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1346 questions in the Category: geology.

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1: Is any water vapor escaping the earth's surface into space over time and is there an estimated amount?
2: Why is the inner core solid even though it is hotter than the outer core?
3: Do the other planets also have layers and are they also hot inside?
4: How did the earth layers form ? Did they form when the earth was still a fireball or when it was cooling down?
5: What kind or machine does it take to get to the center of the earth?
6: Where did all oxygen in the air come from? Was it all formed when photosynthesis started? What was the atmosphere made of before that?
7: We are studying about the Supercontinent Pangaea in science. The book we used mentioned there was a previous supercontinent named Rodinia. Can you tell me anything else about this?
8: Why is the earth mostly made of silicon (rocks) and iron and other elements are much less ?
9: Why is volcanic rock so much lighter than other rock and what happens when you put it in on water?
10: Did you ever find fossils and where do I have to look for?
11: What happens to the magma inside the earth once it is released to the surface? Does the earth generate more or will all the magma eventually come out?
12: I have heard that the magnetic poles of the earth switch around every 30,000 years. Is that true and why do they do this?
13: How was Niagara Falls formed? How old is it? What is the rate of erosion on it? Any other interesting tidbits of information that may be known would be greatly appreciated!
14: What is the ecosystem? What are some common ecosystems?
15: Why have beach sands different colors?
16: What determines how salty the oceans are? Do the oceans still get saltier? I have read that the oceans are in a"steady state" but where does then the newly dissolved salt from the streams go?
17: I simply want to know what is the scientific definition of a stone or rock? Are ice and gold stones?
18: Why is snow "white" but ice cubes are colorless? Both are frozen water?
19: Why is most of the land on Earth in the Northern Hemisphere?
20: Why is there so much sand in the desert?
21: What is the definition of a continent? Our dictionary says it is a large continuous land mass. Why do we consider Europe a continent and why are North and South America two continents?
22: Why is nitrogen the dominant gas in our atmosphere? What happened to the other gases from the early atmosphere?
23: Is there still a need for an archeologist or paleontologist? Does it really matter if we find all the bones from extinct animals or know what animal evolved from what?
I am asking because I think it is fun digging out bones, but I am not sure if it is useful.

24: How is gold made?
25: Where can I find information on alkaline earth metals for a research project?
26: How come the water in the Bahamas and in Hawaii is so clear and in Santa Barbara and Monterey the water is not?
27: What makes volcanoes erupt? Are there any recent eruptions of any volcanoes close to Goleta?
28: How much liquid is on Mars?
29: Is there any other planet like Earth in the universe (a planet that has air, water, gravity and so on)?
30: I was wondering if you have any information about how aluminium is extracted when mining and the process that occurs so the aluminium can be used.
31: I heard that Niagara Falls once dried up, is this true, if so when and what caused it to happen?
32: How do scientists know what dinosaurs ate without looking at their teeth?
33: Why are spring tides called spring tides and why are leap tides called leap tides?
34: Why does it hail ?
35: Who made the water cycle? Why did they do the water cycle? Who discovered the water cycle?
36: In science, we studied the Coriolis Effect. Do other planets have a similar global wind system(s) as we do?
37: Can you tell the age of a rock by its chemical substance?
38: Did scientists find dinosaur fossils all over the world or are there places(continents) where they found none? Did scientists ever found a fossil of an egg?
39: How come that there are a lot of metal in the center of the earth and not on top?
40: Why can I not find numbers on how much we have heated the oceans by using them as heat dumps for engines, nuclear plants, and nuclear vessels? Do you know where to get these answers?
41: What are the short term effects of a volcano eruption on humans, and animals?
42: What causes an Ice Age?
43: What is weather? What is climate?
44: How does the geothermal energy system work?
45: How do you tell what is a volcano and a mountain?
46: What are minerals, gems, and crystals made of?
47: How do sapphires form?
48: How do minerals form underground?
49: What is a ridge and what does it look like?
50: How can ocean temperature change atmosphere temperature and be the cause of El Nino?
51: Why exactly is Iraq on the map geologically speaking? What does this have to do with plate tectonics? What specific types of geologic features could be found over there? For examples: Is there any threat of earthquakes over there?
52: The land over in Iran is extremely rich with oil. How did that oil get there? I understand there has to be anticlines & synclines but what tectonically occurred to make these? Also--oil is usually formed when phytoplankton & zooplankton die, accumulate on the ocean floor, get covered up & baked slowly at low temperatures. Where did these plankton come from? Was there an ocean or sea in the area at one time? If so, what was it called?
53: I've heard a little about salt glaciers in Iraq. I understand salt deposits can form along with oil. How large are these salt glaciers and how exactly are these formed?
54: Are there specific weather patterns that would make these massive sand storms we keep hearing about on the news about Iraq? If so, does it have something to do with the weather coming off the Mediterranean Sea?
55: What do the temperartures along the equator measure?
56: I tried to do some research on what cause the different mass extinctions. I know there are different theories but I only found concrete info on the 65 million years ago extinction. What was the cause of the 245 million years ago mass extinction? Thanks.
57: What exactly is quick sand and why is it called quick sand?
58: What path does the moon's orbit travel around the Earth?
59: We learned that vascular plants with no seeds like ferns, horse tail and club mosses turned into coal over many thousands of years. How did this happen and why is it only plants that form coal?
60: The question is about oil or petroleum. Does this come from animals or also from plants. Why is petroleum a liquid and coal solid? Is it that coal is older and pressed down longer?
61: Is the earth still making new layers of coal or oil?
62: What is the cause of air pollution? Do animals and plants also pollute the air?
63: I have heard that the Tar Pits close to LA are a good place to find fossils. Are there also dinosaur fossils? Is it a fun place to visit?
64: Why is it that tornadoes do not form on coastal states like California, but they form more in the central states such as Kansas?
65: Why is there an atmosphere around our Earth and not around other planets?
66: I was wondering what the geology of the SB coast is? Like possibly what types of rocks and metals are found in and near the ocean. I am doing a project to see what types of substrate marine inverts prefer and I need to know what are some different substrates. Thanks.
67: I am doing research on Easter Island. My question is if you have any experts on Easter Island and if you do, can I interview them for my paper?
68: I understand that scientists first check out how old the bones are to make sure they found some old ones but how do they know what kind of animal it was, when they find only some bones?
69: Why did large animal evolve in nature? Aren't they kind of useless like too big need lots of space and food?
70: How can scientist know how big a prehistoric animal was when they find only some bones of it?
71: Whys it the equator hotter than the north and south poles
72: If the outer core is melted metal it would have to be hot enough for the metal to melt of course. If the inner core is also made of the same materials as the outer core, then why does the inner core not melt as well? If the inner core is completely surrounded by melted metal than it should be breaking down as well shouldn't it? What causes the inner core to stay solid?
73: Why does all the smoke in the air change the ozone amount? We were not allowed to play outside yesterday at our school because the air was so bad.
74: What is an eclipse?
75: In the beginning of the week we had very low tide. I think I never saw it so low. Was this unusual?
76: Does pressure have any effect on Volcanic eruptions?
77: Why can't I feel the spinning of the earth?
78: In the theory of the formation of the moon, what happened to the large body that hit the Earth?
79: How can you find out how warm the water is without a thermometer?
80: How do scientists predict a solar and lunar eclipse?
81: What are the main differences between stars and planets?
82: When I was in Germany I watched the sunset and the sun went down really slowly. Then I came back to Goleta and I watched the sunset and the sun went down really fast. Why is that?
83: I have heard some talk about a tenth planet, supposedly called "X". What I have heard is that this planet orbits (When thinking of our Solar System on an XY Axis) On the Y axis as opposed to the other planets which rotate on the X axis. I have also heard that this planet could have caused the annihilation of the dinosaurs. Is this something true or just a myth?
84: Can diamonds appear in graphite?
85: The study of the geology of the planets is called what?
86: Is the core hotter than the corona?
87: An astronomy question: Does the length of time the moon is visible from Earth change month-to-month or season-to-season? We know the length of day changes with the sun, but we're wondering about the moon. Also, we know the sun and moon are not orbiting in the same plane (relative to the earth) because if they were, we would have solar eclipses every month. So, how do the orbital planes differ for the earth around the sun and the moon around the earth? Thank you very much!!!!
88: I did a science fair project using glass squares cut the same size and thickness. I fractured the glass by dropping the same weight at the same spot. Why didn't it break the same way?
89: I've heard that according to Darwin's theory of evolution Man and monkey have a common ancestor is this true and what is this ancestor?
90: Why is the ozone layer disappearing only in Antarctica ?
91: How long is the distance around the earth?
92: What are different experiments that can be conducted on local shorelines for a science fair project?
93: How did science determine that there was a hole in the ozone layer?
94: Why is lava red?
95: Why are tidepools saltier than open ocean water?
96: What is a fossil in which minerals replace all or part of an organism called.
97: What percent of the ocean's water is salt?
98: Is gravity stronger, weaker or the same at the north and south poles compared to the equator? If so, why?
99: What makes a tornado?
100: how deep is the deepest ocean?
101: Why do we have earthquakes? What makes the different motions for example ( a rolling motion or fast jolting movement)? I have heard earthquakes are trying to move the plates but why are they trying to move the plates?
102: What makes dirt? I am pretty sure rocks make sand, but what makes dirt?
103: Hello, A couple of my students were wondering about the following questions, and rather than give a partially correct answer I was hoping you could give me the complete answer. Thank you so much. 1. Why is there only some gravity on earth. Yes, I know that 1/6 of the earth's gravity is found on the moon, but why? 2. If there was no gravity on earth would there be hurricanes and tornadoes?
104: When do you think the world will end?
105: If the magnetic field of the earth flips from time to time do we know when it will happen again? Do we know when it happened last time and how do we know that it happens? Also, we learned that many animals depend on the magnetic field of the earth to navigate. What will happen to them when the field changes? Will they one day just wake up and fly in the wrong direction?
106: Are the tectonic plates flat or curved to fit the surface of the earth?
107: What are some comparisons of weight and mass on the moon?
108: What was the range of the Santa Cruz long toed salamander when it was first discovered? Please reply before Thursday.
109: Is there a way to re-thicken our ozone layer?
110: How much will the sea level rise if we don't stop global warming?
111: I wonder where all the sand on the beach comes from?
112: How does Earth keep its orbit around the Sun and not come closer to the Sun?
113: Why is the interior of the Earth hot?
114: What is the difference between a hurricane and a tsunami? Which one is more severe?
115: How does wind erosion affect the plant and animal life in the Ventura/Santa Barbara area?
116: How many forests get destroyed over the years?
117: If the buildings were knocked down where once a vernal pool was, would they be able to restore it?
118: The other day I was at East Beach in Santa Barbara, and there were piles of foam sitting on the beach. It looked like soap suds in big piles, and they were blowing around the beach. I was wondering what causes foam like that and to sit on the beach and if there was some bacteria or something that was in it? Thanks for your time!
119: When the earth is rotating, how does it keep warm?
120: Do clouds move by themsleves or do people on earth see clouds moving because the earth is spinning?
121: Can all the continents go back to Pangaea?
122: What minerals are in sand??
123: Are oil rigs good for our community or not? And if it is how?
124: Where do coral reefs form? Do coral reefs form at a quick or fast rate? Do coral reefs form as an everday thing or at a special time?
125: How do heat, time, and pressure contribute to mineral formation?
126: What are greenhouse gases? How do greenhouse gases affect the earth?
127: Would it be possible to get energy from ocean waves?
Has anyone ever tried to do this?
If so, where can I find other information about it?

128: What are the four tides we have each day?
129: Can you give me some info on mass land movement?
130: I have a few questions regarding the plants and animals on the Channel Islands.

After learning from Dr. Atwater about the geological origin of the islands and their trip up from the San Diego area by way of plate movement I became curious about the Torrey Pine being in both the San Diego area and on Santa Rosa Island.

Does this mean the pines traveled up on the island?
Could this also mean other plants made their way up in the same way?
Are there certain plants that did not exist at that time indicating a trip across the channel the only logical explanation?
Might animals have traveled up on the island the same way or is millions of years too long ago for contemporary animal species?
What animals other than the Pygmy mammoth were once out there but are now no longer around?
We are studying about plant and animal dispersal and the effects of island isolation on these plants and animals and these and other questions arise. We are aware that certain conditions must be present for a plant or animal to establish itself on the island but we would like to know if there is any evidence of species being there but not making it to present day, either due to climatic changes, predation, influence of man, or some other reason.
Any information or direction towards sources would be greatly appreciated.

131: What are the two main contributing factors to global warming? Do factories contribute to global warming? And if so, what is one example?
132: Hello, I was curious why there are no hurricanes here on the west coast of the United States.
133: How long does it take for water to be evaporated then to be put back on Earth as precipitation?
134: What is the likelihood of a new volcano forming a new island in, or around, the Hawaiian Islands?
135: What would happen if our Earth's crust did not have any hydrogen in it?
136: What will happen if the greenhouse effect of Earth's atmosphere keeps on increasing?
137: How do ocean currents contribute to the change in climate?
138: We would like to know if oxygen is lighter or heavier than air.
We want to know how both nitrogen and oxygen seems to be the same weight as air.
When air is called thinner at altitude and there is less oxygen, is there also les nitrogen, and what causes the thinning?

139: What role does the ocean play in precipitation?
140: What are the various parts of the Himalayas called?
141: What are the poles and equator of the earth?
What are the climate condition on the poles and equator?
Where are they?

142: I am doing a science fair project on how does soil affect the filtration of acid rain and I need a mentor. I was wondering if I could have the names and e-mail addresses or phone numbers of people who would be willing to mentor me on my project.
143: How does acid rain affect sea life? As a science project, I am thinking to use a group of gold fish and test on them. Could you tell me how I could get this acid, and how to test and measure this on the goldfish? Also, how does global warming, temperature, effect sea life...goldfish? Thank you very much.
144: I heard that the continents are constantly forming back to Pangea at the same rate as your fingernail. Is this true? How long will it take for the continents to form Pangea again?
145: What elements are in diamonds, gold, and rust? What is the scientific name for rust?
146: How do fluids affect meteorology?
147: I would like to know why there are clouds and how they are formed. I would also like to know what is in them.
148: Why is it that the there are no tides in the Mediterranean sea ?
149: How does vanadium get into petroleum or why is it found in petroleum?
150: I would like to do an experiment on global warming and I am going to take various gases like ch4 and co2 and leave them in the sun and see what gases heat up the most and contribute most to global warming. Can you give me your input, opinion, ideas?
151: What is the ozone layer made of?
152: What makes ice to melt faster?
153: What causes the force of gravity?
154: What caused the planes in the Bermuda triangle to go down?
155: What happens to moss when there is a tree right on the equator? What side of the tree does it grow on?
156: What affect does the earth's tilt have on the seasons?
157: What is a rogue wave?
158: What are some land forms found on the moon's surface?
159: How weather can be predicted?
160: Why do we have hurricanes?
161: Why is there life on Earth and not at other planet?
162: How do tornadoes start?
163: Are there any snakes in Hawaii?
164: What is the Earth's atmosphere made of?
165: How can a cloud carry so much water?
166: Do you know what type of landslide occurred in La Conchita?
167: I am doing a report for my eighth grade class about what would happen if the earth was a cube. I chose this hypothetical question because I thought it was an interesting idea. Anyway I didn't get much information on the subject and I am wanting to know more. Can you please fill me in on what WOULD happen if the earth was cubical?
168: Earth's minerals contain what percent oxygen?
169: What would it happen if the world were covered with water?
170: What would it happen if the Earth's core was damaged?
171: What is the difference between a hurricane and a tornado?
172: How does wind create waves that are so clean and smooth when they should be bumpy and choppy?
173: If you were traveling at the speed of Earth and heading in the opposite direction of Earth's rotation, what would happen to time?
174: Where does the blue sky end?
175: Is the depletion of the ozone an actual probable risk to the human race, other than such catastrophes that have wiped other races in history?
176: Where are minerals stored,
177: How does your landmass compare to the drawing of pangaea?
178: Regarding global warming. If all the ice in the north and south poles melted to water, how much would the world seas increase? I guess a couple of feet, but I am curious to know the correct answer. Thanks!
179: If the planets are made of CO2, can there be any form of life on them?
180: How long can a tree live?
181: How fast is the Earth's rotation in Santa Barbara?
182: One of my students asked me if Southern California was separating from the rest of the continent. If this is happening: 1. At what rate is it happening? 2. What's causing the movement (San Andreas or a different fault?) 3. And when would Southern California be completely separate? (My student seems to think it would be in the next 30 years?). Thank you!!
183: We know that the conditions for life are rare in this solar system, and just the right atmosphere, water, and chemicals exist on earth in order for life to occur. However, if the earth was a bit closer to the sun, it would be too hot, and if it were a little farther away, it woud be too cold. So, our question is: how far is that "bit" of distance that would make life unsustainable?
184: How does a storm form?
185: How often does the earth change its magnetic north?
186: In plate tectonics -- An example of divergent oceanic plates would be the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, but can you give an example of divergent continental plates and where they are located?
187: Does Earth’s magnetism affect the weather?
188: What plates does the san Andrea fault separate? What type of fault is the san Andreas?
189: What characteristics of living things does a river have? Is a river alive?
190: If you took an element out of air, would it still be considered air?
191: How is this storm tracked? What can be the effects of the storm?
192: Is there a way water is created or does the Earth have a finite amount?
193: Since the distance between the Earth and the Sun does not tell us the seasons, how does it affect us?
194: Where does drinking-water come from?
195: My class has been learning about climate changes, the greenhouse effect and global warming. I have a B.S. in geology so I understand that the climate has changed throughout geologic time. What we are wondering is if the current global warming of the planet is strictly due to human activity or is it a natural occurrence? How can this global warming result in a runaway greenhouse effect and what can be done to stop it? How will an increase in volcanic activity affect global warming? Will we be in for global cooling and another phase of the ice age? Thanks! We've been talking about this topic for a while and I want some input from scientists regarding the subject.
196: Why is saltwater salty?
197: What was the state of Earth when it began?
198: How does lightning and thunder form?
199: Hello, I am Sabrina and I am in 8th grade. I'm doing a science fair project on decomposition. My project is a mini landfill and I will be placing different items in the two different landfills which one will have normal dirt from a garden and then in the other potting soil. But I am having a problem with measuring decomposition I have no idea on how to measure it. So my teacher told me to come here so can you please help. Thank you.
200: How do mountains form?
201: What would happen if there was no air? for example in outer space?
202: If the earth cracked and the molten lava seeped in to outer space would it orbit around another planet? Or would it harden under extremely low temperature?
203: Is it possible to detect if global warming is affecting the Santa Inez River?
204: To whom ever this may concern, I have a few questions regarding geology: 1)I am curious as to know what types of rocks are metals found in? 2)What plant or animal MATERIALS are likely to form fossils? 3)The majority of rocks are composed of what types of minerals? Thank you for taking your time to answer these questions.
205: How do ocean swells form?
206: How are we able to obtain Manganese nodules? What are nodules?
207: How does tidal fluctuations effect starfish?
208: How does hail, sleet and snow form?
209: Is there an easy experiment on fulgurite I can do? If you can, can it be safe? Is it impossible for me to make fulgurite?
210: How do wheather satellites work?
211: What machines are used in the process of mapping the ocean floor? Where is the ocean floor mapped from? Is mapping the ocean floor dangerous? Do civil engineers have anything to do with mapping the ocean floor? Thank You!
212: Is obsidian toxic? I know that it is currently widely used as a blade tip for surgical scalpels because they can get the obsidian blade so sharp, but would obsidian inside of the skin cause any sort of posioning effect? We are looking into using it as an alternative to stainless steel.
213: How much higher were the levels of CO2 in the atmosphere in the times of the dinosaurs?
214: Were there more plants and trees in the invironment when the dinosaurs were there?
215: What does a compass do at the North Pole?
216: Why don't we just swich to all nuclear power? What are the negatives? (Besides it is dangerous)
Do any scientists disagree that humans are in fact the cause of Global Warming, and that global warming is due to high CO2 levels?

217: If the glaciers are melting, the rivers flow to the sea, and rain is freshwater, are the oceans getting less salty over time or is there some sort of process that changes the fresh water to salt water?
218: 1. Why don't hurricanes form in the north Atlantic? 2. In the northern hemisphere, do hurricanes move clockwise or counter clockwise? 3. What two celestial object cause the tides on the moon?
219: We have a quick question regarding geologic time. I have always been taught that the San Andreas fault came around approximately 14.5 million years ago. My students recently came back from a Death Valley geology trip and said that the San Andreas Fault is approximately 28 million years old. I'm assuming that the onset of the fault was 28 million years ago and maybe it hit Santa Barbara area 14.5 million years ago... Could you tell us the ages of the San Andreas Fault? Thanks! Laura :)
220: How can we get fossil fuel from under the sea bed?
221: How can we tell how old rocks are?
222: What are scientists who study fossils called?
223: Is it possible to glide on the earth's magnetic field, or to have it support a spacecraft? If so, how?
224: This summer there seems to be more rocks up against the cliffs at the beach and less sand. Also the tides seem to be higher, rarely on the minus side and usually plus 3 - 6 feet. Is this usual?
225: I know how long it takes for light to reach us but how long does it take for heat to reach earth from the sun?
226: Why is the inside of a car hotter than the outdoor temperature on a sunny summer day?
227: Since material objects (basically energy) create a gravitational "force" and that gravitational force can be detected, then would it be possible to gain that energy (of the material objects) from gravity? (To create another, exact gravitational field).
228: Could you use an existing gravitational field (for example: The Earth's) against itself? (For example, changing the direction of the field, ect...) If so, how?
229: Is it safe to eat snow?
230: What is the Earths thinnest layer?
231: What tool is used to record earthquake waves?
232: If you are using a plant for phytoextraction of metal in the soil, how would you seperate and measure the amount of metal in the soil and in the plant?
233: Why can fire spread very quickly in a forest?
234: Why the heat from the Sun can enter the atmosphere easier than it can get off from it?
235: During the continental drift, every year a plate splits 2cm, so if the continents split like that, where is the plate? Will it come soon? Why isn't it separating the ocean?
236: How can you indentify an index contour in a topographic map?
237: What is useful of a topographic map?
238: Would minerals be significantly different in different parts of the universe? For example, if one element was liquid here on earth and therefore did not completely qualify to be called a mineral but was solid on another planet, would it be considered a mineral or not? Why or why not? Would that affect how we define minerals? Are there any examples that you could give me?
239: Does the position of the rock material in the earth affect the type of mineral that forms, for example, the density of the material and therefore forming different minerals? Are there any examples that you could give me, or certain test results?
240: Where do the properties of minerals come from, apart from the elements that create it does its formation process or its surroundings affect the mineral's properties? What are some examples?
241: Do minerals play any significant role in the creation and evolution of life? For example, which minerals would more likely be favored than others to create life or to be used by life? What are their roles? What are some examples?

Thanks for answering my questions from before, I have some questions about minerals and I was wondering if you could help me out.

How can so many different minerals (about 3000) form from the same basic elements on earth (about 20)? Are the majority of minerals made from combinations of just a few elements? Which ones?


My teacher wants to know why there is yellow snow. Not because of animals either. Can you help me?Thank you.


I am a general science teacher at Righetti High School.

My students were wondering what the effect the hole in the ozone layer has on the environment. Does this have any effect on global warming?


245: My class & I have been talking about global warming and the effects it has on our climate over time. Recently, NPR, a National Public Radio station did a story on carbon sequestration in Norway. We are wondering what the long term effects/possible hazards will be of this. Could this solve our global warming problem? What would happen if all of a sudden all this carbon dioxide were to escape? Any information on how this process works and the effects on the environment would help, too. Thanks!
246: How was earth created and how did life begin on this planet?
247: We understand that the temperature of the thermoshere gets as high as 1700 degrees celsius, but if you were outside in the thermosphere it would feel cold... or you would freeze. Is this true? Why is this?
248: what is the distance from earth (sea level) to the edge of the earths atmosphere?
249: One day I read this article and it said that cow farts are the number 1 cause of global warming is that true? If so, why?
250: How does the sun move around the planet?
251: Why the same poles attract in magnets?
252: In order to combat global warming, would it be possible to electrolyze carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases to produce oxygen and stop the greenhouse effect?
253: Where did the energy for Pangaea come from?
254: If energy is destructive then how did the "big bang" make the earth?
255: How did water come to exist on Earth? (origin of water)
256: We are currently learning about rocks and the rock cycle. We are wondering how diamonds are formed. Does it have anything to do with coal? Also--what exactly is a kimberlite? How are diamonds formed in these? Is there a specific type of tectonic boundary these are formed along? What types of elements are included in order to get different colors of diamonds? Linnea, also in our class, wants to know if diamonds really are a girl's best friend but I tried to set her straight in front of the class. I also informed her that diamonds aren't really forever. :)
257: Why is it hotter at the equator than at the poles?
258: (Scientists have said that all the ice in the north pole will be gone by the end of this summer) Will the ice melting this summer cause global flooding, will if affect the ice covering greenland, and will it affect the North Atlantic Current?
259: Why is there so much oil in the middle east?
260: Hello, I am a student in AP Environmental science at Agoura High school. I have been reading through the text book over the summer. I thought that rainfall was supposed to be higher on the ocean side of a mountain range but am finding that rainfall is higher in Agoura Hills than in Malibu which is just over the mountains from us. Why do we have more rain than Malibu?
261: What occurs at plate boundaries that are associated with seafloor spreading?
262: I noticed that this summer we had lots of sun in Ventura and very little red tide and wondered if there is a connection? Has this been studied? Hello to all of you grad students.
263: What could we do to clean non-point pollution sources? Is there any way we could clean some of the more obvious (i.e. runoff from golf courses)?

We are currently doing a research project on how the deposition of gold in California helped shape the history of California.

We are wondering how much gold & silver is left to be mined in California. I'm assuming it's a lot but I just can't remember how much. Also, Where are most of the gold mines in use currently in California, like The Mojave Desert?

Where is gold currently being deposited around the world today? I've heard, as a geology teacher, that it's currently being deposited in the Long Valley Caldera but are there other areas in the world?

265: Does the ozone layer affect the gravitational field strength? If so, how?
266: Why do volcanoes erupt?
267: Is eating glacial ice bad for you? I was told that if you eat ice from a glacier it will make you very sick as it has micro organisms in it. Is this true? Thank You
268: How are rainbows created? How is rain created?
269: Let me begin by saying that I'm not talking about the Goldilocks zone of life habitability on the planet earth, but rather human habitability here. The question is how far, or how close would we have to be to the sun to make our planet uninhabitable for us humans. Would 5,000 miles do it? 10,000.? Would it help to know the temperature of spacecrafts circling the earth and their various positions in relationship to the sun at different times as they circle?
270: How do volcanoes leave rich fertile soil for flowers to grow? If the lava hardens and turns into rock, how do flowers grow out of rock?
271: What are the astronomical predictions for the year 2009? Regarding climate changes and the orbital position of planets.
272: Do you believe that the theory of the Mayan Indians about the world coming to an end in 2010 is scientifically true? Is their any proof in the land formation or earthquake measures of a natural disaster in our future?
273: How do "ionic" hair dryers affect the hair, short-term and long term?
274: Skeptics of global warming sometimes say, "Well, ice just melts" (Referring to the melting of the ice in the ocean and over green land). Considering that the great lakes were formed because of melting glaciers thousands of years ago in a time before cars and dirty factories a) Doesn't that mean in fact that ice just melts? b) What would have caused that ice to melt? c) Were there more volcano eruptions then than now?
275: Which are the types of plate boundaries where volcanic eruptions can occur?
276: Why doesn't Europe have a cold climate more similar to that of Alaska and northern Canada?
277: Since we have problems with too much trash, but also water resources in California, my question is: Is it better to use paper napkins or to use cloth napkins and wash them? Which one is less environmentally threatening?
278: How could you know when a Tsunami is coming, how could you detect it when it could be days away or maybe hours?
279: What is nuclear winter?
280: Will the earth ever run out of Helium and if so will there be a way to make more of it or make something that will be used instead of it?
281: Are polar bears being extinct and why?

I am a middle school teacher. Today I did a lesson in which students determined what their weight would be on the other planets in our solar system. We used a formula I found on the internet in another teacher's lesson Plan; the formula is:

Mass (weight on earth) x gravity (different for each planet) = weight on that planet.
The gravity chart I used looked like this:
Earth: 1
Our Moon 0.17
Venus .90
Mars 0.38
Mercury 0.38
Jupiter 2.36
Saturn 0.92
Uranus 0.89
Neptune 1.13
Pluto 0.07.

My students quickly filled in the chart and discovered how heavy they would be on Jupiter, how light they'd be on our Moon, and Pluto, and Mars and Mercury. Since they finished so quickly I asked them to find their Planetary Average Weight. We decided to throw out the Moon (not a planet) and Pluto (not a real planet anymore.) We found that every single student had an average planetary weight that was within one pound of their weight on Earth! I was in awe of this "co-incidence." I tried more weights, and the result was always the same: 8 planets, total weight on each, divided by eight ALWAYS equals Earth weight. So here are my questions:

What makes this true every time?
Is the fact that this is true the reason that Earth is just right for life?
Does our home planet have that magic gravity amount that is exactly the solar system average?
Do the planets acting together add up to the perfect gravity environment for Earth? Or does this formula have other implications?
I am very interested to know your response. Thank you very much.

283: We as humans have currently done a great bit of damage to the planet Earth. As an alternative way of disposing of garbage, would shooting large sums of trash into space be all that detrimental to the planet?
284: I have heard several contradictory statements regarding the impact of wildfires on the environment, especially in our local Southern California Chaparral biome and Mediterranean climate. Overall, do wildfires cause detriment to the environment or do they act as a natural fertilizer and allow for biodiversity?

Maybe you could answer this question that has bothered me since I was at school.
If I stood on some scales situated on the exact North or South pole, would I weigh the same or less than if I were standing on the equator? Bearing in mind that centrifugal force would be acting on me on the equator but that the mass of planet beneath my feet would be more, which I believe means that the gravity here would be stronger!

286: What do you think that the most detrimental cause of global warming is, and what do you think the best way to start to reverse it is?
287: I am studying the statistical distribution of the size of crystals formed in a cement clinker. I expected a normal Gaussian curve but it was more like a Y=1/X curve. Why is it so?
288: Hi! Thanks for the information. I was wondering, what would Antarctica really look like if all its ice melted? What would the world look like if all of the ice at Antarctica melted?
289: What are the benefits of using vegetable based gas as opposed to using fossil fuel?
290: I went to Lotusland in a School field trip and I saw a magnetic rock. It had several paper clips stuck to it. What makes the rock to be magnetic? Can you explain to me also how their atoms behave?
291: To Whom It May Concern:
Recently our AP Environmental Science class learned about innovative inventions such as plug- in hybrids and add-on devices to allow normal cars to run on standard cooking oil. Why doesn't the U.S. make efforts to convert cars completely to these technologies so that we will not have to rely on drilled oil?

292: Have there been any dinosaur fossils discovered in ice?
293: Is it possible that all the continents will move back together and form Pangaea again?
294: Would I weigh less at the bottom of a mind shaft than on the surface?
295: I wanted to know at what point or phase we are in during the Suns 11 year cycle of minimum and maximum solar activity? And if we are at a maximum or minimum does it have any affect on the Earths climate? And lastly if we are at a maximum of solar activity could this be affecting our global temperatures and thus increase global warming?
296: When the earliest organism grew, did ti go extint after new ones grew?
297: Why does graphite can conduct electricity and magnetite doesn't?
298: Which pole is colder, north or south?
299: Why do people say that the world is going to die (be destroyed)? (Note from Claudia: I think that Jacqueline is speaking from the Earth Sciences point of view).

I understand that after Ozone is broken down from the energy radiating into the atmosphere, O2 and atomic oxygen are produced. The O2 then eventually repairs with another atomic oxygen to form more Ozone. However, the presence of Chlorofluorocarbons apparently destroys the Ozone layer. When I looked at the reaction of the decomposition of Chlorofluorocarbons, I found that it was CF2Cl2 <--> CF2Cl + Cl, the atomic Chlorine pairs with an Ozone molecule, creating ClO3. This breaks down further into CLO and O2.

My question is, even if the chlorofluorocarbons are present in the atmosphere, it still provides O2 for more Ozone to be created. So, why is it a problem?

301: Hi.

What is the pressure at the center of a planet? For example, the pressure at 3 foot depth measured from the earth's surface under rock would be approximately 2.5 pounds per square inch.

It is commonly accepted that the gravity at the planet center is zero, equal mass pulling on either side cancels out in the middle. If an object at the center has no weight, then it cannot push on an adjacent object, so there should be no pressure exerted.

I believe the pressure distribution curve looks like half a cycle of a sine wave, the part above the horizontal line on the graph, with the depth being the horizontal axis and the left side being the surface, peaking somewhere around 1/2 or 2/3 the radius, dropping to zero at the center.

Most accounts claim high pressures and temperatures at the planet center, with the pressure causing the high temperature. I theorize the temperatures are high not because of pressure, but because the planets still have not cooled off after being created.

I am not looking for a numerical answer, just an explanation of how the pressure can be anything but zero in a zero gravity field. An assumption I have made is the planet is basically a pile of gravel held together by it's own gravity, not a prestressed structure similar in construction to a prestressed concrete beam, where there would be stress in the middle regardless of gravity. Most accounts claim planets form from the aggregation of material so assume no pre-stressing elements in the construction of a planet.


302: What are the pros and cons of using pesticides? Do the pros outweigh the cons? Are there safe and environmentally-friendly pesticides? Is it really better to only farm/purchase organic food?
303: Reports are constantly being released referring to the constant destruction to our oceans that mankind is afflicting. Is this damage, for the most part, reversible? And if so, what is the single greatest thing we, as a people, can accomplish to ensure the integrity of our oceans? Must legislation be enacted? Or do we all simply have to do our part?
304: In terms of ice melting due to global warming, what would you say to someone who says that ice just melts and that we aren't causing it to. After all, the Great Lakes were formed by melting ice, and in a time without humans to pollute.
305: What happened to the tides when the Earths continents were all Pangaea?
306: Why cant I put trash in space and what would happen if I did?
307: Hi! Thanks for your help with previous questions. I have a question for you guys involving a compass and the earth's magnetic field. I REALLY want to be SURE about this answer. Would a compass spin around in circles if it were directly on the magnetic North Pole? If not, Why? If so, would there be a way I could reproduce that spinning in some sort of experiment? Maybe like putting the compass (or some sort of charged needle or pole) in a circular magnet... what do you think? Thanks for your help!
308: Did people exist during the dinosaur times?
309: Can there be a warm/hot raindrop?

Some people say smog in Los Angeles and Mexico City is caused because C02 can't reach over the mountains surrounding the city. If this is true, then how is C02 able to reach our atmosphere and cause a green effect if it can't even reach over proportionally small mountains?

Also, what would be a skeptics argument against global warming?

311: Can a cloud in the sky freeze?
312: Are whirlpools caused by the centripetal force vectors, which point toward the center? In other words, are force vectors that point toward the centipetal force a direct result of whirlpools?
313: When I look out across the ocean from my house, some days there is so much brown pollution on the horizon, I can barely see Catalina Island. I know the pollution must be there all the time - let's face it, this is L.A., but is there something that happens in the atmosphere (maybe a weather pressure system) that makes pollution look worse on some days rather then others? Thanks for answering my question!
314: Hi! When I read or hear about asteroids, specifically about those that have impacted the earth at sometime in the past, I notice that the authors compare the force that the asteroid impacted the earth with to the strength of the atomic bomb. (Example: The asteroid that killed the dinosaurs impacted the earth with the force of several atomic bombs) Now I know to calculate the force of an object that would hit the earth (f=ma) (correct me if that is not how you calculate the force of an object that would impact earth - must I know the objects speed, etc?) but how do I compare that force to the explosion of an atomic bomb? It would be interesting to see, for example, How the impact of a 10-ton object made of a various material, and the destruction that such an object would produce,would compare to the destruction of an atomic bomb. I would assume that 1 atomic bomb would produce the kind of destruction seen in Japan during WW2? Thank you so much for your help, Happy New Year!
315: Thanks for your help on my previous questions, this is another related question that I was also wondering about: How can one determine the range of destruction (how big of an area will be destroyed, etc...) of an object that would impact the earth? In large scale situations, what would be the affects for countries hundreds or thousands of miles away? How could you know if a country far away from the impact would be safe - or not?
316: In what ways can chemistry be used to reduce negative environmental impact?
317: Does air pressure increase or decrease the higher you are in air?
318: What chemicals make throwing away technology (i.e. batteries) in the regular trash so harmful for the environment? What do these chemicals do to the environment?
319: In class we learned that the density of tectonic plates determines which converging plate will subduct. What would happen in the case of two oceanic plates that have equal density? Would the both try and subduct, resulting in a big v- formation / trench thing? Are there any locations on earth where two identically-dense oceanic plates meet? Thanks.
320: Why does the day have 24 hours?
321: What kind of materials can you use to put out fires besides water and a fire extinguisher?
322: What materials put out a fire besides water?
323: I want to make a science project using the model of tsunami. Can you help me to figure out something that involves it?
324: Hi! How is coal formed? At what pressures does coal formation occur? What gases are present during coal formation? At what temperatures does coal formation occur? What materials or substances are needed for coal to form? Thank you for your help!
325: I've heard that along the 101 between Ventura and Carp that you can see the shelves created by uplift. There are obvious shelves at Mussel Shoals but I can't tell if they are due to freeway construction [like at the Rincon]or not. Can you give me lat/long for the location of the shelves due to uplift please! Thanks!
326: When there have been major oil spills, like the Exxon Valdez and the spill in the Gulf, chemicals are often dispersed on the surface of the ocean to absorb the oil. How does this chemical reaction work? How much of the oil is really absorbed?
327: What causes the different forms of air pollution? How can we solve these problems? How is Chemistry involved?
328: I'd like to know, how to measure the volume or diameter of a droplet of water from a sprinkler. I'm fine if you give it as a formula or description.

Dear UCSB Scientist,
My class and I are learning about seasons and about weather. Today is sunny. We heard that tomorrow there is supposed to be rain. How can weather change so fast?
Thank you so much!


I am a mexican oceaographer that works in the Mexican caribbean coast. I would like to obtain a copy of the article:

Groundwater reorganization in the Floridan aquifer following Holocene sea-level rise-Nature Geoscience 3, 683 - 687 (2010).

Yours faithful,


I was wondering if anyone at UCSB could tell me what soil composition is like after a fire (I couldn't find a usable resource)?

332: What keeps earth from collapsing in on itself like at the end of a star's life? Is it not big enough or what?
333: We have learned how water evaporates or vaporizes, then later condenses and falls down as rain. We also learned that some gases can be dissolved in rainwater and cause acid rain. Then we did a lab in class and discovered that alcohol evaporates very quickly! Where does all that alcohol go? Can it condense and rain down on us?
334: Where is the wettest land mass on Earth?
335: I am wondering if there is a possibility of a limnic eruption in lake Michigan?
336: How do you Earth Scientists see fractals along the coasts?
337: How does the sea make the rain?
338: Why are the volcanoes important to the plants on earth?
339: How dose the sea make the rain? Is it the wind or the waves?
340: I've been looking all over the internet to find out why some tsunamis result in drawdown before the surge. I understand the drawdown is the trough of the wave, but how can a trough lead the crest of a wave generated by uplift, like the Sumatra and Japanese quakes? Does drawdown result from the 'backside' of the wave? I'm imagining something like this for the Japanese tsunami--the seafloor uplifted westward, lifting the surface water in the direction of Japan, and the 'fill-in' water created a trough that then was pushed eastward by the uplifted water returning to 'sea level'? Please help me figure this out--my students ask me and I don't know what to tell them... Thanks! RJ
341: How much Oxygen does the air have in it?
342: How much Oxygen does the air have in it at 20 feet above sea level?
343: Is the radioactive material being released into the environment in Japan worse than what is released from coal fired power plants continuously?
344: Is there an experiment that can prove why ocean water looks blue, some green and some light brown in color?
345: How long does it take for mountains to grow(in years/decades)?
346: Dear Scientists, We have learned about weather and the water cycle. If rain is clear and snow is white, why are rain/snow clouds dark and gray. They almost look black. Thank you, The Students in Room 5
347: Why is the Dead Sea so salty?

I'm still curious about the result of my project.

read- about

For your information, I've used XRD to determine the element of the 'rock'. If you remember, I'd sent you a micrograph pictures (using SEM) of the 'rock' last week.

I've attached some result of XRD. Hope you can give your opinion either it is fossil or not. I really appreciate your cooperation. Million thanks..:)

349: How does the Coriolis Effect affect the weather on Earth? Does the Coriolis Effect work in the same way above and below the equator?
350: How do Auroras(Artic Lights)form?
351: I am studying a polished cross-sectional piece of an igneous rock. How do I determine which phases/ compounds crystallize first (from the molten material) from the micro graphs taken?
352: Does smoke make the atmosphere thicker?
353: What causes a tornado to reach the ground?
354: Is a tornado more dangerous on the ground?
355: Is coral bleached by higher temperatures?
356: Do cow farts contribute to global warming?
357: How did the "Ring Of Fire" come to be? Or form?
358: Based on evolution,why did insects start of so large and become very small today?
359: How do scientists known what the center of the earth is?
360: How is magma formed?
361: How do you make magma?
362: How do scientists make crystals?
363: What percentage of Earth are rocks, compared to soil and water?
364: How was Continental Drift and Inter Continental distance measured before satellite technology available and how accurate was it
365: What occurs at plate boundaries that are associated with seafloor spreading?
366: Why is gold stronger than platium?
367: What metal is more precious than platium?
368: Are there more hurricanes in the northern hemisphere of the Earth, than in the South? If this is true, can you tell me why?
369: Do the planets grow in size?
370: Can you enplain what caused the last big earthquake in Japan?
371: I can see different layers of soil emerging from the Ocean at the beach when there is low tide. How were these layers formed?
372: Have you ever had experience with using grey water on plants?
373: Are there scientific reasons why one or the other water type would do better on the plants?
374: Do farms or plantations ever use grey water?
375: Could biomass fuel other objects such as cars, or other vehicles?
376: What is the molecular structure of biomass?
377: Would it be possible to use biomass as an all purpose fuel for everything if adapted correctly?
378: Can biomass be created in more effective and quicker methods?
379: How long has our society used biomass energy or if we use it much at all?
380: What is geotropism?
381: If a plant were to be grown upside down, could it anchor itself with it's roots into the soil?
382: Since roots grow to the pull of gravity, how could a product like the Topsy Turvy work?
383: Hi! I'm doing the science fair at my school and I need to do an interview with someone who is an expert at the field I'm testing. I'm going to ask a few questions and I was wondering if someone in the field of plant growth and studies could answer them. When they do answer them can they please put their name and major (if it's some sort of plant studies) And if you could send me the answers before tuesday that would be amazing!!!! Science fair is due Wednesday! Thanks!!! 1. What is tropism? Thanks!
384: If hot air rises, why is sea level warmer?
385: Why does seafloor spreading occur in some areas but not others?
386: Which rock type is spreading center volcanism associated with? What causes rocks to melt in regions of spreading center volcanism?
387: How does mantle plume and associated hot spots originated?
388: Why mantle plumes are narrow?
389: Which type of waves do we have when there is an earthquake?
390: How do basalt and ultramafic rocks from the oceanic lithosphere become part of mountain belts?
391: Why does plate tectonic can account for the existence of the mid-oceanic ridge and its associated rift valley and basaltic volcanism?
392: What was Wegener's evidence for continental drift?
393: What is plate in the concept of plate tectonic?
394: How has deep-sea drilling tested the concept of plate?
395: How are reverse faults different than thrust faults? In what way are they similar?
396: How many dirrerent types of mountain belts are there?
397: Are ridge offset along fracture zones easier to explain with mantle-deep convection causing plate motion or with shallow convection occurring as a result of plate motion?
398: What does a fold and thrust belt bell tell us about what occurred during an Orogeny?
399: Are ridge offset along fracture zones easier to explain with mantle-deep convection causing plate motion or with shallow convection occurring as a result of plate motion?
400: If a fragment from an asteroid falls to Earth and a static electric charge is built up as the fragment falls, does it generate a magnetic field? If so, why does it happen?
401: Which would make a better/sharper blade, obsidian or zirconium oxide?
402: How do volcanoes form? What happens after volcanoes erupt? Can you please give me some interesting information about volcanoes?
403: What is the most important fact about volcanoes?
404: When an earthquake happens, when does it stop?
405: Can we get as much info as possible on the Japan tsunami 2011? We are doing a project on it, some info would be nice. Thank you for your cooperation, we appreciate it.
406: How do earthquakes start?
407: Do you have information on tsunamis? If you do have something, can you please tell me about?
408: What is the weakest spot in the world for a Tsunami to occur, besides the Ring of Fire?

How bad is the green house effect and how will it affect us in the long run?

How much does the green house effect have to do with global warming?

410: What was the biggest earthquake that has hit California?
411: When will the ozone layer disappear?
412: What percentage of atmosphere pollution is actually caused by cars instead of natural gases?
413: Why do we have to know about what happened to the Earth millions of years ago?
414: How many asteroids,comets,meteors,meteorites,meteorids have hitting the earth?
415: Do you believe radiometric dating is an accurate way to date the earth? Why or why not? Could you also please explain further what radiometric dating is and the process to use it? Mahalo.
416: Can you explain why the planets are round?
417: I was wondering about the Mammoth Lakes.... there's some volcanoes there......what is going to happen in the future????
418: I'm in high school right now and I have gotten really interested in the field of Oceanography. I wanted to know what I can focus on right now in order to get into oceanography when I first go into college and also what might be my percentage of being able to work somewhere when I finish my college degree. It would be great to know. Thanks!
419: How do you know what planets and stars are made of if you can't actually take samples?
420: Why are waves bigger over rocks than just over the sand?
421: What concrete evidence do scientists actually have that we evolved from monkeys and that the "big bang" actually happened?
422: If you could walk on Io, would the ground be hot because of all the volcanic activity?
423: Why did volcanoes on other planets stop erupting?
424: If we melted Mars' ice cap, do you think the water would be useable? Could we create an atmosphere?
425: How did the salt get into the oceans at the beginning of their formation?
426: We've been studying the planets in my science class. I read this article in the Time magazine (March 1998), that there might be water on one of Jupiter's moons, Europa. I think that the title of the article is misleading "Aliens in a Slushy Sea". They say ice that they found may mean some liquid under the ice layer. My reading of the article tells me that they are trying to make us think that there may be water on this moon. I find that hard to believe! Couldn't the ice that they found be frozen Carbon dioxide and not water? Do you have any more info. on the subject?
427: I have heard that they have taken different pictures of the atmosphere from outside the world. Can you please direct me where I can find pictures that would show me different information about the atmosphere. I would like to study the atmosphere and take pictures from outside the earth.
428: Im wondering why are dinosaurs extinct? Did their food get poisoned or did they run out of food? What happened?
429: How and why do volcanoes erupt? We also wanted to know how tall is the biggest volcano? Why is every volcano shaped like a triangle? Why is the magma hot?
430: How big is the ozone hole? Is the hole getting bigger or smaller? Can the ozone layer/hole be repaired, by nature or otherwise? How long do CFCs take to reach the ozone layer and eat it up? How big will the ozone layer get by the year 2000?How could we stop the ozone hole from getting bigger? Will the ozone hole affect the earth's gravity? What will happen if the hole gets really big? Would we die?
431: How much longer will the world exist according to scientists?
432: What we already know is that there is water and snow on the moon. Our question is why does Earth have clouds and the moon doesn't?
433: Is there really weather on planets, and if there is, is it like on earth or is it colder or hotter?
434: I never heard of ozone near the ground.Does it affect in any way or protect us in others? Is there any way we can improve it? If the higher ozone gets destroyed, can the lower one protect us?
435: How do thay know there is water on the moon ? Why do they call it the moon? What year did the Astronauts go to the moon and what are their names?Who invented NASA?
436: What is the celestial event(s) that causes the calendar adjustment of a leap year?How many days with February 2000 have in it?
437: Why do volcanoes erupt? Why is it that whenever there is a earthquake a volcano would erupt? How can you prevent a volcanic eruption?
438: How are diamonds are made? We have found some information that says they are made by carbon under volcanic pressure,but we just don't understand it.
439: How do we extract Helium (symbol = He) from the Earth's atmosphere?
440: If our solar system had two suns, would it be summer year round and would the sun ever set (i.e. would we ever experience nighttime)?
441: I was wondering if you could tell me about the moon and about eclipses. Why is it harmful to your vision? Ive heard that eclipses of the sun hurt your eyes. My teacher said hes seen moon eclipses that looked red. Why would that happen?
442: A student had the question about where the word neap comes from? The dictionary did not make a clear origin for the word.
443: Why are clouds gray?
444: Approximately how many earthquakes over 5.0 in magnitude occur in Japan each year?
445: Are there crystals inside of volcanoes?
446: Where do earthquakes form the most?
447: What is the worst damage recorded from volcano? What is the name of that volcano and when did the damage occur?
448: Does Antarctica get volcanic eruptions?
449: Why is magma so hot?
450: How far inland can tsunamis travel?
451: Why are there 3 types of seismic waves?
452: Is there going to be a big earthquake in Santa Barbara in the next ten years? or is there a possibility for a volcano to form in Santa Barbara?
453: How long would it take for an island formed by a volcano to become habitable?
454: Why do we have earthquakes?
455: We have been discussing reptiles. Looking forward, one of my students inquired about the first mammal. Has the fossil record been able to pinpoint one mammal in particular as the ancestor for all mammals?
456: Why do volcanic clouds of ash cause lightening (like on Mt Pinatubo)?
457: Why do volcanoes have more than one vent?
458: What would you do if an earthquake happened in your neighborhood?
459: How hot are sun spots?
460: What if a big comet hit the Earth? What would happen to us and how are you trying to stop it?
461: What would cause the magnetic polar caps to switch places?
462: Is there any possible way that people here on Earth could live on other planets like Saturn, Jupiter, or the Sun?
463: What are comets made of?
464: What causes weather?
465: Is there any other planet with the same atmosphere as us?
466: Where does the sun come from?
467: Where did all the water on Earth come from? Why is the Earth mostly water while other planets are not?
468: How did people discover the planets?
469: Why are there plates? Why isn't the Earth's crust one piece?
470: If you are on the moon, does the Earth have phases similar to moon phases? Would they be the same or reversed?
471: If CH4 outgases from the ocean bottom in large amounts during an earthquake, can a boat sink in the result less dense water?
472: Do crystals form in other rocks other than molten rock?
473: How many years does it take to form a fossil and what forms the fossil?
474: What are all the things inside the earths core?
475: What causes storms in different countries?
476: I am not in school. I am in a nursing home and cannot get to the library so the net is my only way of learing. My question is why are some tides higher than others? Thank you if you can answer me.
477: What kind of proof do people have that the earth changes? How do we know that things occured in similar ways in the past as they do now? How do we know that that change is long and slow?
478: If there was water on Mars, would we be able to live on it?
479: Why isnt there any oxygen in the universe and the planets around us?
480: If I were to dig a hole to the very core of the Earth, then jump, would I float because the gravity is all converging on one spot?
481: We are studying the Coriolis Effect and the question asked was if you were hovering above Earth in a helicopter would Earth rotate below us and move while we in the helicopter stay in the original place?
482: If the Titanic was still floating, would a tornado be powerful enough to lift it?
483: How do scientists know how old a star is?
484: Pentremites species. What type of species is it? Is there a commonname for it, what age is it & what type of environment did it form in?
485: "How big of a tsunami would be needed to cover Lompoc underwater?"
486: How do scientist know about the different Earth layers if they can't go there?
487: What evidence is there for dinosaurs' mating calls, duels, colors, markings, and the environment they lived in? What type of research, other than fossil excavation, if any, has been done to gather evidence for the above? What percentage of the depictions are scientific with supporting evidence versus pure speculation?
488: How do fossil bones turn into stones?
489: Why is gold found only in certain areas? Is gold always found in a particular kind of rock?
490: I wanted to know if a human were to be totally comsumed by tar and the body was 50ft under ground if the body were to be dragged out after thousands of years would the body be compleatly preserved or would it be all rotten and decomposed due to the natural way of thing?
491: I have heard about a natural nuclear reactor that had formed long ago but was now extinct. Aparently there was a cavity in a rock that was under extreme pressure and heat that caused some radioactive element to explode continuously for thousands of years. I wanted to know whether or not the Radioactive elements that we use in our reactors exist in nature and how these conditions could have come together to create such a rare device in nature?
492: What makes the Earth's core so magnetic?
493: Are scientists measuring the stress under the Ocean plates closed to the California coast? How do they do that?
494: How do scientists know that the Earth's core is made out of Iron and not another magnetic metal?
495: This question is not for school. I wanted to now sense you can't look at solar eclipses directly. Can you use sun glasses, 3d glasses or a cell phone to look at them without hurting your eye?
496: I am trying to find out what I have found. Can you help me? I recently found another object even bigger than the picture attached. Thank you.
Click here to see what I found:
what I found 1 what I found 2
497: Is it possible for auroral activity to slightly activate a florescent light causing it to flicker on and off ?
498: Will the Earth be colder in a billion years?
499: Iceland characterizes for its eruptions and earthquakes. How do Icelanders take advantage of Iceland’s volcanic nature?
500: How are hurricanes named? I would like to know how Hurricane Isaac got its name.
501: Why Europe does not have any tropical climates?
502: Are any organisms' habitats being fragmented or destroyed in the arctic wetlands?
503: How waves can lead to theories about the internal structure of Earth?
504: How was the moon created?
505: How do scientists know what color dinosaurs were?
506: Why isn't Venus livable if it's just like Earth?
507: Which is the hottest desert in the world?
508: What does it mean to have four tides?
509: In Social Studies, we are studying landforms but our textbook doesn't tell us anything about volcanoes or canyons. Can you tell us more about these types of landforms?
510: Why was hurricane Katrina so devastating?
511: What is the bet way to get to the Hadal zone?
512: I am wondering what a migmatite is and how is it related to the Mt. Rushmore granites? How was the Black Hills Gold deposited? Could you explain this? We are researching different areas of gold deposits in our advanced geology class. Thanks!
513: How do mountains change with time?
514: How does erosion affect us?
515: How does magnetism affect Earth?
516: How does the sun affect surface ocean currents and deep ocean currents?
517: How does the moon control the tides? Can you put it into a way that is easy to understand?
518: How do we know that the earth has a solid core?
519: Is Europa colder or hotter than Earth?
520: Why is water the only element that is found in 3 states of matter?
521: How are scientists able to identify which layers of the Earth are solid or liquid using seismic waves?
522: If you dig a hole in the center of the Earth and you drop a stone in the hole, what will it happen?
523: If I dig a hole through the earth and drop a brick in it, what will it happen?
524: Will the solar system end soon?
525: What is the difference between tsunamis and hurricanes?
526: How did the earth layers form, and how did the dinosaurs become extinct?
527: How is gold dust formed?
528: How does the oceans current affect the climate of the east coast?
529: Why a mass of 1 kilogram will have a different weight on the moon?
530: How does weather affect the clothes we wear?
531: Say, I was lost in the wilderness. All I could see was moss. I was really cold. Would I be able to use that moss as some type of blanket?
532: How did scientists discovered that the Earth is layered?
533: How does the moon cause high tides?
534: Is air pressure really "caused" by the weight of air above a body, or is it due to the kinetic energy and of the air molecules at any particular point in the atmosphere?
535: Why does the earth have layers? What is the difference between oceanic crust and continental crust? Which is heavier?
536: Why is the Earth's -inner core a solid and the outer core a liquid?
537: How is the asthenosphere different from the lithosphere?
538: How did weathering and erosion form Marvel cave?
539: Why does the ocean get bigger gravitational pull of the moon? Why low and high tides occur throughout a day?
540: What are the effects of melting ice in the North/South Poles?
541: Why does the moon have phases?
542: Why are planets in the shape of a sphere?
543: Why is it that when you build a sand castle without water it falls and when you include water it stays up?
544: How were Earth's layers formed?
545: Why does the ocean have salt?
546: Why is there no oxygen in space?
547: Why is Jupiter's red spot red and what keeps it from dying out?
548: Did Mars ever have life on it and was there water once?
549: How do you know for sure that space never ends?
550: Why do we have to stay on Earth and never inside it?
551: Why doesn't it snow in Santa Barbara?
552: I know that carbon dioxide freezes at a temperature of -57 degrees and forms dry ice, but in Antartica the temperature is -60 degrees . So, does dry ice forms there? If yes, then how and why?
553: When was Pluto considered a dwarf planet?
554: Why does the earth have to spin?
555: How does the moon control the oceans tides?
556: What is your frame of reference for what to measure for elevation from on the moon? How does a compass perform in deep space? What does it point to? Best Regards. Also, you guys should watch adventure time. It is majestic.
557: How far in distanc is space form earth?
558: Does the moon out off heat?
559: How do rocks split to make a waterfall?
560: How do all the planets seem to be floating and why they don't fall in to space?
561: When someone stands in the eye of a hurricane does the person die?
562: Why does earth have an equator?
563: Why doesn't the water from earth fall into space?
564: Where do tornadoes come from?
565: How come our solar system does not go off to space?
566: If I dug a hole through the earth I would be digging down. What would happen after I passed the center. Would I be digging up? And how could I do it without burying myself somewhere between the center of the earth and the other side? (I understand that this is just a theoretical question)
567: Why are most planets and stars spherical?
568: How are planets made?
569: When was Earth made?
570: I would like to know if the layers of the earth have changed over time?
571: How do the clouds move?
572: How does the asteroid belt form?
573: Where did the planets get their names?
574: What is "peak tornado season" in the Southern states?
575: Why do planets have different layers?
576: How is Mercury different from the other inner planets?
577: How do I prove geothermal energy? Is there a way I can turn a light bulb on using geothermal energy?
578: What is an ecosystem and what is it made of?
579: Geology says high mountain peaks are formed in subduction zones where a continental plate riding on an oceanic crust meets a similar plate. This is also as a result of the seafloor spreading that has to be compensated for, due the fact that the Earth has a unit Mass and Area. My question here is: why has the mountain range (especially Everest) not extended it's peak indefinitely, since a new seafloor is created at the mid oceanic Ridge? Thank you
580: Is it possible to refill the holes of ozone? Can a new compound be discovered which could act as a protective covering for earth from harmful rays of the sun? If this is possible, please tell me the elements which are protective in function to UV rays . Can you send me related web sites where I could learn more?
581: How did minerals form in our earth?
582: Who was the first person alive before the cave men were born?
583: How did all the houses and streets looked before the dinosaurs came?
584: What can form slowly at a convergent boundaries?
585: Why do we have more gravity in our earth than in the moon?
586: Why moon takes 28 days to revolve and rotate around the earth?
587: Which is the highest percentage of salt (salinity) in sea water?
588: What evidence and experiments show the core of the Earth to be made of iron and nickel?
589: Why does lightening occur in rainy times?
590: What is meant by Morse Code?
591: What are the benefits and harms of solar radiation and solar rays?
592: Why does the earth have to spin?
593: Why is there more water than land on earth?
594: Why there is no winter in Davao?
595: 1) How do scientists calculate and work out the density of the earth? 2) How do scientists know the different dimensions of the earth?
596: Why does earth produce gravitational force?
597: How did salt get into the ocean?
598: How do satellite guided missiles, drones, and intercontinental ballistic missiles work? These are devices that are capable of autonomous flight. How is the technology of these devices related to that of the auto pilot on private and commercial aircrafts?
599: How are ocean tides formed under the influence of the moon and the sun, and the influence of the revolution of the earth?
600: Can humans live on Mars?
601: Are their any fossils that haven't been found yet?
602: How does weather and climate affect human activities?
603: How the earth and other planets are circling around the sun, and why they are not going away from it?
604: If the earth would not revolve the sun, but were only rotating its own axis. What will it happen?
605: Could we make a mode of transportation from one country to another through the interior of earth, by using the gravitational force as it would be faster and fuel efficient?
606: In sedimentary environment we have depositional, erosional, and equilibrium environments. Using the principle of sequence stratigraphy, how does the MWD/LWD tool delineate whether it is a beach, lacustrine, marine, or swampy environment, by using the gamma ray signature, spontaneous potential, Neutron density and resistivity signatures? Thank you very much.
607: Why did some ships and planes disappear in the Bermuda Triangle?
608: Is it true that a compass stops working in the Bermuda Triangle?
609: What is the Gulf Stream?
610: What causes small animals to grow, while big animals tend to shrink? (over long periods of time) My teacher was talking about how for example spiders used to be bigger? But how can that be? Yes I learned some things about evolution and how over long periods of time things tend to change, but why shrink? Why grow?
611: What is the most dangerous storm?
612: What kind of storms happen in winter?
613: What is a storm?
614: How dose the water get attracted to the moon?
615: What would it happen if all the water on Earth would get frozen and the only gas present on Earth would be hydrogen?
616: Who discovered lighting?
617: How is gold taken out of the ground?
618: Why and how do planets rotate and revolute?
619: What is the principle for measurement of Precipitation? How it is measured?
620: Why can one volcanic eruption produce more deadly gases than all the emissions of every car that has ever been used. And why is the average temperature of the earth getting colder?
621: Why is there no snow on the ground near the edges of large lakes?
622: What will happen to the landmasses after approximately 200 million years ?
623: How do scientists explore the crust of the Earth?
624: What are the most influential factors of water tides?
625: How do we know the distance that a star is from earth? How is it calculated? Also how do we know how hot stars are? And how do we know that there is plasma on them?
626: I cannot find the kind of degrees that an oceanographer needs. Can you help me?
627: Could tectonic plate movement create another super-continent?
628: Which gases are there on Mars?
629: Where does wind come from?
630: How slow does the earth spin?
631: I have searched on multiple websites for the answers to these questions, but I can't find them. What do scientists say the density of the earth is? How do scientists actually measure the earth's density?
632: How does a hurricane form?
633: I want to know what electrode would I use a mile in the ocean for creating an arc weld? This answer will create my carrier with I graduate.
634: Why do we use inner mute to mute a seismic trace, and why do we mute using incidence angle?
635: Is the core of the Earth solid?
636: Why is there usually at least one hurricane a year?
637: If the bedrock of the oceanic plates is basalt and the bedrock of the continental plates is granite...how is the other bedrock formed. Ex. Connecticut bedrock map has lots of different rock types not only granite. Thank you, my students are bound to ask this. I know I'm not from your state but I love this concept.
638: How does the earth movement around the sun affect the stars patterns we seen in the sky?
639: I am from Texas and I'm doing a project over the pros of desalination for school. I was wondering if you could give me any insight to the advantages of desalination and is desalination going to be used a lot more in the USA. What are the cost and resources? In your opinion, will desalination be are main source of fresh water in 20-30 years. Any information is greatly appreciate.
640: Is it true that the earth's core is made of metals iron and nickel, and that the earth's crust is made of mostly the elements of silicon and oxygen? Why?
641: What makes skies blue?
642: What makes wind?
643: If one cone with a diameter of 10 cm and one of 20cm both fall from 2 meters, why will the 20cm one fall slower (focusing on air resistance and surface area)?
644: How did the earth layers form?
645: In which ways salt goes into the oceans?
646: Are humans responsible for global warming? How much co2 does a volcano emit?
647: How much salt water is in the ocean, and how much fresh water is there?
648: Which is the hottest desert in the world?
649: Is the amount of rainfall in an area correlated to the amount of litter in local creeks and streams? How? Is there a small or large correlation?
650: How many tornadoes do we have every year?
651: Hi,
I was reading an article on NASA website, talking about the earth speed slowing down; hence days are getting shorter
here is the article

My understanding /conclusion is that eventually and according to laws of Physics, Earth at some point will stop spinning for a moment in time, and then start spinning clockwise instead of counter-clockwise. Is this possible? Thank you.

652: What minerals are in the myrtle beach sand?
653: Does the cycles of the moon affect water evaporation?
654: How far away is Earth from Saturn?
655: Why is the sand on India's beaches yellow, orange, and pink? Is it because the sand was in the sun for too long? Or was it just like that? Thanks!!!
656: Do you know how climate change accurs and why it happens? Do you know what wwf-international is doing about it?
657: How can we locate earthquakes?
658: If a submarine was traveling underwater when a tsunami hit, would that submarine be effected in any way? If so, what can happen?
659: How long would it take to reach the solar system from earth?
660: Why are there moon phases?
661: What evidence supported Wegener's theory of continental drift?
662: How is it possible that the continents will come back together even the tectonic plates are together? I have heard of divergent boundaries in the ocean and on land, and subduction, and even how mountains are formed, so how does it work?
663: How old is Earth?
664: Aurora Borealis are only formed in Northern/Southern latitudes, why is that? And what will happen if we, places near the equator, which is a bit lower, see those?
665: What are the long and short term effects of a volcano blast?
666: Why is inner core in Earth solid though it has a higher temperature than the liquid outer core?
667: How do geologist estimate the thickness and temperature of the layers of the earth?
668: I was told that slaves found their way North by looking for moss on the North side of trees. If this is true, and how does it work with the moss and the North of the trees?
669: Why is the inner core of the Earth so hot?
670: If the plates were to collide into a super continent, would the mountains that are already at the plate boundaries grow?
671: Can you tell time without a clock or watch?
672: The ice on the North and South Pole appears to be melting, and this appears to be from burning fossil fuels. nComparing continuing to burn fossil fuels with suddenly switching to solar roofs and bicycling and walking and not flying in airplanes, what would be the difference in future world temperatures, and how would this affect world food supplies?
673: How far is the very first satellite launched into space?
674: If the moon draws the ocean towards it and causes high tides, why is there a low tide when I can see the moon overhead?
675: How does climate change affect mountains over time?
676: How is magnetization measured? Is the Earth slowly losing its magnetization due to its composition, the heat of the sun, or both?
677: How did the moon form and what is our evidence of it?
678: Why is the atmosphere of Venus more friendly to plants than humans?
679: What would happen if there were no trees in the world?
680: How were sound waves used to figure out the Geology of the Earth?
681: Was IRIDIUM ever found as a residue in ALABASTER or AGATE or CALCIUM from VOLTERRA, ITALY?
682: How are sound waves used to figure out the geology of the earth?
683: What is the difference between a "Biome" and an ecosystem and why are there different numbers of Biomes?
684: If someone were to continuously float in one spot, would the earth move under them or would they move with the earth?
685: What is the approximated distance that the earth is approaching the sun each day, week, month, year or other method of measurement used scientifically?
686: Why is global warming so confusing?
687: How well can scientists predict earthquakes? What are some of the different ways to make these predictions?
688: In the future, could people go in a machine into a volcano and go all of the way down to the mantle?
689: Who named the layers of the earth?
690: How old is the oldest water on earth?
691: Why is air pressure in outer space less than on earth?
692: What keeps the earth in orbit?
693: In the future, how do you think we will "protect" ourselves from global warming?
694: Why do scientists believe that the earth developed in layers?
695: Which layer of the Earth is the most dense?
696: How will the next Pangaea look like?
697: Why do we need nuclear energy?
698: What are planets made of?
699: If we know of sun based systems throughout space, is it possible to have a system based on massive planets or other bodies (excluding black holes,) or would the mass be too great that it collapses in on itself?
700: If the rest of the universe had earth's gravity, would we be floating? And if so, how high would we float?
701: How does the Earth heat up?
702: How does a compass work?
703: How do fault-block mountains form?
704: Why does the far side of the moon never face Earth?
705: What is the difference between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere?
706: Where have humans explored in space, and what are the details to what they have found? Thank you very much!
707: Hi! My AP Environmental Science class is in the midst of learning about renewable & nonrenewable resources. We are also talking about oil drilling in Santa Barbara County.We are wondering what the main difference is between fracking and cyclic steaming. What are the pros and cons involved with each and what types of drilling is best for our environment.We look forward to hearing from you. We are hoping to get some different perspectives on this--like from geologists, biologists, chemists & environmentalists. Thanks! Laura :)
708: Where does the water in our oceans come from?
709: Outside, my mother and I were watching the blood moon of April 15, 2014. The moon is (looks) like it is behind a tree. When it came from behind the clouds, it looked like it lifted. How is this? Is it true? How often is it? Why?
710: What is the difference between a swamp, marsh, bog, and fen?
711: What causes change in geological trenches?
712: Is mount Everest experiencing uplift and erosion or just erosion?
713: If a comet passes too close to Earth, what might happen?
714: In the late 1960 early 1970's in the United States I was taught that there were 6 continents, combining Asia and Europe to make Euroasia. My students think that could not have been in the US curriculum. My question, did the US ever teach the 6 continent model were we included Europe and Asia as one?
715: Why does the area of the Bermuda triangle have more storms? Is this related to magnetic anomalies?
716: Dear UCSB, In my science class we we're discussing a topic of hurricanes and I asked a question about Hurricane Sandy and my teacher didn't know the answer. So here my question: How much water does an average hurricane pick up? Thanks
717: Why some planets have rings and others do not?
718: What happens to air density in the atmosphere when air is cool? Please explain to me.
719: My friend refuses to believe that the earth rotates around the sun because all he believes in is religion , he refuses to believe any logic. What is the easiest way to prove to him that the earth rotates around the sun and not the other way around?
720: How do earthquakes have anything to do with why tsunamis happen?
721: How does the aftermath of wars affect the environment?
722: What is the coldest desert in the world?
723: What types of volcanoes are found most often on plate boundaries?
724: How does the Sun heat the Earth?
725: Why is the equator hot?
726: What are some causes that are making the ozone layer disappear?
Thank you

727: Do volcanoes pattern coincide with other geologic events?
728: How does the Sun have a gravitational force? Doesn't gravity depend on an atmosphere?
729: Hi Scienceline, My friend and I need a bit of information on Salinity in the Murray Darling Basin. How does salinity get into the Murray Darling Basin? Has the salinity rates gone higher or lower? How does the Murray River flow into the ocean? Is the poor irrigation getting worse?
730: How do clouds contain water? And how do clouds absorb water?
731: What is the life of a rare earth magnet under normal conditions (heat, atmospheric temperature assumed to be constant at say 25 degrees)? What will be the life of the same magnet when kept in repelling state with another identical magnet at a distance of less then 1mm, will they lose their strength fast enough, say within a month (assuming the size of the magnet is about 50mm X 25mm X 2.5mm)?
732: When drilling stopped in 1994, the hole was over 7 miles deep (12,262 meters),(572°F), that's pretty HOT! My question is that if that's the deepest humankind has gone, 7 miles deep & Earth has continental crust of 35-40km which is 21-24 miles thick (33,796 meters). How do we know Earth's insides, like how were told in the books & by the professors that there is a mantle & a core beneath Earth's crust when we haven't gone that deep? It is easy to go deep into space because it's empty, but going deep into Earth, theirs a lot of pressure.
733: Can you tell me why the atmosphere is important?
734: When was first dinosaur fossil discovered?
735: What force makes earth stay on its orbit?
736: What is the percentage of the earth's salt water?
737: I put 8 oz. of water in a cup and added enough ice to make it 12 oz. When the ice melted it was still 12 oz. So if the polar ices melted, would it not cause flooding because it is all the same volume?
738: Why is Mars a red planet?
739: How earthquakes' waves provide information about the interior of the earth?
740: Why is it colder at a higher altitude when technically it is closer to the sun?
741: How fast can a rocket go?
742: Why the sun does not fall on the earth?
743: What is the size of the Sun?
744: Is it possible that a fossil could make its way from South America to Australia, and only be found in those countries?
745: Why is weather important in people's lives?
746: Can you explain to me why is a ball on a string like a planet in its orbit?
747: Dear Scientists,
We all know that skin types were best suited for people in their own natural habitat and countries, what would be the Fitzpatrick skin type best for Toulouse, France and Aix en Provence, France. Is it skin type II or Skin type III or which Fitzpatrick type? Thank you

748: Is Earth's core as hot as the surface of the sun?
749: What would happen if a comet hits Earth?
750: How tall was Mt. Everest before wind erosion and water erosion happened?
751: Why does tides occur on seas and oceans but not on ponds and lakes?
752: Does the ocean have land on all sides?
753: Do earthquakes cause floods?
754: How does heat come in the atmosphere?
755: How did salt get into the ocean?
756: What makes a planet different from a star?
757: How can there be gravitational pull in space but no gravity?
758: There is an article on your site about the gravitational pull of the planets upon each other. My question is what happens when the earth passes through the gravitational field between the sun and another big planet such as Jupiter or Saturn. So there would be some gravity between the earth and Jupiter, but there would also be gravity between the sun and Jupiter and the earth would be passing through this field. Can this be measured? What happens? Casey the Curious.
759: What will happen if people want to visit Earth's crust, will they die because it is so hot or is it just really dangerous? What will also happen if you die right in the middle of the crust?
760: What evidence shows that there has been a continental drift?
761: How do rocks form?
762: I have a dream to become a scientist, I want to change the world and create antibiotics. I feel like I was made to do something on this earth. My questions:
Next year I am taking biology or should, I take Earth?
If we can make our DNA strand from keep dying, can we humans keep living at the age it stops replacing?


We find a lot of fossils today and I have heard it is because there were different events that caused animals and dinosaurs to die. Why didn't the fallen bodies of the dead animals just rot? Why did they turn into fossils if they just fell down dead? If all of those dead animals that are fossilized were buried rapidly with water, etc., (which is needed for the fossilization process) what caused that to happen with all of the thousands upon thousands of fossilized creatures? Was it thousands of small disasters with water, etc? I'm just confused on that subject because we find so many different fossils in so many layers.

Why were bones of an iguanadon, mastadon, hadrosaurus, monkey, bison, racoon, Indian jawbone and teeth, all found together, and in the same layer in the Ashly Beds in South Carolina if they all were said to have lived at different time?

764: Why do we need salt in the ocean?
765: How does the sun help the plants grow? How does the sun help humans? How does the sun help the solar energy?
766: How does the level of light affect the rate of photosynthesis?
767: What is the main causer for the cyclones occurring over US?
768: How does the sun warm the earth ?
769: What is the border between the outer core and inner core and how many kilometers is it beneath the crust?
770: what happens during lightning?
771: Where does lightning come from?
772: How do scientists determine the age of rock layers and fossils?
773: In what form is most of Earth's fresh water found?
774: I have children in Grades P-2. One of my young students asked me if the earth is round because of gravity, how come the other planets are round that have no gravity - I tried to explain the mass and gases idea to them and they looked at me as if I was from another planet. How do I explain the reasons planets are round in simple terms they will understand. Please keep in mind these are 4-6 years old children.
775: How was our Earth made?
776: How the earth spins on its axis and keeps a steady orbit around the sun?
777: What planets have Oxygen in their atmospheres other than Earth?
778: Is it possible to take electricity from lightning?
779: What is watershed?
780: How long does it take for a rocket to get into space?
781: Why does the ocean seem to rise at night time?
782: Is our sun really a star?
783: Are there really Aliens from outer space?
784: Why does the moon turn red at times? And why is the sky blue? Can the sky turn into another color, and if so what color?
785: Why does the inner core is solid state though the temperature is very high?
786: What are the predictions of earth's climate in the future?
787: What would happen to the moon if the earth is gone? Will the moon find another planet to circle around? If yes, which would be that planet? Would the moon go on in the same circle without a planet? Will the moon be gone before us or will be death with us? What will happen?
788: How were the bones preserved from the La Brea tar pits?
789: How does the moon control the tides?
790: What angle from a solar panel receives the most power from the sun? My groups hypotheses is a 60* angle but so far from now a 90* angle is receiving more power, WHY?`
791: If a tree has no leaves, how will the tree get sunlight?
792: What is the earth's lithosphere made of?
793: How would the air move over the earth's surface if the earth did not spin on its axis?
794: How Silicon came about on Earth?
795: What happens if a hole is dug through the diameter of the earth and a stone is dropped on it?
796: Why does the Earth rotate on an axis?
797: How dose weather affect our daily lives?
798: I am in Big History at Grayslake North high school in Illinois. I am doing a project on how Silicon came about on Earth. I came upon your answer on to why that is. I want to use your answer in my project but I need to cite my work so I don't plagiarizer. When I used easybib they were not able to give me a publisher of a electronically published date. I was just wondering on if you can give me a name and a date so i will be able to use it in my project. If not that is fine, I can find a different article. Thank you for your time. Have a nice day!
799: How are emeralds formed?
800: Does the temperature of the water affect submarine activity?
801: How does extreme weather effect climate change?
802: Why are all of the Earth's layers circular?
803: Where did the tyrannosaurus live? What did they eat? How did they get their food?
804: What would happen if earth lost its magnetic field and could it be caused by humans?
805: How do astronomers predict eclipses?
806: Do all the planets take the same time to revolve around the sun?
807: How much land would be covered if the ice caps of the South Pole melted? I did not include the North Pole because I know it would not effect anything!THANKS!
808: What is the temperature in the North and South Poles?
809: Is there air on any other galaxy?
810: Tides are formed by the gravitational pull of moon. How does the water get attracted by the moon even though the gravitational pull of earth is greater than that of the moon?
811: Do all planets rotate from left to right?
812: How does the ice on the north and south poles trigger the movement of ocean currents?
813: What is the percentage of saltwater in the Atlantic Ocean?
814: Scientists claim to be true that GRAVITY IS THE WEAKEST OF ALL THE 4 FUNDAMENTAL FORCES OF NATURE! Now here's my question:
Being the weakest of all the 4 fundamental forces of nature, why is it that the gravity of black holes can bend even space, time and light? If it is true that gravity is the weakest force, then the black holes are violating the laws of classical mechanics! Is it correct to say that gravity is the weakest force?

815: How many times has the earth experienced complete ice cap melt? Is there a pattern?
816: How the heat of sun come in earth when there is no medium?
817: Where does most hurricanes occur in the United States?
818: Why does not all rising air form clouds?
819: How much percentage of oxygen does a fish need?
820: How does a moon rock look like?
821: Why is the earth round and not flat? How are volcanoes formed?
822: Why does soil heats up faster than sand?
823: Do Earth layers ever die?
824: How does magma go up and explode into the air out of a volcano?
825: Does the percentage of oxygen in air decrease when you go below sea-level?
826: What would happen if there were no deserts?
827: What is one weather condition that can limit the growth of a population?
828: What would happen if the sun and moon collided?
829: What is sand made of?
830: When did rocks break down from the mountains? I know rocks on the ground were from the mountain, but I want to know when did that happen?
831: How deep is the ocean, and how long can the average human stay under water? Which animal can hold their breath under water for the longest time?
832: Is there some other planet with an atmosphere that we can breathe?
833: If you are trying to find the bottom of the sea the water is black, Why is that? How far is the bottom of the sea? Well bye and thanks for letting me use this program.
834: Is it possible that there could be pyramids hidden under the sand or water?
835: How did off shore oil-drilling get started in Santa Barbara? How is off shore oil-drilling helping the people living in Santa Barbara? Does the oil-drilling off shore go to the people living in Santa Barbara for gasoline or do they send oil over to the factories for human industries? How can my partner, Oscar, and I help with the scientists or people on the aspect of oil-drilling?
836: How are tornadoes being affected by climate change?
837: I often hear this phrase, when discussing the California drought, "We are just letting the water go down into the ocean!" How does the water that goes "into the ocean" replenish our environments own water supply? What do we risk by damning the water?
838: How and where minerals form?
839: What happens when two oceanic plates converge?
840: Why can't we feel the Earth move?
841: Why don't asteroids get pulled into Earth's gravitational pole?
842: How long has gravity been on earth?
843: Why don't asteroids get pulled into Earth's gravity?
844: What made Earth's atmosphere? Can it make more atmospheres?
845: Where would humans live if Earth didn't exist; and who named earth "Earth"?
846: If the core of the Earth is super hot and the mantle is liquid magma, why is the crust so much cooler?
847: Why is it hotter in the equator than the poles? 😜😍 thanks hope you answer
848: What would the world be like without the Earth's layers?
849: If you traveled through the center of the earth, you might feel like you are falling downwards, but when you reach the surface on the other side, would you still feel like falling?
850: How did fossils provide evidence for continental drift?
851: Do clouds move?
852: How the orbit of earth around the sun is elliptical and not circular? Thank you very much.
853: Does the earth create more dirt? Why do all past civilizations have to be "dug up"?
854: Does anything else other than the moon control the tides? Does a certain life force live that controls the tides but makes it seem like the moon? Can another life force control the tides?
855: What creates Earth's magnetic field?
856: In books it says if the earths temperature rises 3 1/2 degrees the pole ice caps would melt but how is that possible if the temperature changes more than 3 degrees all the time?
857: What evidence is there for continental movement?
858: I've been researching, and Venus seems AWFUL. Is there anything good About Venus?
859: If you wanted to enjoy longer periods of daylight in the summertime would you head closer to the equator or farther from it? Why?
860: Hi, I'm helping my young neighbor to determine what his "small fist" item is. It looks like a dark rock with a crusting on it - very hard, can't be broken open with a sledge hammer. Machine shop grinding of one edge took an extremely long time, again, very hard. very dense and heavy, very heavy, perhaps heavier than lead. Please give us some advice. What can this material be?
861: As a scene shown in interstellar movie, there are two different time dilation in two different planet having different gravity. Is that true? And if it is true, is its due to gravity or location and speed or orbiting of that planet? Thanks.
862: How do scientists use earthquakes to determine what the earth's interior is made of?
863: What causes weather changes? Is the world a real sphere, and if so how did it get that shape?
864: What would happen if you went into space and shot a bullet toward Earth?
865: As a physics teacher I've always been puzzled by the movement of weather systems from west to east. Seems to me the rotation of the Earth and the low frictional drag on the atmosphere would result in a east to west movement?
866: What is the hottest temperature ever recorded in a desert?
867: Can rocks cause a magnet feeling like you might observe when putting two magnets together?
868: How would the salinity of salt in the oceans be affected if the polar ice caps melted?
869: Why there are oceans on Earth, but no other planets?
870: 1.How do scientists know how thick the inner core is? 2.How do scientists know what the inner core is made out of? 3. How do scientists know how hot it gets on the inside of Earth?
871: How do people determine how old fossils are?
872: What are facts against Pangaea?
873: How earth formed ?
874: In which layer of the Earth do we live on?
875: How is opal formed?
876: Why and how does the atmosphere help the earth?
877: I am doing a school project for Science. It's a mineral report and my mineral is calcite. I've been looking on the Internet and I can't find how calcite was formed. My teacher said if I can't find something, I should ask UCSB. My report is due in Tuesday morning so if you can respond tomorrow I can have it done on time. Thanks.
878: What is a measure of energy?
879: Why don't comets hit Earth?
880: Why do scientists believe the earth's outer core to be molten, or liquid metal?
881: Why the ocean is clear in the tropical latitudes and more turbid, cloudy, murky off the California coast?
882: What is Obsidian?
883: Why is water clear in a bottle and on Google I asked what is the color of water and it said blue. My question is why is water clear in a cup?
884: How old is Mount Everest?
885: What is the largest magnet in the world?
886: How can a plane take off at the equator and fly to the North Pole? When we know the equator is moving faster than the north pole. I know part of the reason is conservation of momentum, we keep the momentum of the earth when we take off in a plane, which is why a plane traveling say 300 miles per hour can fly and get some where, even though the earth is revolving at about 1000 miles per hour at the Equator. So, relative to the earth we are only traveling 300 miles per hour. That is also the reason why when I jump in the air the earth has not moved all of a sudden a 1000 miles in the direction it is spinning.
887: Where is the sun located in the Solar System?
888: What makes water blue?
889: Are hurricanes named from the letters in the alphabet?
890: How long have trees been on Earth?
891: My question is what similarities do you think there are in how water and air move around Earth?
892: If a solid has a 180g on the moon? Would it have the same weight on Earth as on the moon?
893: What would happen to the thermohaline circulation if the Earth rotated in the opposite direction? Which would be climate changes on our planet?
894: What accounts for the difference in density between the oceanic and continental crust?
895: Which ocean moderates the temperatures of eastern Canada?
896: How are the lithosphere and the asthenosphere similar?
897: How does fossils influence continental drift?
898: What would happen to the ocean without heat from the sun?
899: One of my students recently heard on NPR about how transpiration of trees in the Amazon Rain Forest directly affects the weather and climate in region. She is wondering how this occurs. Could you shed some light on this and how the climate will change as a result of deforestation in that area? Thank you!
900: What are mineral properties?
901: Global warming is causing the melting of glaciers. Consequences of this is that sea level is increasing but it is said that rainfall is decreasing in spite of increasing due to high evaporation rate made by increasing in the temperature of sunlight reaching Earth that causes evaporation. Why is it so?
902: In which type of rock are fossils most likely found?
903: How does precipitation affect humans?
904: Hello I am a junior in high school and the question of what I want to major in ,in college comes up on a basis. I find it really frustrating because I really want to work in the fields of Science yet I really want to work in the fields of History. I really enjoy Geology. I also really love weather and working with animals, I would really love to know more about Meteorology or Zoology. Please help me and suggest some majors I could possibly be in. I'm sorry if this is really confusing, I am just as confused.
905: What makes the moon uninhabitable?
906: How will the melting of the glaciers on Greenland and Antarctica affect global circulation?
907: Can petrified fossils form when the minerals in water make a copy of the organism?
908: Does the magnetic field affect gravity?
909: Why do we call earth "Earth" when from a satellites view its mostly water?
910: What temperature is the earth's crust?
911: If the statement "Heat Rises" is true...then, why is the north colder than the south?
912: If the moon has so little gravity how does it have such a force on our tides?
913: Do ocean wind/currents affect temperature?
914: Where did the moon come from?
915: What is a mineral? What are minerals made up of?
916: Why does craters disappear on gaseous planets?
917: If a tree falls in a forest does it make sound?
918: What is a ferro-fluid?
919: Why do waves change speed as they travel through earths layers?
920: Why does the moon have the most craters?
921: How do scientists know all about the earth?
922: If objects are closer to each other, how does it effect the force of attraction/repulsion?
923: I'm a teacher and I've discussed this question with my department and we haven't come to a consensus. Is it possible for a sedimentary rock to become an igneous without becoming metamorphic first? Since melting is not instantaneous, would it technically become metamorphic before igneous, even if melting happens rapidly?
924: Why is it so hard for scientists to prove that Earth has layers?
925: I'm doing a project on supercells for science class and some information I get have phrases I don't understand. For example, what is a flank line? Some websites state it's really an important part of understanding what makes supercell storms unique.
926: What is a volcanic lighting and how does it happen?
927: How does a fire rainbow sit in the sky all bunched up unlike a normal rainbow?
928: How are solar flares related to the magnetic plea on Earth? How do they work?
929: I am doing a project on hurricanes and I need to know how tall a hurricane can be and what the biggest hurricane was?
930: Are there any evidence against continental drift?
931: Do heavier objects fall in less time?
932: How does the study of Geology help scientists understand the function of the earth's composition?
933: Why does it happen an eclipse between the moon and the sun?
934: What is gravitational pull on Earth?
935: Which is more dangerous, a deep earthquake or a shallow earthquake?
936: Is the Bermuda Triangle a portal?
937: Did Rodinia or Pannotia ever exist?
938: Has the Mars Rover find life on Mars?
939: Do you weigh one sixth of what you weigh on earth when you are on the moon?
940: Is Pluto made of gas or a solid?
941: Has a dinosaur ever been found that was split between two continents? As in, part of the body found on one continent and the rest on another continent?
942: What filled in the impact craters on the moon and mercury?
943: How much deep from earth surface has emerald been found in the world?
944: What is weather?
945: Can you give me an example of a lava dome volcano?
946: Why dinosaurs become extinct?
947: Can moss determine direction when you are lost?
948: How long does it take to get to Titan from Earth in a rocket that's going 2,500 miles per hour?
949: What effect does the moon on its axis have on marine life?
950: Does the sun change temperature throughout the day? If this happens, what is the rate of change per hour/day?
951: What type of damage can tornadoes do?
952: When will the next rocket go to space?
953: How does gravity affect plants and NON-Living things?
954: On a weather map , how can you tell what direction a front is moving?

1. How do tsunamis happen?
2. How long do tsunamis last?
3. What is the difference between a tsunami and a hurricane?
4. What are the similarities of a hurricane and a tsunami?
5. Where do tsunamis happen most in the world?
6. Which is most destructive, a tsunami or a hurricane?

956: I seem to recall reading somewhere that crystal clear sea water was not actually a good indicator of a healthy environment from a wildlife perspective. My understanding is that crystal clear water is that way because it contains no sediment/nutrients (which make the water cloudy) and therefore, nothing for microbial life to consume. This in turn feeds up the food chain meaning that, while clear water appears ideal from a human perspective, the reverse is actually true and that it is bad from an ecological point of view?
Can you confirm this?

957: What does it happen after the magma is formed?
958: Can you explain me the reason for the strong earthquake in Italy a few days ago? Why this earthquake did destroy so much?
959: How much time does it take for life to first appear on a fresh lava flow, if the lava flow is near the equator? Or if you see grass and or ferns starting to grow on a lava flow; what can you say about the age of the lava flow?
960: I wonder why we have thunders?
961: What is the eye of the storm?
962: When will the 6.5 earthquake hit Santa Barbara?
963: How was the earth created?
964: How do tornadoes form?
965: Does the size of the moon effect how big the ocean waves are?
966: Why is the sea really clear in some places and not in others?
967: Does the change in weather affect the magnitude in an earthquake?
968: How do stars ignite?
969: How do droughts happen?
970: Why do clouds appear to have a fluffy kind of look?
971: I wonder why the water is warmer in certain parts of the world.
972: Why does the gravity lessen in space? Is it because we are going away from the earth? Then why don't we just float away on the earth? Is it because of the atmosphere protecting us? If so, What if the Atmosphere didn't exist?
973: Does the moon really affect our mood?
974: I have always wondered that when the world spins why people do not feel it spinning.
975: What will happen to the Earth in about a million years?
976: Why does the moon change shapes?
977: Why does gravity make you fall?
978: How did Ocean life form, and why did they evolve?
979: How does the moon affect the tide?
980: Why does Earth have a core? Why does it orbit?
981: Why do plants need water to survive?
982: Why is the ocean so salty?
983: How was everything on Earth created form two asteroids "hitting" each other?
984: How do earthquakes form?
985: Can you tell me how water is bonded together and the unique properties that result from those bonds?
986: If you brought a moon rock home to earth, and took it out of it's vacuum container, would it explode or implode?
987: Will the prolonged drought in California affect the propagation of different waves during an earthquake? Would the significant drop in soil moisture make the strata more or less rigid thereby affecting the velocity of the different waves associated with the quake? This question was asked by a colleague of mine while researching the Earth Science standards for Next Generation Science Standard, so it's more advanced than a normal question from a high school student!
988: What keeps earth from falling into the sun?
989: What factors keep a planet in orbit around the sun?
990: How do scientists measure precipitation?
991: How does the sun produce wind and surface ocean currents on earth?
992: Does the moon rotates South to North or North to South?
993: How did plants first came to Earth? How were plants made? Can other plants grow on other planets and be eaten? That would be awesome.
994: What is spinosaurus spine (sail) for?
995: Is the Coriolis force affected by climate change on Earth?
996: Who proved that the theory of Continental drift was correct? How did he/she explain how the plates move?
997: Are the ocean tides and waves connected to the planets and stars?
998: If the sun ever blow up, will people still be on Earth or will it be the end of the world?
999: If you deliberately drilled a huge hole at the North Pole, and allowed all the earth's magma to spill out, as the earth tilted, could the weight shift, cause the earth to "flip" upside down, thus causing a reversal? Sounds plausible to me.
1000: Radiation from space hits Earth every day. The radiation particles are moving faster than light and colliding with Earth. How can you slow down these particles? And one last question can chemical energy from chlorophyll in plants be converted into electrical energy? Please answer my question it will be really helpful to get a good response.
1001: Where do the lithosphere and the asthenosphere do coposition?
1002: Can the moon turn full between rising and setting?
1003: What makes lava hot?
1004: Does many people die from tsunami?
1005: Why does our moon "control" tide waves? It just plain out baffles me.
1006: Is there comets or asteroids we don't know about that could be on a collision course with Earth? If so do we have a plan to divert them?
1007: Based on a research in Norway, "... the Barents Sea and what they found could offer a viable scientific reason behind the Bermuda Triangle phenomenon. 'Multiple giant craters exist on the sea floor in an area in the west-central Barents Sea ... and are probably a cause of enormous blowouts of gas,' researchers told the Sunday Times. The craters in question were a half a mile wide and 150 feet deep, the Daily Mail reports. The researchers think methane leaking up through natural gas deposits caused the craters, meaning there wasn't just the gradual erosion but explosions of gas as well." Do you believe this could be a possible explanation behind the Bermuda Triangle phenomenon?
1008: When do people use nuclear energy?
1009: If the Earth gained mass as it was going around the the sun - would the Earth have to speed up or slow down to stay in orbit?
1010: Why is the sun the major source of energy for wind, air, and ocean currents?
1011: Where does the wind come from on Mars?
1012: Why didn't most geologists believe Alfred Wegener's theory?
1013: Why will not the water be pulled out of the earth?
1014: What are the ocean currents that affect the United States?
1015: What things in the 1960's finally helped to give Wegener's theory the proof it needed?
1016: How did oil form in Alaska and how did it shape Alaska?
1017: How do we get wind?
1018: How is sapphire formed?
1019: I've heard that the moon pulls at the water on Earth, creating waves. How does it do that and why doesn't it effect smaller water sources such as puddles/streams?
1020: How does the mountain events changes or re-shape the earth's surface?
1021: What is the evidence that support the theory of plate tectonics?
1022: What are the oceanic and continental crusts made out of and how did they "float" on the asthenosphere instead of sinking?
1023: Which scientist hypothesized the layers of Earth?
1024: If we traveled to the center of the earth, how often could we go?
1025: How is it beneficial to humans if scientists find out more about the layers of the earth?
1026: Did the Apollo spacecraft fly in a straight line before entering the moon's orbit? I was told the spacecraft kind of travels like a sailboat tacking through the water. Sometimes the Apollo would be on course then off course. Actually I was explained the Apollo traveled only "on course" 2% of the time.
1027: How can a fossil provide evidence that a certain animal existed?
1028: I am a 7th grade student at New Braunfels Middle School in New Braunfels, Texas. My partner and I are doing an English Language Arts project on the environment. We are required to contact an outside expert on a topic of our choosing. We have chosen Ozone Layer Depletion as our topic. We have come up with the following questions in need for your help:
1) Why is there a hole in the ozone layer over the coldest continent?
2) If we didn't have the ozone to protect us, how would our population suffer?
3) What are the best remedies to stop ozone layer depletion?

1029: Why does the continental drift is not present anymore?
1030: If we would be able to cool Venus down and make it habitable, how would we benefit from it?
1031: Can a tsunami be big enough to hit the middle of a country at is biggest size?
1032: What would happen if all convection currents on Earth stopped?
1033: What is crust?
1034: I saw a picture yesterday on the newspaper online of lava flowing from rocks in Hawaii. How is this possible?
1035: Why does the earth have different layers?
1036: The current that runs along the East Coast eventually reaches England. England is at the same latitude as far north as Canada and Northern Europe, yet it has a much more mild climate. Then why does England has a milder climate?
1037: Which are factors that does not affect fossilization?
1038: How the extreme weather affects non-living things?
1039: Why do boats and planes disappear?
1040: What are the two boundaries where volcanoes form?
1041: What would happen if there was no sun in the universe, not even stars?
1042: How far is the sun?
1043: Where does salt come from?
1044: What do you think the world would be like if the continents never separated?
1045: Tell me about tornadoes.
1046: How does the sun heat the earth?
1047: Without plants on Earth, could Earth still have living species on it? Could bacteria, cells, bugs, insects,etc., survive without oxygen?
1048: How can grass and trees grow on Hawaii if all Hawaii is molten lava dried and hardened?
1049: Etna volcano is active with eruptions right now. Is it the impact that Etna could have as disastrous as Mountain Vesuvius was almost 2000 years ago? I mean it in terms of the magnitude of the explosion, not the effects of it on the people or the cities around.
1050: Before photosynthesis appeared on the planet, from what did the autotrophs made their food?
1051: Dear Scientists: I've been learning about how gravity works, and I wanted to know this: If little things are attracted to huge things, would tiny particles always be flying towards us? Please help. Thank you!
1052: How does studying rocks up close help scientists learn of the layers of the Earth?
1053: How does the magnetism on Earth affect every atom on Earth? Does this magnetism affects in the same way if I am at the North of the Equator or at the South of it?
1054: How does the magnetism on Earth affect every atom on Earth? Does this magnetism affects in the same way at the North of the Equator or at the South of it?
1055: If a comet is half the size of the earth and it comes too close to it, would it cause any disruption to the earth at all?
1056: What caused the "Cambrian Explosion"?
1057: Are the waves that produce an earthquake in a resonant state? If not, what would it be the effect of the earthquake if the waves were in a resonant state?
1058: Why doesn't the ocean freeze?
1059: Are the tectonic plates causing the SIERRA NEVADA mountain range to grow or shrink right now? I am curious!
1060: What are the potential/occurring impacts of global warming? Will the effects of climate change be enough to cause the extinction of humans? If not, what is the most probable way humans that will become extinct?
1061: How do planets get their color?
1062: What physical objects or methods can help me make non-sterile soil, sterile?
1063: Do you think that if we move to Mars and don't get swallowed up by the sun, then we could move to another galaxy by the time the sun completely explodes?
1064: When did cavemen exist? What year did they exist? Is it possible for you to send me some info on the past. To be more specific, I want to know more about dinosaurs and cavemen.
1065: How do the areas of sunlight in the two hemisphere change over the year?
1066: There was an earthquake a few days ago and it was reported to take effect at 13 kilometers west of Isla Vista. What caused this earthquake?
1067: Why do scientists use North Pole and South Pole as different examples and references?
1068: How do I tell which rock layer is the oldest?
1069: Is California moving?
1070: How many hurricanes hit the US between 2006 and 2016? Are there more hurricanes in this decade then in the past?
1071: What is in the moon?
1072: How do winds form?
1073: How do scientists predict when a solar eclipse is coming?
1074: I live in Oregon, and plan to be in an area where the Eclipse will be in its 100% Totality. For the duration of the 100% Totality (about a minute), is it okay to look directly at the Eclipse? From your website here it appears that there could be a danger.
1075: Why are some solar eclipses longer than others?
1076: How does the universe have an impact on humans?
1077: Why do some states have total solar eclipses and others don't?
1078: How are stars, planets, moons, and nebula made?
1079: How does gravity work?
1080: S or p waves travel around the world, slow and fast through different materials. Having the two small waves hit each other over a region with an active fault, could the area be at a higher risk for a local quake?
1081: Hi, my name is Praize and I am an 8th grade student at Glen Taylor School. I am conducting a research on mountains. I would like to know if you are able to provide me with information on Why Is There Little Air On Mountains? Please contact me as soon as possible. Thank you.
1082: I wonder how the solar eclipse started.
1083: How does the eclipse happen?
1084: Do rocks really tell a story? If yes, what do they tell?
1085: Who was the first scientist to discover the first rock and what was the first rock to be discovered?
1086: Why doesn't lightening occur any time it is windy?
1087: Why are ores so rare?
1088: What kind of soil would last better in a flood?
1089: How can I help combat global warming and change my lifestyle to reduce the negative impact I have on the Earth?
1090: In regards to a material being flammable or combustible (i.e. if a higher than normal concentration of oxygen is present, something that is considered a combustible could now be considered flammable). What is the assumed normal oxygen concentration (expressed as a percentage) in the atmosphere?
1091: Is the earthquake which recently took place in Mexico City related to the previous one close to the Ithsmus of Tehuantepec?
1092: What happens when warm air rises and cold air sinks?
1093: If there are stationary fronts, when the two fronts stay in the spot, what makes the weather go into a stop, and how do the fronts move away?
1094: What gases are more responsible for the greenhouse effect?
1095: If the sun blew up, would there be any way to know before our demise? (As in like a final 5 minutes before everyone dies.)
1096: Will humans be on earth in 3029? I am afraid we are consuming lots of plants and stuff so I hope you text me back.
1097: When will Jupiter's gravity pull us closer to outer space? Please answer back this question is important for the jeopardy of the world civilization. I am 12 years old.
1098: What are all the ingredients of fertilizers?
1099: Hi my name is Damien and I wanted to ask: how long until the Earth is gone? The moon is moving 2 centimeters a year and eventually it will probably hit a planet and then that planet would explode and I want to know how long it will take. Thank you for listening and I hope you can answer this question.
1100: Why do rocks have different colors?
1101: If you traveled straight through the center of the Earth and out the other side, what would you pass through along the way?
1102: How does the surface of the ground affect a runner's speed?
1103: Hi, I am in love with your website and use it constantly for school science projects. We are studying asthenosphere and earth science, but I have a question. How is ooblec physically different from it?
1104: If the earth spin the opposite direction wouldn't that change gravity and the way things will go? If the spinning of the earth go to the east, and if we would change the way it could put the gravity out.
1105: At what plate boundaries are cinder cone volcanoes formed?
1106: What desert is the hottest in California? and how are you supposed to say fungi with other words?
1107: How tectonic plate movement could create another supercontinent like Pangaea?
1108: Does the moon have more gravity than Earth because it has no atmosphere?
1109: Why were most of Wegener's peers not receptive to his findings?
1110: What is the percentage of salt in the Salton Sea?
1111: Why does Earth have five different layers?
1112: How do the ice cap and liquid water interact?
1113: What are the stages or steps of a tsunami?
1114: I just read answers to some questions on your forum.
I am confused by your statement that ancient rocks were formed at a certain time by comparing lead to uranium ratios. How can this be if the uranium must have been formed in prior supernovae explosions that seeded the nebula from whence the solar system was formed? It seems we are ignoring the time between this previous supernova and the forming of said rock. Much thanks for any thoughts as this has been bugging me for quite some time.
1115: What plate of Earth does not have volcanoes associated with it?
1116: When was lithium made geologically speaking?
1117: Does mt Everest erode? If so, how much a year?
1118: Some rocks are harder than others. What makes them this way?
1119: Why is it colder in the northern cities, such as: New York than in the southern cities, such as: Houston, TX during the winter months?
1120: What change occurred to the surface of the volcanoes in order for plants to able to plant root?
1121: How do you know about the water cycle?
1122: Why does the earth have more gravity than the moon when the moon is or used to be a part of the earth?
1123: How was the atmosphere made around Earth, and how is it made?

You have a very nice web site. Thanks you for putting it together.

I have a question about basin and range faulting. I understand about valley (or half graven) formation. Due to stretching there is space for the hanging wall to rotate down.

But I do not understand how in an extensional regime do you get the foot wall to “rise” and form the “range” mountains in a basin and range province.

As the valley block rotates down, do they rotate up?

Can you help me understand rocks “rising” in an extensional area?

Thanks in advance for your answer.

1125: A student was wondering how much an increase of energy a 2 degree change would be. This question is in context of climate change and the goals of the Paris Climate agreement. Obviously if we go to zero degrees Celsius we don't have absolute zero energy. So if the Earth's average energy goes up by 2 degrees from pre-industrial levels how much of a percentage increase is that to Earth's energy budget?
1126: How is the value of an emerald determined?
1127: How do the Earth's continental and oceanic crust compare in density?
1128: During a fog bank in the ocean, what is the temperature of the water when the fog bank is happening ? What is the temperature of the air during a fog bank?
1129: Why does the seafloor not disappear since part of it continues to subduct along the ring of fire?
1130: The last big earthquake which took place in Mexico City was less harmful for the people living there because the sound alarm warned them a few seconds before the shaking took place. Do we have the same alarms here in California, so we are prepared for the next big earthquake?

You have a very nice web site. Thanks you for putting it together.

I have a question about basin and range faulting. I understand about valley (or half graben) formation. Due to stretching there is space foe the hanging wall to rotate down. But I do not understand how in an extensional regime do you get the foot wall to “rise” and form the “range” mountains in a basin and range province. As the valley block rotates down,do they rotate up?

Can you help me understand rocks “rising” in an extensional area?

Thanks in advance for your answer.

1132: How does the composition and phases of earth's inner layers generate a magnetic field?
1133: Why is it important for planes and pilots to know about the atmosphere?
1134: What are the names of the planets?
1135: How does the Earth stay sturdy if the majority of its insides are liquid?
1136: What is the ozone layer made of?
1137: Is it true that emeralds are formed when two continental plates hit each other?
1138: How is a mineral formed?
1139: How is the earth floating in space?
1140: How do we exist?
1141: How can humans be impacted by extreme weather?
1142: Is it possible to make a rocket ship that can put trash in the sun to reduce trash in landfills, throwing trash into the sun without damaging the craft? Would a space cannon (not meant to be funny) with already compressed air launch the rocket into space, unload the trash and just wait for it to reach the sun?
1143: Why do some planets have no moons like Mercury and Venus, and other planets have many moons like Jupiter?
1144: Can global warming be a direct result of all the oil we have removed, since oil I’m sure acts like an insulation from the Earth's core temperature?
1145: How do you call the areas where the ocean stick out at the sides of the earth?
1146: How does the atmosphere help life on Earth?
1147: What is Roygbiv?
1148: What is a subduction zone?
1149: What are asteroids? How did asteroids make earth?
1150: If a planet in the universe breaks out of gravity and collides with another, will it affect Earth?
1151: How are minerals made? Where can they be found?
1152: How are the rocks an minerals made?
1153: Is the inner core a hot liquid metal?
1154: What are some constructive and destructive forces of the Colorado plateau and grand canyon?
1155: What are the dinosaurs relatives?
1156: How does emission of carbon dioxide lead to global warming?
1157: What tools are used to find the layers of the earth if scientists can't go to the core?
1158: What areas on Earth are at the least risk of a volcanic eruption?
1159: I was wondering why iron is so abundant in the outer core?
1160: What would it happen if there were no moon?
1161: How do fossils provide evidence of continental drift?
1162: Why it is windy by the sea side?
1163: Which of the two crusts is heavier, the continental crust, or the oceanic crust?
1164: Is there a pocket of air under frozen lake water?
1165: Will continents come back together and form a single landmass called supercontinent?
1166: How does the sun warm the earth?
1167: What is the probability of a human being able to survive the gravitational pull of the earth yet along with the exact amount of centrifugal force not to fly off the earth---what is the probability of getting that delicate balance of gravitational force and centrifugal force to support human life?
1168: I thought the hottest desert on Earth was the Lut Desert in Iran. More than 159 degrees according to my research. Isn't this so?
1169: How is that the Caribbean islands, the Gulf of Mexico and the East Coast get all the hurricanes? How we do not get any here in the West Coast of California?
1170: If North is up, how does the Nile River flow down stream in the direction of North into the Mediterranean Sea?
1171: What is the most amount of hurricanes ever to happen at one point in time?
1172: In which main ways is the asthenosphere different from the lower mantle on Earth?
1173: What do meteorites tell us about Earth's interior?
1174: Why does the earth have an iron-rich core?
1175: What is the ratio of photosynthetic plants to the amount of oxygen produced?
1176: What is the effect the Channel Islands have on the beaches near Goleta and the Channel? How would beaches nearby look different if the Channel Islands weren’t there?
1177: How do rainbows happen?
1178: What is the ozonosphere made of?
1179: Did dinosaurs really existed and were hit by an asteroid?
1180: Why is air at sea level denser than air at high altitudes?
1181: When will the earth end? Please answer to my question.
1182: Why does Earth have layers?
1183: How is it possible that volcano dust can travel thousands of miles somewhere else?
1184: Hi! My Science Project is How Does the Moon Affect the Tides. I will monitor the tides from the Full Moon to The New Moon for a three week period which also includes a last quarter moon. My hypothesis is that the moon does affect the tides. I need to have a control parameter. Can you help my identify what that is in this experiment. I will be monitoring the tides at Campus Point on a daily basis. I want to show how the tides are much more varied on a spring tide than during a neap tide.
1185: What is altitude?
1186: What would happen if a planet was destroyed?
1187: How do scientists know what the earths layers are if nobody has ever dug past the crust?
1188: What happens to the temperature and pressure the deeper one goes into the geosphere?
1189: Why does the earth have different layers?
1190: Why does the earth have different layers?
1192: How can fossils be found on different continents?
1193: Where is the heat coming from for the convection?
1194: Was the earth a hot ball?
1195: What is the difference between the theory of continental drift and the theory of plate tectonics?
1196: What speed do mountains grow at?
1197: What are the forces that drive continental drift?
1198: Can wind change the surface of a volcano?
1199: Why does crust move on Earth?
1200: What is the difference between oceanic crust and continental crust?
1201: What makes supercells?
1202: When was the last time it snowed in Santa Barbara, and when will it happen again?
1203: Why are models helpful to use when we are studying topics like the composition layers of the earth?
1204: When Earth was hit by a large object the size of Earth did it move faster or slower?
1205: I am doing a project about the mystery of Atlantis and you have to choose whether you believe it existed or didn't exist. I did not believe it existed. My three reasons to support were, Plato made it up, the lack of evidence, and underwater explorations (meaning that advanced technologies have not found clues on Atlantis). What I was wondering was if you had any input on my reasons or evidence you can help find? Thank you!
1206: What is the continental drift theory?
1207: Why is it so cold these days in the northeast of the United States of America?
1208: Why is the temperature of the atmosphere 1700 degree Celsius?
1209: Would we be able to breathe on Venus?
1210: Would pre-Cook Hawaiians have been able to extract any usable metals from the land? (This goes along with questions about whether most pre-Western cultures were hampered by their environment-not their culture or race.)
1211: What would the temperature be if the earth was inverted upside down?
1212: How does erosion affect volcanoes?
1213: How are scientists able to predict when and where the next eclipse will occur?
1214: Hi,I am teaching geology for my first time (new NGSS topic for 8th grade). I have been searching for interesting tidbits in this area (fossil and evolutionary finds, geological formations, etc). Can you point me to documents or share info that my students might find interesting? Thanks.
1215: Where can you find gold?
1216: When Antarctica melts, how much land will be left?
1217: Why does Uranus have rings? What would Earth be like if Venus was not there?
1218: Why were dinosaurs alive? Why did they die?
1219: How was Earth made?
1220: Why does Saturn have rings, and does Neptune really have rings?
1221: How might you explain the same type of rock and rock formations being found on different continents?
1222: How does the mantle affect the movement of the crust?
1223: If we haven't visited Jupiter then how do we know that it is called Jupiter? If there was an asteroid or comet that did hit Jupiter, how will we know if we weren't there? If Jupiter has 67 moons but one of their moons is considered a dead planet which is Callisto, can Callisto wake up and become a real planet?
1224: Is the weight of buildings in Venice the reason the city gets floods every year? Is the city really sinking?
1225: How mountains are formed?
1226: Why was the idea of Pangaea not accepted in the first place?
1227: Can gems that miners find on the surface of the earth be found deep into the ocean? If yes, are they the same?
1228: Does plant life stimulate island growth? Over a long period if the island only had coconut trees would it slowly expand the soil of the island that would make it increase in size? Say over 100 Years, 300 Years and 1000 Years.
1229: Why was hurricane Katrina so destructive to New Orleans?
1230: This supposed period of time when "Gondwana" or when all the continents were connected, explain to me how all these gigantic pieces of land moved if they are all stilled connected and surrounded by the earth\'s crust under the ocean? Where did all that mess of land go? And wouldn't the crust push against itself while the land masses went in opposite directions?
1231: Could you please refer to me a chart of gases in the stratosphere? The question comes from this observation: if the troposphere is comprised of 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, .09% Argon, along with other trace gases, what are the relative percentages for gases in the stratosphere considering that Ozone is most prominent in the stratosphere? Would seem that percentage of Nitrogen, Oxygen, etc., would be decreased by presence of more Ozone? Have searched wide for the answer. Hope you can help. Thank you.
1232: What is the probability for Mount St. Helens to explode again?
1233: How old is the earth?
1234: Why do we feel as if we weight the same on Venus as we do on Earth? Do we weight the same in both places?
1235: So if a tsunami and tidal waves are two different things (Tidal Waves are created by the gravitation forces of the sun or the moon, a tsunami is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of large bodies of water.) Then, why do you say that the difference between a hurricane and tsunami is that a tsunami is a huge tidal wave in the ocean?
1236: Why does the Earth have different layers?
1237: Why is there no air in space?
1238: What is gold's molecular structure and how long does it take earth to make it?
1239: What layer of the earth is the densest?
1240: I am looking into questions about science I have had for a while which deal with Old Earth Theory. I was wondering if you could explain how scientists derived the half life formulas for radio isotopic decay, how it works, and how they know that other factors (temperature, geological patterns, weather patterns, other radiation present such as ultraviolet rays) have not affected their data. Is there anything known to the science community that affects the validity of different dating methods like Rb-87/St-87 dating, Argon-Argon dating, and Carbon dating? Thank you for your time.
1241: Ways in which weather affect our daily lives.
1242: What would life be like if the earth was covered with water and humans survived?
1243: In an estuary, does the fresh water float over the salt water? If so, why is it that the water in the estuary tastes salty? would you not be tasting the water that is on top and therefore the fresh water?
1244: Why do we weigh less on the moon than we weigh on earth?
1245: Are there tectonic plates on the east coast?
1246: What is the path the moon travels around the earth?
1247: Are there tectonic plates on the east coast?
1248: Is there any possibility that the West Coast of USA will have a strong earthquake in the next 5-10 years?
1249: What are the reasons the atmosphere is important, and why?
1250: What is the relation between continental drift and the evolution? How four very different kinds of ant/termite eaters could occur in India, Africa, South America, and Australia?
1251: How does the lithosphere affect other layers of Earth?
1252: I'm doing a debate for Science and it is about the difference between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere. Can you help me?
1253: Is the earth core a solid or something other then that? Is the mantle the layer that crates magnetic fields?
1254: Why do Earth have layers?
1255: What would happen if we drilled a hole through the north and South Pole and dropped a rock into the hole? Where would the rock go? Where would it stop? How would it stop? Why would is stop/not stop?
1256: I am wondering how we know what’s at the core of the earth, and what you scientists used to figure this out?
1257: I wonder, how are waves in the ocean made?
1258: Is there anyway we can prevent climate change from getting worse?
1259: Why do we get the most fog in the months of June and July, when December and January are the months of year where there is the most moisture/humidity in the air? (And rainfall)
1260: What type of minerals are formed to make emeralds?
1261: If the earth's core provides heat that drives plate tectonics, what would eventually happen if the earth's core cooled down?
1262: Why can you only photograph a lunar eclipse sometimes when the earth is between the sun & moon?
1263: How does the chemical composition of a rock affect its density?
1264: What is the oceanic crust and their main facts?
1265: How do human and natural factors impact the atmosphere and weather?
1266: How long does it take for grass to grow after a volcano destroys it?
1267: What would happen if you are in a hurricane or a tsunami?
1268: Can you make a hurricane by putting a lot of hot water in the sea?
1269: Has the earth changed size since it was created?
1270: Why do scientists believe the inner-core is solid?
1271: What happens if the world collapses?
1272: What are the different ways in which tectonic plates interact with each other as they move around?
1273: What is the composition of the Earth's surface?
1274: Why did other scientists not believe Alfred Wegener theory to be true?
1275: How and when was the Igneous rock made? And what did people need it for?
1276: Why there is a leap year, is it because of Earth's rotation? What is one pattern we observe because of Earth's rotation?
1277: Does the sun heat the air in our atmosphere directly?
1278: Hi, I was wondering what planet has the most gravitational pull on the earth.
1279: How does earth impact our every day lives?
1280: Is it possible to find diamonds in the ocean?
1281: What is the influence of Coriolis force on weather systems?
1282: What temp does it take to melt a quart rock?
1283: What happened to Rodinia about 750-725 million years ago? Could you explain? What is the name of the ocean that formed?
1284: How high does the troposphere go and how cold can it get there?
1285: Are the mountains here in Santa Barbara growing and how much do they grow per year?
1286: How and why do plants grow on lava rocks in Hawaii on the Black Sand Beach?
1287: What is the oldest chasm on the Earth? I have been to Ausable Chasm in Keeseville, NY and know the rock is 500 million years old. Is there an older chasm? Thanks for your help!
1288: What color is the sand on Atlantic coast beaches?
1289: Why are there fjords in Norway?
1290: Are all earthquakes powerful?
1291: Is there some technological development or research going to reduce the intensities of natural calamities or like divert the path of maybe cyclones or water floods etc? I know humans need to take care of nature but still in some way they do not.
1292: Where are earthquakes more common, in the East or the West coast of United States? Why?
1293: New Orleans was able to prepare for Hurricane Katrina. How were they able to predict that this hurricane was coming?
1294: Why does amber can be found in beaches? Where else can it be found?
1295: How would you make the strongest (model) tower for earthquake resistance?
1296: Greetings, why is Christmas the shortest day of the year?
1297: How many grasslands are on planet Earth?
1298: What factors cause the different shapes and structures of the Earth?
1299: Does the atmosphere help keep Earth's water?
1300: If dinosaurs had survived the Yucatan comet 66 million years ago, or it had never happened, what is the chance Homo sapiens would still be here?
1301: Before Homo appeared there was Australopithecus, Ardipithecus, Orrorin, and Sahelanthropus about 7 million years ago. Were these genera better hunters than Homo? Were many big carnivores, like the sabre tooth cat, going extinct during their lifetimes? Maybe dinosaurs would have changed their evolutionary path. Or sent them into extinction, or vice versa?
1302: I need to know 10 ways in which weather affects humans on Earth.
1303: What are 10 different ways that weather affects humans on Earth?
1304: How can I prove here at home that the earth has magnetism?
1305: Are all the planets rotating at the same speed around the sun?
1306: I would like to know what is it a fractal and how do they form in nature. Thank you for your help.
1307: Are minerals from Earth elements or compounds? Why are they called minerals?
1308: Continuation of Are minerals from Earth elements or compounds? Why are they called minerals?
1309: How can fossils get to each other from Africa and south America?
1310: What is a fireball?
1311: The earth tilts at an angle, is it possible that some day this angle increases and the weather changes drastically?
1312: What is the science behind El Niño and La Niña affecting the weather and how frequently do we get them?
1313: I am wondering why the soil in the desert can not retain water after a good rain.
1314: When Earth was impacted by a meteorite when dinosaurs possibly got extinct, did the orbit of Earth was altered by the huge impact, at least instantaneously?
1315: Are fossils of some species currently found on the coastlines of continents, by oceans?
1316: Hello, could you tell me really simply how hurricane Katrina evolved and where she moved to and in what way?
1317: Why have we not found more creatures in the Challenger Deep?
1318: Why do scientists consider the earth's magnetic field to be a contributing factor instead of potentially viewing its changes as another symptom of the human element?
1319: If estimated how long will we have on earth before our world is non inhabitable?
1320: What is the role of Geology for having a nuclear plant someplace? What makes it impossible to have one nuclear plant somewhere? What are the requirements to choose the place where the plant should be installed?
1321: How do scientists know how old rocks are?
1322: How is that the Ural mountains were formed?
1323: Can we still stop global warming?
1324: How many years ago was the Bering Strait formed? How many years ago was ice covering the strait so that our ancestors crossed the strait by foot?
1325: How are hurricanes and wave damage related?
1326: What is the process by which Earth formed layers according to density?
1327: How do volcano eruptions cause changes in the ozone layer?
1328: How is global warming affecting the ocean currents? How these ocean currents regulate Earth's climate?
1329: What are the characteristics and the evolution of mountains?
1330: How many different chains of mountains do we have around Santa Barbara, from here to Los Angeles? What chain of mountains is the one around Lake Casitas?
1331: How probable is it for the coast of California to have a strong earthquake in the near future? Can it be predicted?
1332: Is there an underwater connection between the Pacific Ocean and Mar de Cortez (Sea of Cortez)?
1333: How many months a year is Lake Baikal frozen? How thick is the ice then?
1334: Which country or countries have more volcanoes which can produce strong earthquakes?
1335: I went hiking last weekend and I found the rock formations shown in the pictures-1 and pictures-2 It was the Arlington Peak. Why are those forms and how did they form?
1336: Why is amber found in beaches?
1337: Could the constant movement of waves in the ocean be used to generate energy? If so, why don't we do that and use that energy?
1338: How much radiation do we receive from the soil on Earth? How harmful is it for our bodies?

Our son attends the College of Creative Studies at UCSB. I was hoping you could help me. I continue to find interesting rocks buried on our farm which have been uncovered while working the land. These rocks today were uncovered after my metal detector located them several feet deep. The bigger rocks look metallic, like gold, and are heavy. I read that a possible meteor was sighted in 1914 over Mission Canyon, and we live in that area (above San Roque.) Was that fall ever discovered? These lands weren’t developed until the 80’s, and our sloping land, unlike other neighbors has an interesting bowl shape and looks very different from our neighbors. meteor falls in mission canyon

Could these rocks possibly be meteorites? I’ve found legions. Google Lens identifies many of these rocks I find, many of which are sort of diamond shaped, as meteorites, dinosaur bones or Indian artifacts. I think I’m on a wild goose chase.

These rocks are a small sample of my finds. I thank you in advance for your assistance.

Pictures of my samples:
Rocks 1
Rocks 2
Rocks 3

1340: Have the oceans' pH changed measurably? Is this a global change or localized to only some of the world's oceans?
1341: Are there any patterns in the occurrence of droughts in Southern California and the North of Mexico?
1342: What are the different divisions of the Paleozoic era?
1343: What is the role of water on earth?
1344: How does the sun heat the earth? What happens when ice melts, how hot is it?
1345: What is usually left behind after the seafloor is destroyed?
1346: How do weather patterns affect where and how you live, what you do, and what you wear?
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