batteries?
440: How do scientists know when El Niño o La Nina are coming?
441: Why do we have facial hair?
442: Does the sun heat the air in our atmosphere directly?
443: Is it possible to find diamonds in the ocean?
444: What is the influence of Coriolis force on weather systems?
445: What happened to Rodinia about 750-725 million years ago? Could you explain? What is the name of the ocean that formed?
446: How and why do plants grow on lava rocks in Hawaii on the Black Sand Beach?
447: Why does it take so long to develop a vaccine?
448: Do flowers bloom WHILE it's raining? Or do they need sun and light for blooms to open? There are lots of info on what they need to bloom, but not what conditions they actually bloom under. Daylight? Darkness? Rain? Sun? Warmth? Cold? What are the scientific conditions for an actual blossom to emerge?
449: What color is the sand on Atlantic coast beaches?
450: Is there some technological development or research going to reduce the intensities of natural calamities or like divert the path of maybe cyclones or water floods etc? I know humans need to take care of nature but still in some way they do not.
451: New Orleans was able to prepare for Hurricane Katrina. How were they able to predict that this hurricane was coming?
452: How does weather work from rainy to sunny?
453: How many grasslands are on planet Earth?
454: What are the steps to follow in order to have ready the vaccine against Covid19?
455: What factors cause the different shapes and structures of the Earth?
456: Does the atmosphere help keep Earth's water?
457: If dinosaurs had survived the Yucatan comet 66 million years ago, or it had never happened, what is the chance Homo sapiens would still be here?
458: I need to know 10 ways in which weather affects humans on Earth.
459: What are 10 different ways that weather affects humans on Earth?
460: How the viruses of influenza, common flu and covid 19 are all related?
461: How can fossils get to each other from Africa and south America?
462: I found useful information about plant sense from your blog as, How do plants sense a change in the environment? You have explained, "Plants can sense weather changes and temperatures" ( here ). Please explain how to identify the plant's sensing process and which kind of method and techniques are used to identify them?
463: Maybe scientists have studied the physical characteristics of the people of different countries like India, China, Russia, UK, Europe, etc. Could you tell us the difference between the basis of the different people in different countries like the size, shape of the eyes, color, the shape of the eyebrows, etc. Are these and other characteristics very different in different peoples of the several countries?
464: The earth tilts at an angle, is it possible that some day this angle increases and the weather changes drastically?
465: What is the science behind El Niño and La Niña affecting the weather and how frequently do we get them?
466: I am wondering why the soil in the desert can not retain water after a good rain.
467: Some grocery bags in the supermarket are biodegradable. What is the material they are made of?
468: Are all objects on Earth constantly radiating particles harmful for living things?
469: What/how is the photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the desert?
470: If estimated how long will we have on earth before our world is non inhabitable?
471: Some people are saying they will not take the Covid19 vaccine and my parents are listening to them. Can you write about the reasons why we have to get the vaccine when the time comes so I can convince my parents that we all have to take it?
472: How atmospheric pressure does affect the growth of plants?
473: How accurate are simulations predicting the rise of water in oceans due to climate change?
474: What can people do to make our planet cleaner?
475: Which are the recent useful materials that you scientists have discovered at UCSB?
476: So I have an environmental investigation project and my investigation is the decomposition differences between organic and inorganic foods. I have done research but I still do not know what to do as the experiment. My hypothesis is basically that inorganic foods will have a greater life span. Could you help me?
477: In the future what will humans most likely going to look like after evolution?
478: Can we still stop global warming?
479: Is it possible for a vegetarian mammal to become a meat eater (non-vegetarian)?
480: How are hurricanes and wave damage related?
481: How do volcano eruptions cause changes in the ozone layer?
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