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1497 questions in the Category: biology-human.

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1: How can an egg turn into a person? I mean how do eyes, brain or other organs form?
2: Why is Thymine replaced by Uracil during the transcription of DNA to pre-mRNA?
3: What is the importance of the number of Adenine nucleotides in the poly-A tail once pre-mRNA is converted to mRNA?
4: Where do cells come from? How were they made up?
5: I always wonder why my hair get's white. My friends told me that it's because I get mad. But when I get mad , how come it doesn't get white in that moment?
6: I know that old people have to be healthy. Why can't they eat candy? What happens if they eat a lot of candy?
7: If the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, do the pancreas cells still contain a high number of rough endoplasmicreticulum or would the cell "dry up"?
8: Do all people see colors the same way as I do? I know some people are color blind but I am thinking of people who can see colors.
9: As cells divide, towards the end of the end of cell division, it appears that each new daughter cell gets longer. Is this the result of the pinching in that occurs during cytokinesis, or are the cells getting longer. Of the two options, which one is primarily responsible for this effect?How do cells sort their organelles during cell division? Is it the luck of the draw, or a genetically programmed set of instructions at work?
10: What is an acceptable body fat range for teenage boys and girls that is NOT likely to lead to health problems later on in life? What would an athletic body fat be for teenagers?
11: Do scientists agree on which hominid from the past was modern humans ancestor? If they do not agree what are competing theories?
12: Hi! I have a question regarding behavior disorders, specifically conduct disorder & antisocial behavioral disorder. I am wondering how a person gets this disorder. Is it genetic or environmental? Also--what is the chance of someone having this disorder? Is there a greater chance of a male getting this over a female?
13: Why are some people color blind?
14: Is it possible, in any way, for the human, male testes to produce sperm with another human's genetic information? Perhaps if a female, diploid cell were inserted into the testes, is there a way to force it to go through meiosis and become a viable sperm? If so, what is the exact process it (the female diploid cell) would need to go through? If not, why and is there any other way?
15: When was the first cell developed or created?
16: What is the ecosystem? What are some common ecosystems?
17: When was the first actual human existence started and did we evolve from primates?
18: What are the ingredients in hair dye? How do these ingredients work to produce the desired effect? Are there any problems with hair dye? Are there any possible solutions?
19: Is there any scientific way to know what people are thinking?
20: What makes cucumber seeds cause burps? And how could you demonstrate that in the classroom? People grow the seedless cucumbers for this reason.
21: Why do people hiccup?
22: How was life started?
23: Is blood a solution or a suspension?
24: How much can a grade 7 brain remember, how does the male and female brain work, which one is better with memory, can you show us some pictures and some examples ?
25: Is there any form of vaccine without pork that is equally if not more effective than the current flu ones we get? I know there are religions that don’t allow the consumption of pork, so is there any alternative that could work, why or why not?
26: I was wondering whether it is possible or not for life to develop in a chlorine or fluorine atmosphere, and if not could you explain why?
27: My classes have been watching a video produced by the Discovery Channel on bacteria. At one point in the video, the narrator says that human babies are born "bacteria free" but within a few hours hundred of kinds of bacteria colonize them. I can't believe that we are born bacteria free. Is this true or is this a mistake in the video?
28: Are dogs really colorblind?
29: Why do old people forget things?
30: How long do tobacco products last inside the body?
31: How long do the effects of tobacco last?
32: What is the most deadly disease a person can get? What is the most common and rare disease people can get? How will science help us in the future and why do we learn about science?
33: What was the first virus?
34: What is the deadliest bacteria?
35: Why do I see green color spots after I stare at red color for a long time?
36: During our discussions on genetics and DNA, I recalled that the amount of DNA in a human is quite substantial, and if the strands were linked end to end, they would cover a distance of "X". I forgot how long human DNA was, and my class is now curious themselves. Can you tell us how long human DNA is?
37: Are wisdom teeth vestigial structures?
38: Why are wisdom teeth called wisdom teeth?
39: A question from the teacher: I heard that old aluminum cooking pans will leave aluminum residue in your food, which is very bad for your health. Is this true, or a myth? Also, can I use one of these old pans to mix up my pets' food in, as long as I don't heat it? Thank you.
40: I need to know like what kind of chemicals are in lip glosses and how it is made.
41: How does catalase break down hydrogen peroxide?
42: What is the scientific term for the tendency of a human's pupil to widen when looking at an object of desire, (or something in which the person likes) regardless of light level. This demonstration was recently shown on John Cleese's "The Human Face" on the Learning Channel.
43: In talking about protein synthesis, I make the assumption that tRNA's and mRNA's travel about by diffusion. Is this correct?
44: why is GTP used to power transcription and translation instead of ATP?
45: Why is the third position on tRNA's anticodon flexible (my book calls it wobble) but not the first or second?
46: How does a cell know what genes to keep as heterochromatin and what to use as euchromatin?
47: What effect do varying oxygen levels have on Saccharomyces cerevisiae's (baker's yeast) production of ethanol from glucose?
48: Why do Mitochondria need DNA? All the other organelles (except the nucleus of course) do not have their own DNA?
49: Why is lipstick made?
50: Is it possible for two humans (or animals) of the same sex to have (viable and biological) offspring? By either fusing two haploid cells, or extracting chromosomes from one haploid cell and inserting them into the nucleus of another and (in both cases) induce fertilization? Also, is there any (legal) way to test this? And if so, what is the process?
51: What is the reason ears pop?
52: What was the driving force that led to the evolution of a standing posture?
53: Why don't we seen certain colors like ultra- violet etc., while other animals can? What animals can?
54: I am trying to do a science experiment for my AP Biology class to see the effects of over eating. I need to know if there is any insect or mammal that lives for a short period of time that I will be able to see changes in. Also I was wondering if there have been any studies done about early deaths in humans, and if so where I might find this information.
55: Does everybody see in different colors but they learn to say them a certain way?
56: How come the letters representing the different blood types go in the order "A", "B", and then "O"... why not "A", "B", and then "C", wouldn't it make more sense to go along with the alphabetical order?
57: Do we have the same fingerprints on each finger or are they different?
58: Do twins have the same DNA?
59: We learned in class that after meiosis the sex cells have half of the chromosomes and that this half set is always one of the homologous chromosome pairs. Our book shows a picture of these 13 homologous pairs and they sometimes have quite different shapes. In what way do the pairs differ? If they carry exact the same information why do we have two pairs and if they carry different information what information will be different or be lost?
60: What do they mean when they say that they cloned a baby?
61: I want to ask if animals and human bodies have the same elements.
62: My few questions that I have for the scientists at UCSB are dealing with biomimetics of the human body. My first question is what other man made structures were modeled after the way that the human body is built besides from the Eiffel tower. I also want to know how the air pumps work. I sort of know how they work now but I would also want more of the basic information like, what is it trying to mimic of the human body? How did they come up with the idea to make airpumps? It would be great if you could answer my questions whenever you could so I can complete my power point presentation for my 8th grade science project. Sincerely, Denise
63: Visual memory versus auditory memory
64: What is the difference between ADP and ATP?
65: What is the pH of stomach acid when your stomach is not full of food? How long does food stay in your empty stomach for?
66: What factors lead to stress? What happens to a person's heart rate/nervous system when they are stressed? What are some symtoms of stress? What are some ways to get rid of your stress? Are there any websites that have any other good info for a project like this?
67: My question is basically asking "what is sound"? More specifically why do different sounds give different emotion, and does this cause a vary in heart rate? For instance: lets say that you are driving in a car and a car horn spontaneously honks, which in turn makes you mad and quickening one blood flow.
68: Can I contact someone who is researching Leprosy? If so, can you please answer these questions? What is your current research? How is your research helping with finding a cure or a better understanding of Leprosy? How is this research being funded? What are the future prospects for finding a cure?
69: How long does a donut take to digest?
70: Do all living things go through photosynthesis?
71: I was wondering what is the current research going on at UCSB for Schizophrenia? How is the research helping to find a cure or better understanding of this disease? How is the research being funded? What is the future prospects of finding a cure? THANK YOU very much!
72: CYSTIC FIBROSIS. what is the current research on cystic fibrosis? how is this reshearch helping with finding a cure or a better understanding of the disease? how is this research being funded? what are the future prospects for finding a cure??
73: If both my parents have black hair, is there a possiblity that I could have been a blonde?
74: What could be the qualities of fruit flies, bacteria, and mice that made them well-suited to modern genetics research?
75: Do bugs have blood or what is the liquid called they have? Houseflies seem to have blood but other bugs seem to have rather a greenish or yellowish liquid.
76: Why does food stay so long in the stomach before it is being allowed to pass gradually into the small intestine?
77: How does a virus or bacteria enter the body?
78: We are studying cells. I am wondering how scientists found out that the mitochondria are the "powerhouses" of the cell. How did they discover what each organelle does?
79: How do scientists go about growing bone cartilage? And how soon will people be able to use this bone?
80: What is forensics?
81: Since viruses are always changing, will we ever find a cure and if so how long?
82: Why can dogs only see red?
83: How did humans become so smart and learn all the technology? Could sheep or some other type of animal become smart and invent new technology? If you accustom a type of non-human animal to what humans do could they just act like a Human? Are there Homo Erectus or one of those types of Human presently on Earth?
84: When I turn off the TV , does it give me a shock?
85: When you are lifting, how does it make your muscle strong? When you put steroids in your body, how does it affect your body?
86: When you eat does your heart work harder?
87: Hello. How can it be possible for an organism to survive living a intermediate state of evolution. Like bats, was there a point in their evolutionary process where they had small wings? I hope you understand my question, because it's the best way I could write it. Thanks.
88: We know the number of chromosomes an organism has is unique to that organism. For example, we (humans) have 23 pairs, but if we had 12 pairs we might be a cherry tomato or something like that. Since there are millions of species, are there many organisms that "overlap" chromosome numbers - what other species have 23 pairs?
89: Since Down's syndrome appears to be a somewhat random act of non disjunction, why is it that it seems as though there are fewer minority children with Down's than Caucasian kids? Is there any correlation with race, or is it simply our mis-observation?
90: Why did large animal evolve in nature? Aren't they kind of useless like too big need lots of space and food?
91: Do you think a good research project would be to research how drugs and alcohol effect people, if so do you have any information I can use in my report?
92: Why do we sometimes "twitch" right before we fall asleep?
93: I understand that monoclonal antibodies are made by fusing a lymphocyte cell and a cancer cell but wouldn't this hybrid cell have double the normal number of chromosomes?
94: What are the health and safety requirements when teaching microorganisms to students? A student in our school has fungi and bacteria (from children's coughs)in sealed plastic petri dishes and they have been there for a couple of weeks - is this allowed/safe? The Y 6 teacher has concerns.
95: How do membranes become more permeable to ions?
96: What makes people ticklish?
97: I am trying to do some research on ligaments and I cannot find an exact definition of a ligament. Is it true that ligaments are tissues that are interwoven together? If so, what would the correct definition be for a ligament? Thank you so much.
98: I have a friend who is exceedingly tall in height and is curious if there are any ways, methods, or operations that can be done to shrink one's physical height?
99: Does blonde hair turn green in chlorinated water because chlorine is green?
100: What is the name of the genetic disorder?
101: If a virus and a bacteria were introduced into an environment of pure oxygen, would the virus be able to reproduce via the bacteria? Does this only occur with certain types of viruses and/or bacteria? Would the virus, bacteria, or both die off(either way)? Would they be able to live in harmony even if the virus didn't reproduce via the bacteria? Or would they both die off?
102: Hi. I was wondering, with all the talk about mad cows and it's impact in human health. If prions are proteins, and proteins denaturalize with heat... how can it be possible for a prion to "infect" (I don't know if the term infect can be applied to prion diseases) a person who has eaten an infected (yes, again) cow, or sheep or another animal? I was wondering this because in several web sites I have found the same information, but like any science student I'm skeptic. Please explain. I know my English is kind of lame, sorry, but my only English teaching resources are books and the Simpsons. Thank you -Diego Delgado
103: How are animals classified ?
104: What cleansing procedures do personnel destined for Biosafety Level Four have to go through?
105: How do heterotrophs live?
106: I've heard that according to Darwin's theory of evolution Man and monkey have a common ancestor is this true and what is this ancestor?
107: What are the effects on a human body when they are poisoned with Arsenic?
108: Why does the sun affect the pigment in your skin?
109: What happens inside your body that makes you cry when you get hurt? Is it a reflex?
111: When people have "pink eye", and they wake up with their eyes stuck together, where does the sticky part come from? What is it?
112: In the summer when I go to the beach, my hair gets a lot lighter. What is it that causes it to go that? Is it the sun, saltwater, or both?
113: I have heard that if you look at a solar eclipse (right at that moment)it is really dangerous. If this is true, why? Is it kind of the same idea as looking directly at the sun?
114: What exactly does Hepatitus C do to your body?
115: What in your body causes a person to go into a coma?
116: How is a damaged liver able to regenerate back to normal?
117: if our lungs needs oxygen to breathe how come we can't take in Carbon Dioxide.
118: Do you have an experiment that will work to show the effects of carbonated soda beverages on tooth decay?
119: I know that you can suffer from having insufficient calcium in your body, but can you overdo it? What would be the symptoms, and what would be too much? Thanks.
120: It is known that living cells can, to some extent, repair their DNA. Do you think this process can be done without using some form of energy?
121: Hey, I'm having a debate with a kid in school about what would happen to your body if it was floating out in space without protection of a space suit. Would you implode?
122: If a person was do digest and acid or a base with a pH of 14 or 1 what would that acid or base do to their insides? What is the lowest or highest pH someoen can eat without injury?
123: How does hair conditioner work? How does it de-tangle the hair and does it truly do anything?
124: How High does a Voice Pitch Have to Be to Break A Crystal Glass?
125: How is it that our tongue can distinguish different types of foods?
126: How is it that we grow hair on our eyelids, is it a different type of hair?
127: Why do we get burned so fast if we don't put on sunscreen? I know it has to do with the rays but is it something in our skin too?
128: How do we have the ability to hear sounds such as music or people talking? What goes on in our ears that this is possible?
129: Does science have to play a role on some of the emotions that out brought out in us everyday? Is there something happening inside of us that triggers us to put out what ever we are feeling?
130: What are the possible ways we can detect radioactivity in a room? I know that radiation affects the brain but really how does it affect us over all as a human?
131: Are there some cells (organs) in our body that are similar to our appendix? Such that we don't need but could actually kill us?
132: Why do we have an appendix if we don't even need it and then since we dont need it, we don't pay much attention to it but then it could kill us? Please explain.
133: I understand that clear blisters are when the serum from the blood collects under the epidermis, but how actually does the serum enter the area? Are blood vessels broken? Does the serum pass through the blood vessel walls? Any response would be helpful to answering this question for my class.
134: Will scientists ever be able to clone human organs by growing them inside other mammals (like pigs)? If so, wouldn't the animal's antibodies attack the human organ? Thank you for your time.
135: Why do people or scientists look into cloning so much? What is so interesting about cloning? I think cloning is one of the worst things people can do in science.
136: Why is cloning a public issue?
137: Hi! my name is Maria Prado. I am from Mckenzie Jr High School. We were doing some stretching exercises in the morning at school. I want to know how come when we first wake up we do not have strengh in our bodies? I cant squeeze my fist closed very well! Thanks for your help
138: Can humans be cloned? If not what is needed for human cloning?
139: How long (time, etc.) does it take to clone a human?
140: What do you think about cloning? Would you like to get clone?
141: Have scientists cloned a human before?
142: What if two people call a color the same name but their eyes see different colors? Is it proven that that's not possible?
143: Do people with different eye colors see different colors?
144: If you have tubes in your ear, where do the doctors put it? Between the eardrum and the anvil or something?
145: What is a dream? Is it true that if you can't imagine a red car in your mind when your awake, that you see your dreams in black and white?
146: What is DNA made of?
147: I work in a grocery store and they just installed barcode scanners. The problem is that the scanner is fronting us, the cashiers, directly at the level of our reproductive organs. Is there a risk or danger to be "scanned" all day around such a sensitive area? Thank you.
148: I want to know if blood cells mix during sex?
149: 1.Do women inherit the genes for diseases like breast cancer only from the genes of their mother or also from their father's genes?

2. Are the genes on the Y chromosome the only ones that determine that you will become a boy?

3. Are the two X chromosomes in females different? Does only one determine that you will become a girl? And is the one X chromosome that males have the same as the one females have?

Thank you

150: What causes ADD ?
151: Can blind people who have never seen before dream color?
152: Do animals see one color?
153: For my 8th grade science fair project I am going to run mice through mazes. To make it a little more interesting I am going to put a pulsing sound at the end to see if the mice can find it any faster than without a sound. So I was wondering if you had any research on the way mice hear?
154: Tides are acted upon by the gravitational pull from the sun and moon. Since our body is 70% water, could a full moon effect the body in different ways like motion sickness.
155: Is evolution real?
156: I wonder if someone can live up yo 200 years old
157: What is a photo pigment?
158: How does the fact that there is one photo pigment in your rods, affect your scotopic response?
159: How does an animal cell survive?
160: How does cloning work? And why would someone want to be cloned if they themselves wouldn't be looking through the eyes of the clone?
161: Is life possible on Venus?
What is needed for life to exist at Venus?
What is needed for human life to breath?
What does the atmosphere need to be like?

162: What makes candy bad for you?
163: I am doing a report on Color Blindness and have to find someone who is doing research on the disease. If somebody could answer a few questions that would be great. 1.What research are you currently doing for the disease?
2.Has the reasearch been helpful in finding a possible cure or gaining a better understanding of the disease?
3. How is the research being funded?
4. Are there any future prospects for finding a cure for Color Blindness?
Thank you very much for your time.

164: I'm doing a keynote presentation on narcolepsy and I was wondering if you could briefly answer the following questions.
What does your current research on narcolepsy entail?
How is this research helping to find a cure or better understanding of the disease?
How is any research on narcolepsy being funded? And lastly, what are the future prospects for finding a cure?

165: Hello, I would like to know if anyone in UCSB has conducted any long term experiments on achondroplasia.
I would like to know what causes the disease, how it is inherited, if there is a certain group of people this disease affects, is there a cure or is there research to find a cure, how this research is being funded, and what are the future prospects for finding a cure?

166: How do the different flavors (sour, bitter, salty, and sweet) interact with your tongue?
Why are some people more sensitive to taste then others?
How does your olfactory system interact with taste?
Does body temperature affect the gustatory cells and what we taste?
Does food temperature affect the taste of things?
Could the gustatory cells be damaged from intense heat and cold?
There are also taste buds on the roof of our mouth; are there definite areas of tastes on there?

167: What is your current research on Hemophilia? How is this research helping with finding a cure or a better understanding of the disease? How is this research being funded? What are the future prospects for finding a cure? Do you know any one with Hemophilia and if you can give me their e-mail or a way to contact them?
168: I know that transgenic e.coli has been used to produce human insulin - but, is this done in vitro and then the bacteria are separated from the product which will later be injected by the diabetic? Or are the transgenic e.coli somehow transplanted back into a diabetic and then do their insulin production inside of the body for immediate use?
169: What does caffeine do to cause the reaction time to increase?
170: Why does my eye color change hourly? P.S. I am not joking.
171: How come when I look directly at my "glow in the dark" stars on my ceiling in my bedroom, I can not see them, but when I look to the side of them I can?
172: Why is it that the Europeans evolved at a higher rate than any people on the planet? How did this happen? Are Europeans genetically superior or did their different environments contribute or hamper their technological progress?
173: Why do some people have allergies and some people don't?
174: I have some questions about hearts:

1. I am confused about the hearts of insects. Are they just a smaller version of our hearts? Is their heart also mainly a pump?

2. I heard that there are artificial hearts. Are these more or less pumps that pump the blood through our body? How can they regulate the blood flow?

3. Also, what kinds of batteries are used - I am assuming that the pump needs energy somehow.

4. If the artificial heart is made of metal and plastic parts will it then be less susceptible to be rejected from the body in contrast to an organ transplant?

175: What is in mercury element, which makes it so dangerous to be exposed to?
176: How has our knowledge of DNA contributed to how we treat (medically) bacterial and viral diseases?
177: What are the kinds of proteins?
178: How do you guys look at the sun directly? What do you use for?
179: Can someone be as small as 1 inch?
180: I am currently enrolled to the AP biology course at Santa Ynez High school; I was very disappointed after we performed a lab in an attempt to form coacervates. We mixed Gelatin (1%), Arabic gum (1%), HCL (1%), Methylene blue (.1%). After mixing all of these together we saw nothing except air bubbles. I was curious as to what might have gone wrong. If you could send me an email with an explanation of what could be done differently to succeed in forming coacervates that would be greatly appreciated.
181: Are vitamins in tablets more efficient than the vitamins in their natural source, like in fruit? I am trying to figure out a way to be able to test this.
182: Why does it mean that you are healthy if your poop floats?
183: I recently received laser surgery on my groin. The surgeon said that he would WELD muscle back onto the bone that had become detached, using lasers and make it easier for it to heal. How did this happen?
184: How does cancer actually kill a person ?
185: Will the anti virus drugs (I heard that people buy them in Europe) help against the bird flu virus once it spreads to humans? 2. Would a person have to take this medication until the threat is over, even if this is for month or years? I am wondering because I think that the drug does not give you immunity like a vaccine would. 3. Also, how fast would scientist come up with a vaccine after an outbreak or can they already work on a vaccine with the information they have from the virus that already killed people? Thank you very much.
186: The bird virus is called H1N5. Does anyone know what the numbers and letters mean? Why does a virus attack only certain species, like this one only birds? Are our cells not very similar in function? Thanks
187: Are there any organisms that are decomposers, producers and consumers?
188: Why is it that carbs are good for you, but if you eat too much carbs it gets stored as extra fat?
189: What was the 1st living thing on Earth and is it still alive today?
190: Why do fish live in water if they breathe from air?
191: Why do viruses attack other cells? They are not alive, so how do they know what they want to do?
192: Why do humans have fingers and toes? Are their scientific name phalanges?
193: Why do we have fingernails?
194: What is in Carbon Dioxide that can kill you?
195: Why do humans have to cook their food when animals can eat raw meat without any side effects? Thanks
196: Do fish have spongy bone with bone marrow that produces blood cells like humans? I found that sharks produce blood by the spleen and another organ called the Leydig's organ. But I couldn't find anything on how fish produce blood cells.
197: Why do humans grow hair on their skin? And why is it necessary to grow hair on your skin?
198: Why do dogs whimper instead of crying tears?
199: Do we need sun to survive?
200: How does weather affect the way we live?
201: Were Adam and Eve the very first people on Earth? If they were, were the dinosaurs living or were they extinct?
202: In science, I am studying Fragile X Syndrom for a report. Because of this I was wondering how a person can be afflicted with the disorder, and how they can get help.
203: Why does static electricity make peoples hair stand up?
204: My science class is doing reports on genetic diseases, and I was assigned to research spina bifida. Is there a lot of scientific research going on? Thanks!
205: How do scientists know that some materials for clothing can stop UV rays? Are the advertisements for this clothing reliable?
206: I am doing a report on Tay Sachs disease, and I was wondering if you could tell me what scientists and researchers are doing to help people with Tay Sachs. Thanks!
207: I'm an AP Biology student and we are learning about molecular genetics. My teachers says that certain segments (introns) of mRNA are spliced out before translation occurs. Why do we have introns then? What role do they serve? Does it have to do with evolution? Thanks a lot.
208: If I put my finger on one side of my eye I can see a black spot on the other side. Why is this?
209: How long can a human body survive?
210: How old is the oldest person in the world?
211: What causes the human body to age?
212: How big is a brain?
213: In my AP Bio class we learned that a gene codes for a specific protein (the central dogma of biology: transcription, translation, etc...). I've also read that according to the Human Genome Project that we humans have 30,000 genes, and on another website I read humans have 100,000 proteins. How can we have more proteins than genes? Do some genes contain code for more than one protein? Do some proteins come from pieces of DNA that aren't "genes"?
214: Why are dogs the only animals that can see in black and white?
215: Are human disabilities (ADD, ADHD, ect.) have anything to do with the environment around us (air quality, number of plants, ect.)?
216: Why are people and dolphins the only mammals that have sex for pleasure?
217: Where did AIDS come from?
218: What causes evolution?
219: Is yawning contageous?
220: Why did people evolve into different races?
221: What is the difference between a nucleic acid and an amino acid?
222: What is the number one fear in the entire world?
223: Why do you get a headache when you eat ice cream too fast?
224: When you spin around a lot, how come you to get dizzy?
225: How much sugar is in a bottle of coke?
226: What are the ends of bones covered with? Where are immovable joints found in the human body? What kind of joints are the knee, toes, and fingers? Which vitamin is made in the skin? Where is dead skin cells found?
227: How long does it take for a Monster energy drink to kick in after drinking it, and how long does it take until it gets out of your system?
228: What happens to a human being when subjected to space with no oxygen or protective suit? I have seen many explanations but I would like to know the exact reaction. Many Thanks.
229: Why can not you tickle yourself?
230: What makes a person's body to grow?
231: How does the heart work?
232: Why are some people smarter than others and how are some people more intelligent than others?
233: What is a smell? How does your body recognize a smell?
234: What do cells come from?
235: How can the human body grow?
236: How do we get our voices?
237: Why do we have feelings?
238: How can the actual vaccines for COVID-19 be modified in order to be effective against any mutations of this virus, like the Delta mutation? Are the actual vaccines only working on the "spike" or any other part of the virus?
239: What are scientists currently looking at to find treatment for Down syndrome?
240: What would happen to a bare human body in space? would it explode, implode or stay the same?
241: What percentage of humans in the world are albinos?
242: Does DNA have a color?
243: Is it possible to grow your DNA back after sexual reproduction?
244: Why do your teeth chatter when you are cold?
245: In my AP Bio class we were learning about the female reproductive cycle. We learned that an increase in estrogen causes the anterior pituitary to release a surge of luteinizing hormone, which releases the egg (ovulation). I also read on-line that "the pill" contains hormones, estrogen and progesterone, and these stop ovulation, but keep the rest of the cycle going. If estrogen is what causes ovulation, how can the estrogen in the pill stop ovulation? Thanks, and sorry if my question doesn't make sense. Ashley
246: I would like to know whether milk is acid or base. Is it good for a gastric patient to consume milk?? I would also like to know why hydrochloric acid resolves in water when it is a covalent.
247: Why are people different? Like Mexican, European, Chinese, etc.
248: I am currently a student-teacher, through UCSB, in a 7th grade Life Science class. I recently assigned disease reports to students and some of the assigned diseases are caused by prions. I'm certainly not expecting them to know all of the details about prions, but I figured that I should know about them in case I have questions. I've looked up information on the Internet and read the prior prion question that is posted on Science Line, but I still just don't understand how prions work. How are they infectious? How do they change other proteins? Are they anything like viruses, or more like regular old protiens. I've also seen information about them being caused by humans' own genetics, so I just want to know, basically, what they are and what they do.
249: Why is it so important to protect all species? What would happen if all animals survived?
250: Why does big red gum wrappers burn your skin?
251: Does a zygote have a diploid chromosome number?
252: How long is one guinea pig year?
253: What kills botulism?
254: I am aware that cells are differentiated into their particular functions. Furthermore, cells reproduce constantly. However, how do these cells "know" where their "cosmetic boundaries" are? For example, why don't your lip cells reproduce right into your cheek area? Why don't eyebrow-producing epithelial cells grow hair up into your forehead?
255: Do humans implode or explode in space?
256: I did an experiment the other day where somebody lies down and pushes their hand up while somebody else tries to push their hand down. Then the person lying down eats some sugar and then repeats the pushing experiment. Why does the person lying down weaken?
257: Are marshmallows somehow made out of pig skin or any animal? What are they made out of?
258: Are animal behaviors different from a person's behavior?
259: Why are skin cells undergoing mitosis continuously?
260: Why dose blood turn red when it touches the air?
261: Why do humans dream in their sleep?
262: What is the difference between venous and arterial bleeding?
263: We learned on a video that there is one T-cell and one B-cell in your body to match any virus, and if they saw their specific virus, they would start an immune response. We also learned that all cells divide by mitosis. So, how do T & B cells divide if there's one specific cell for each different virus? Does one of the two new cells die off, or does one match itself up with a new virus? Do these cells live forever, like brain cells?
264: How many dendritic cells are there in the body? About how long does it take a dendritic cell to carry the virus protein around and find the specific T-cell it matches?
265: Does your blood type alter the speed of all your organs working together or does it not matter.
266: I'm wondering about the optimal electrolytes needed by the human body during endurance exercise. Thank you.
267: What would it happen if you drink liquid nitrogen?
268: How many living things are there?
269: Is it true that some day the common lifetime of a man can expand?
270: 1. What is the difference between a vein and artery? 2. The importance of blood to the human body?
271: The importance of exercise for the heart and cardiovascular system?
272: How did humans evolve?
273: What parts of the brain deal with memory sight and sound?
274: Are there new developments in researching ways to prevent sickle cell disease after the cause is already known. If you aren't doing research, can you please guide me to a research center that can answer my question. Thank you so much for your help. Sincerely, Connor Kerns
275: If teeth sit in different concentrates of acetic acid (vinegar)then how will they react differently? Thank you and I hope you can help me!!! : )
276: In our science class we are doing a project on genetic diseases, and mine is on Spina Bifida. I have a couple of questions concerning the disease. Are the defective genes for Spina Bifida passed down through genes? Is Spina Bifida more commen in boys or girls?
277: Dear UCSB Students, I am studying about the Spina Bifida Disease. in science class and I was wondering: Have the students at UCSB made any progress of researching if there are any known antidotes to this disease? Another question is if you students know any unusual side affects of this diseise. Tanner Wolf
278: What is a good way to test the production of carbon dioxide in humans after different types of exercise? What is the very best method to measure that? My teacher wants me to use a better method other than having the person blow into a cup of water with a straw for 30 seconds immediately after the exercise, then testing to see what the pH of the water is because CO2 is acidic. Thank you very much.
279: Do you know why the mutation causing Huchinton- Gilford Progeria Syndrome causes the physical appearence of old age?
280: How did the first living things get life?
281: During mitosis demonstrations - books, videos, and other instructional sources always show the two nuclei separating; but they never show the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, or other organelles replicating in the process. It would be greatly appreciated, for my class and my understanding of the concept if you could answer this question. Thank you for your time and knowledge.
282: Dear ScienceLine, Im doing at report on Sickle cell disease and I have a few questions. Is it possible to get Sickle cell disease if you are not African- American? Does Sickle cell show it self at a certain age or is it just any age?
283: How are the gametes different from other cells in the body?
284: How does the endocrine system work in regards to nutrition and metabolism?
285: Are adults or teenagers more reliable eyewitnesses? Who has the better memory?
286: What color does blood turn when under water at 40 feet?
287: What is the difference between the brain of a teenager and an adult?
288: Is it true that knowledge can decrease memory accuracy?
289: What kind of activities do developmental psychologists do to research about human development?
290: Why do we get pimples?
291: Does radiation cause mutations
292: Does the endocrine system contain organs?
293: How does your hair keep growing?
294: How does anesthesia make you not feel anything?
295: Why dont most people have blue eyes?
296: I have heard that there are two main theories to the evolutionary origins of life, RNA first and metabolism first, can you give me some information on both?
297: If there is a sickled blood cell in your blood stream, what would happen to your body?
298: Will a human be able to survive breathing ionized air?
299: What are the three branches of life?
300: Why almost people in Europe have blue eyes and blonde hair? Thanks.
301: Do cells have brains?
302: What would happen if a red blood cell was damaged?
303: What would happen if a skeletal muscle cell were damaged?
304: What is the disease called when a child is born with no pain response?
305: What makes the sight of a specific color create a specific emotion in a specific person?

Hello, i am doing a project on gel electrophoresis and just had a few questions.

-What is the basic process?
-What is it used for? What fields?
-How is the gel prepared/made?
-How are the DNA segments tracked?
-Could the average person conduct their own gel electrophoresis experiment?

Any answers to any of these questions would be greatly appreciated.

Thank You

307: What physical ailment can happen to the red blood cell?
308: Why do fiber make you go to the bathroom?
309: To make genetic mutations do you have to change DNA or RNA? Why?
310: How do your lungs get black after you smoke?
311: When you fracture a bone, what happens to the bone?
312: Why do youn cry when you are hurt or sad?
313: What will happen to our Nervous System if we have lost our ability to see?
314: Why can we be paralyed from the waist down after a stroke?
315: If an astronaut died in space, would he decompose? (no bacteria but what about radiation?)
316: How does weather effect human emotions?
317: We learned that breast milk helps develop immunity in infants. Do these antibodies (from the mother) stay in the baby's body for his or her entire life? Or does the immune benefit only last until the baby develops its own immune system? Also, if a baby hypothetically breast fed from multiple women, would he or she develop a more comprehensive immune system?
318: I heard that antibodies are passed on from mother to child. Do antibodies get passed on through more than one generation? I mean, even if I breast feed my future children, will they still be missing out because I was not breast fed myself?
319: How was earth created and how did life begin on this planet?
320: Where are mature T lymphocytes after disappear the thymus?
321: Why nerve cells can't reproduce?
322: Why are you not crushed by atmospheric pressure?
323: Do you get different cells everyday?
324: Do Siamese twins share the same brain cells?
325: Can you be alive with no cells?
326: How can a skin cell change to a nerve cell?
327: How come whenever I go round and round in a circle it looks like I am going very, very fast, when really I am going very slowly? It is so strange. I very much want to know! So, if you have an answer please send it to me. Until my next question, good bye!
328: How do all people dream?
329: Are there any known organic substances that are anti-carcinogens?
330: What is the likelihood of an organic sunscreen actually being effective and marketable?
331: Are any of the chemicals in commercial sunscreens known or suspected to be dangerous to humans?
332: How would a professional scientist test the efficiency of organic sunscreens?
333: What would you use as a substitute for human skin?
334: What types of cancer does sun exposure cause?
335: How do animals decompose?
How do the cellular tissues break down?

I am working on a science project related to taphonomy and the decomposition of soft bodied invertebrate ocean specimens inside of alcohol jars for laboratory research.

Could you help me?

336: Are you smarter if you have a bigger brain?
337: how does a boy/girl get different sex organs than each other
338: Why do people have tissue to support their bones and joints?
339: What does offspring mean?
340: What does genetics mean?
341: What does DNA mean?
342: What is a chromsome and what does it do?
343: What helps cell divide?
344: How many times a day does a cell divide?
345: What is some evidence for evolution?
346: How did the people start talking and making the new languages of their own if they did not know from a long time ago how to talk?
347: What will happen when a fertilization occurs?
348: What will happen when a fertilization did not occur?
349: Hi, I read an article the other day about an artificial retina that nanotechnologists have recently created. I really liked it and all, but I was wondering how something like that could work. My sister who is in college now told me about brain input and output signals that are recived from electronic sources, such as the artificial retina. How would a blind person be able to "remember" what they saw with the artificial retina? If the artificial retina does not have direct contact with the part of the brain that stores information, how is seeing something, and (knowing you have seen it) possible?
350: My class and I are wondering about conceiving twins. They are wondering about the genetics of it. Does this usually go through the mother's side, father's side or both? What are the odds of conceiving a set of twins, either fraternal or identical? Do all identical twins share an amniotic sac or can they have separate ones? Thanks!
351: Does your heart really stop every time you sneeze?
352: What is carbon monoxide poisoning and why is it lethal to humans? What is the chemical reaction that occurs in the body when carbon monoxide is inhaled?
353: How does noise pollution from traffic affect the environment? What animals does it specifically affect?
354: Why is it that chicken meat is white, pig meat is pink, and cows meat is red? Does diet play a factor?
355: Do we inherit our fingerprint traits? And when you get a cut or injure finger and it breaks the skin does your fingerprint "grow" back ? Or does it change?
356: 1. What is the difference between biodegradation and bioremediation?
357: Why do only Eukaryotic cells have nucleuses?
358: The presence of flowers in bedrooms has an effect on human respiration at night. Is it real? What is this effect?
359: What are the main functions of the lymphatic system?
360: How carbon dioxide is carried in the blood?
361: What is the technique of using artificial kidney?
362: If our body is al atoms that vibrate, would cellphones, laptops and other electronics change our natural vibrations?
363: Do cells attack each other? If so,Why?
364: Since water conducts electricity, if a persons entire body is soaking wet would that then make being struck by lightning make it more life threatening?
365: What does the Flagellum help in a Prokaryotic cell?
366: How do you know that the cells in your body are alive?
367: Is eating glacial ice bad for you? I was told that if you eat ice from a glacier it will make you very sick as it has micro organisms in it. Is this true? Thank You
368: "What is the evolutionary reason for people to be tickled?"
369: When putting your finger through fire, why doesn't your skin burn?
370: Is it possible that the saliva can break down metals in your mouth, for example a tongue ring or a cavity filling?
371: Is it the actual mold or the mold juice that is used to make antibiotics?

I'm an eighth grade student at La Colina Jr High and I am doing my science fair project on carcinogens that leak into water from the plastic bottle that the water is contained in, when the bottle is heated.

I am having trouble with finding a way to test for bpa or other common carcinogens in plastic bottles that I can do! It would also be okay if I could just identify a foreign substance in the water that wasn't there before.

Thank you very much for any information you can give me.

373: What would happen if you threw a human out into space without a space suit?
374: Why do human beings feel pleasure when they hear music?
375: What effect can a microwave have on DNA? (The myth that sitting on a microwave can change your DNA.
376: Is there anyway to make yourself dream more frequently?
377: Are there known toxic environmental or human side effects of either producing or consuming artificial sugars?
378: Why do your ears and nose continue to get larger as you age?
379: How you scientists would define the words genes, genetics, and heredity?
380: In the field of Genetics, what does it mean a trait and hybrid?
381: I would like to know what is an allele?, what is a recessive allele?, and what is a dominant allele?
382: How fast do nerves send signals to and from the brain?
383: Why does your skin turn red when you get sun burned?
384: Why do peoples hair change colors when the get older?
385: Why is it when you mix a white mouse with a colored one, it comes out with a different color?
386: How does the releasing of dopamine in the brain cause people to feel good?
387: I am doing a science fair project and my question is: "Do non-video game players have faster reactions than video game players? I was wondering if there is any way at all to improve your reaction time. If you have any information that you think will help me please answer to my question. Thank you!
388: How do dry chemical heatpacks work?
389: Why do you have red blood cells couldn't they be any color or are they red for a specific reason?
390: How does icy hot work?
391: If one were to have a iron content in their blood, would they be more likely to become electrocuted or possibly would you have a worse effect from an electrocution?
392: Are there centrioles in both plant and animal cells?
393: Why does onions make you cry when you cut them?
394: Are your fingerprints on each hand the same or different?
395: Do you inherit your mom or dad's fingerprints?
396: If Darwin's theory states that humans evolved from monkeys, why are there still monkeys?
397: How can fetus or adult stem cells be used to develop organs? Have there been experiments conducted using stem cells? How can a stem cell be removed, without endangering the life of the fetus?
398: Is it possible to drink too much water, and if so, what will happen to the body, how will it react?
399: Why does helium alter one's voice?
400: How much chlorine gas can be inhaled before it has a fatal effect?
401: Why do some animals have actual babies and some have eggs?
402: I am confused about how light works, and "invisible light" works. How do we not see certain types of light? Thanks!! -Samantha
403: Is there any way to prevent genetic disorders such as Down Syndrom from happening?
404: When the earliest organism grew, did ti go extint after new ones grew?
405: In the future what will humans most likely going to look like after evolution?
406: What causes your voice to change when you inhale helium from a balloon?
407: Why is it impossible to eat a spoonfull of Cinnamon?
408: Why is it that if chlorine gas is so fatal, we are able to use it in swimming pools and allow it to come in contact with our skin, but it doesn't have a harmful effect?
409: What do animals have,that we don't have?
410: Are cells a big part of our bodys?
411: Why cant we breath under water?
412: How does a henna tattoo work, and why does water make the stain fade?
413: What is the venom type in a Western Diamondback Rattlesnake and what chemicals in the venom cause the body to practically breakdown?
414: Why does human skin itch when it reacts with grass?
415: Is it possible to develop any phsyical and/or mental addictions to the caffeine present in coffee? If so, what might they be?
416: How does chemistry and the structure and function of molecules apply to my life?
417: Did people exist during the dinosaur times?
418: Do male and female grow at different rates?
419: Does your eye color affect your eye sight??
420: How do antiseptic soaps work?
421: How does lead poisoning affect the development of babies both while they are in the womb and after birth? Thanks!

The theory goes that mutation is the raw material for evolution. Existing sequences of DNA, some of which codes for functional proteins, other sections dont, have random changes in their nucleotide sequence over time, that may persist and dawn reproductive advantage onto carriers of that gene.

I know that changes in the nucleotide sequences of the same gene have been observed across species, like in the genes that code for polypeptides in cytochrome C and hemoglobin. Based on this evidence a sort of evolutionary time line can be developed to show how far back organisms diverged from a common ancestor by comparing the numbers of differences in nucleotide sequence.

In the study of genomes thus far, is there any evidence that suggests a related sequence of nucleotides that result in different functional proteins? Not all organisms have the same proteins, so wouldnt we expect to find that when we find a novel protein on the evolutionary tree, that the nucleotide sequence that codes for that protein would be analogous or similar to a the sequence for a different functional protein? I havent come across anything on this front and was wondering what the experts know. Thanks and I hope you have lots to be thankful for! Sincerely, Bret Klopfenstein Ventura HS

423: How do you measure the different atoms in a human body since there are so many different types? Would you use the weight of the body to determine it?
424: Can you please tell me the digestive timeline for protein, fat, and starch?
425: Why does the sun turn skin darker, but hair lighter?
426: How does self-tanner work?
427: How does potassium prevent cramping in sport activities?
428: How are scientific names developed?
429: How do scientists figure out what parts of the brain control what?
430: When someone eats too many carrots or carrot juice, why does their skin turn orange? What makes the skin turn that color?
431: What germs are good for the human body?
432: What elements are present in the body?
433: What makes asbestos toxic?
434: What causes poison oak to irritate the skin? What does that have to do with chemistry?
435: What causes the hair color to change when you put different color dyes in it?
436: Can you ever drink too much water?
437: My family and I are on the Feingold diet. We do not eat foods containing artificial colors and dyes because we believe they have negative health/behavioral effects...especially on my 6 yr. old autistic brother. I have a 5th grade science experiment due and would like to do something related to food dyes and how much people eat them daily but cannot think of any exact experiment to do. Any ideas?
438: Why does chlorine turn your hair green?
439: Why does pepto bismol turn your tongue black?
440: Does air pressure increase or decrease the higher you are in air?
441: Can you ever drink too much water?
442: How does sulfur in facial cleansers help to eliminate acne?
443: Hi. In the answer to a question about ethyl alcohol and bacteria you-all wrote that ethyl alcohol can kill bacteria because it denatures the proteins in the cell and dissolves the cell membrane. I am trying to figure out how the ethyl alcohol in handgel affects viruses. I have read that all viruses have a protein coat that protects their genetic material and some have an envelope of fat that surrounds them. If the virus coat/shell is made up of proteins and /or fat if ethyl alcohol denatures the proteins in a bacterium cell, does it also denature the proteins and/or fat that make up the virus coat? If it does this, is this the reason we could say that hand gel is effective in killing viruses that may get on your hand?
444: Will food coloring kill fish?
445: We need bacteria for a science project; the name is Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1. Is this dangerous bacterium? Does work with it need to be done at a special lab?
446: Is too much chlorine harmful for the skin?
447: What substances destroy your teeth?
448: Who has bigger hands boys or girls?
449: Can mice distinguish color?
450: Which fingerprint is more popular in the index finger?
451: Which grows faster scalp hair or body hair?
452: How does potassium prevent menstrual cramps and cramps during physical activity?
453: What information is coded into DNA?
454: Will eating junk foods like soda, chips, and candy increase your energy for a short amount of time?
455: What causes that shock I feel when my body comes into contact with metal?
456: What is the chemical compound in sunscreen that prevents harmful UV rays from penetrating the skin?
457: How does sunscreen block harmful UV rays from reaching the skin?
458: How does deodorant prevent us from sweating under our armpits?
459: A work co11egue has asked me to ask , if an astronaut was lost in space would his body decompose?
460: How does the human body use copper?
461: What chemicals in the no calorie sugar replacement, Splenda, cause cancer?
462: Why is it that when you exhale into water, the water from your breath becomes acidic and fizzy?
463: Why does the sun lighten our hair but darken our skin?
464: If soap is a base, why do we not get burned?

When I drink a smoothie to fast, or jump in cold water, my head hurts really bad, and I am getting dizzy.
How does that happen, and why does that happen. Is it true that pressing your thumb against the roof of your mouth helps stopping that feeling?

Thank you a lot for your help!

466: What makes chili peppers hot/spicy?
467: What is the chemical reaction that causes the fizziness in Fizzy Candy?
468: How does The Transderm Scp patch work and how does it stop nausea?
469: How do acne creams help to make the acne disappear?
470: How do teeth whitening products work?
471: How does eating carrots enhance your vision?
472: What causes teeth whitener to work? How does it actually whiten your teeth?
473: Why are babies born with blue eyes?
474: Why is Gatorade better for athletes then water?
475: Is there chemistry involved in love?
476: How do the chemicals in Novocain work to numb a certain part of the body?
477: Hi there! I was just wondering: why are some acids harmful but others can be present in food? Also, why does acid burn your skin? Thank you so much and hope to hear from you soon!
478: How does tetracycline eliminate acne in the body?
479: I was wondering how sun screen protects skin from getting sun burnt?
480: Do humans all like different tastes or do we all like the same taste but we taste each food differently?
481: Do we all see the same colors or do we see different colors but just grow up to call the color the same way?
482: Why do some people get alergic to certain things but other people not?
483: Two other friends and I are conducting a science fair project in which the question is: How does different footwear, or lack thereof, affect running ergonomics? There are many tests we can conduct with our own equipment, but a great addition to the project would be access to forceplates and any other instruments to measure weight distribution and or the stresses and forces incurred on the body while in the process of running. If no one working at the university has the means to test these things a nudge in the right direction would be much appreciated!

I'm asking for help with the assistance of my teacher. I'm doing a science fair and research project on the golden ratio in nature. I'm interested in mathematics and finding relationships between things I can measure in the real world.

I've been doing research on the golden ratio and I've found that the information is either too general or too advanced. I think there may be two ways you could help me:

1. I would like some help finding material that could help inform me appropriately (beyond the junior high level, but easier than graduate school) for my mathematical research.

2. Is it possible that there might be someone on campus willing to mentor me?

Teacher's note: This student is one of the brightest girls I've seen! Worth nurturing/Mentoring!!!!


I am doing a project on DNA sequence and on how changes in the sequence cause disorders. For example, cystic fibrosis is caused by a recessive allele. When you look at that string of DNA you can see there are three DNA bases missing. Here are my questions I need answered:

1) What kind of technology you would use when looking for the DNA impurities?

2) In the sequences is it easy to point out the mistakes or are they hard to see?

3) Is a specific name for this action or do I just call it DNA sequencing?

4) Is it possible to replace the mistakes with the correct sequence?

--Thank you

486: Is it true that if you laugh a lot, you will live longer? if so why?
487: How do you get head aches? Why?
488: Why is blood red?
489: What does Vitamin D have to do with calcium?
490: Hello, I am doing a science project on the element Zinc. I was wondering if you could help me with relevant information about it.
491: We have been having classes about drug abuse and how to avoid it (D.A.R.E. program from the School District). Is the problem with alcoholism related to our parents' genes or is it something we humans get by drinking too much alcohol?
492: Do you have any unique information for the use of Calcium, the element?
493: Are all plant cells square and all animal cells more round in shape?
494: What is color blindness, how can you tell when you get it and are there any treatments to get rid of it?
495: What is it that salt enriches flavors?
496: When does a baby start having memories that affect her/his behavior when she/he becomes a grown up?
497: How does a mummy body stay the same?
498: Can humans bring dinosaurs back to life like Frankenstein?
499: How is that you get seasick when you are on a boat?
500: After how many generation of Chromosomal crossover will human beings stop?
501: What common ancestor do humans and other mammals share?
502: If a human had been uploaded with a computer program, how could one test his brain to prove it, and determine who the originator of that program was?
503: How can obligate anaerobe bacteria can survive without respiration of oxygen!?
504: Why can people see more clearly when they squint their eyes?
505: What part of the ear makes a person go deaf?
506: What is the function of a plant cell and what is the function of an animal cell? Are their functions different?
507: What living things do not have vertebrates?
508: Why are spiders dangerous?
509: How can we test the effectiveness of rubbing alcohol in killing bacteria?
510: Why the exoskeleton present at joints is flexible and soft? Significance?
511: Is there a sixth human body sense and how does it work?
512: How many particles run through the human body?
513: How many times does your heart beat?
514: If I put food coloring in my veins, will it kill me? I want to know if my veins will change color for a science fair project.
515: Why animal cells have more variety in shape than plant cells?
516: Are viruses alive? What about prions?
517: Hello,
I am interested in studying how fingerprints develop and form in different people. Is there anyone at UCSB who could help me find out more about how fingerprints exactly form? I would also be interested in possibly working with someone who researches embryological development because I think that it relates to the development of fingerprints. Thank you very much,

518: How do different forms of teaching, including text, visuals, and audio learning, affect students' comprehension tests? Which age and STAR test score level was affected the most?
519: How does the amount of pressure put on students to perform well affect their test scores?
520: How to test or create better questions for testing? I would like to perform a good high school level project. Any suggestions on would be greatly appreciated.
521: How do different surfaces affect the preservation of finger prints?

In science, I am starting a Science Fair project and I have a few questions that need to be answered for guidance and advice. My project is: How do the size, color and amount of time to see an image affect a person's image memory?

1) What do you suggest I should do to test the affects of different sizes, colors and amount of time to look at an image on a person's image memory?

2) How would I measure these effects?

3) What do you suggest I should do to record my data?

4) Does level of intelligence and age affect a person's image memory? How?

5) Based on your experiences, how do you think image memory affects a person or a community?

Thank you for taking the time to answer my questions.

523: Do finger prints stay heat sensitive longer depending on the surface the print is applied to?
524: Why do we have fingerprints or 'prints' on only our palms and feet? Is there a difference between the types of the skin?
525: How can I get information or background research for handwriting analysis?
526: My question for my science fair project is how does age affect how quick you see an illusion? I was wondering what topics I should research for my background section? Thanks!
527: Do Football helmets contribute to head injuries and concussions in the NFL (National Football League)? I wanted to know if you had an instrument that measures force when is hit. Can you tell me what kind of instruments can I use to measure those forces?
528: Hi -
We are studying protozoa and have some questions about the shape of ameobas. In the slides & videos we've seen, the pseudopods look like arms that reach around and engulf a bacteria into a food vacuole. However, you can still see the bacteria... does that mean that there is no pseudopod "on top" of the bacteria? Or are pseudopods 3-dimentional? We don't know, since we've only seen them on slides, flattened under cover slips - what shape are ameobas when they float freely in the water?

529: Does your eye color affect your eyesight? If so, I have hazel eyes, would I see better or worse than others? I'm just curious.
530: Can a person live without gall bladder?
531: Who is the oldest person in the world?
532: What animals have the most bones in its body?
533: In Psychology, it is a well known fact that one can change oneself through positive self- affirmation & visualization .It is believed that the self-affirmations to the subconscious mind are best done in an already achieved mode. For example, a student who is weak in mathematics and wish to improve on it should say the self- affirmations as I am excellent at mathematics & also visualize himself as ALREADY being good at Math repeatedly. Or a person who is a coward could reprogram his mind by saying to himself, I am brave, etc. This is so that the subconscious mind is set with the positive intended goal and thus will program the whole body with the message. But the question is that such self-affirmation is not the truth (or not the truth yet). When he is telling himself that he is ALREADY being good at Math, he is actually lying to himself. So, would it better to say,I am getting better and better at Math rather than I am excellent at Math?
534: Can you please tell me the digestive timeline for protein, fat, and starch?
535: We have been learning about the immune response (natural killer cells, dendritic cells, t-cells, etc.) and I have a question: how many times a day / week / month does your immune system fight off viruses? Is it happening all the time?
536: Do scientists ever use hypertonic solution to kill cancer cells?
537: Are baby lungs filled with air while in the womb? If not, what is inside the babies' lungs before they are born?
538: How does the volume of "Pumped Up'd Kicks" by Foster the People, affect the heart rate of a person?
539: If you listen to a Country song, a Hip-Pop song, a Rock song, a Rap song, and a Jazz song, what type of song would make your heart rate the lowest(and highest)?

What is music therapy?

What type/tempo affects moods in what way?

541: How long does it take for the temporal lobe to convert short-term memories into long-term memories?

542: What influences memories? Does rapid movement not store as well as something that is still does?
543: Is there a specific color that the brain reacts to?
544: How does age affect sensory, short, and long term memory?
545: Why don't we remeber anything from our early lives?
546: Why do some events stand out in our memory more than others?
547: Could gender affect someone's memory?
548: What section of the brain controls sensory, short, and long term memory?
549: What exactly causes a memory from sensory to short term to long term memory?
550: Do you believe that acronyms are a resourceful tool to remember things?
551: Propylene glycol is said to be used in shampoo. Is this harmful to hair, and/or does it clean sebum better?
552: Is there a correlation between fingerprints amongst family members?
553: If I test fingerprints of families, do I have to have the same amount of members in each family?
554: When I have to write results/complications of the fingerprints tests should I mention the number of members that I tested in every family?
555: What elements in sugar have a negative affect on the body? Do all sugars have this affect?
556: What part of the brain is affected by music the most? Thank you! :)
557: What is that section of the brain's reaction to music?
558: Are there specific reasons why some colors affect people emotionally?
559: Does the brain react differently to certain tempos?
560: Some memories we remember more than others. Why?
561: Does age affect the brain's reaction to music?
562: Does eating healthy affect daily brain activity?
563: Does the brain respond to familiar music differently than unfamiliar music?
564: Do any other lobes, beside temporal lobes, affect the storing of memories?
565: Does music affect your brain differently for problem-solving versus writing?
566: Hi! I need to ask you a few questions for my science project, so here they are: Do events in our life affect brain activity and memory? Gracias! (:
567: Why do human beings having emotions and feelings?
568: If I dont have the right amount of vitamin C in me, then what will start to happen to my body?
569: If you boil any other type of vitamin besides vitamin C, will it lose the same amount of its nutrition content?
570: Does it matter if there are words in the music you are listening to? Can those words get your brain flowing with new word ideas and help with thought processing or anything of the like?
571: Can your brain waves sync with the beat of the music you are listening to?
572: Is there any research existing showing relationship between brain activity and concentration?
573: Can the rhythm or bass of music affect how you concentrate? Like if the bass were loud and repetitive it could become annoying and take your attention towards it.
574: I have 5 questions.
1) Do colors affect emotion?
2) Which colors have the greatist effect on someones emotions?
3)Would a combination of colors have a greater effect on someone?
4)Does color have to be a certain shade for it to have an effect on emotion?
5)Do all colors have an effect on emotion?


I am doing a science project for school and my question is, "How does music affect concentration?" I have five questions for you:

What part of the brain is responsible for concentration?

576: How does age affect how quick one sees an illusion and how does personal relevance affect how quick one sees an illusion?
577: When was the Kastle Meyer Blood test first used? What is the history behind it? How does the Kastle Meyer Blood Test work in its process of detecting blood? Why does it produce a purple pink color that equals a positive result? What is the purpose of using hydrogen peroxide 3% in the Kastle Meyer Blood Test? What causes peroxide to be detected as blood during the initiation of the Kastle Meyer Blood Test resulting in a false positive?
578: Is phenolphthalein the same or at all similar to phenol red?
579: Does music affect everyones' heart rate?
580: Does listening music through a stereo system or through headphones differ when you are testing heart rate after listening to music?
581: After listening to music and then testing the change in heart rate, does age differ?
582: After listening to music and then testing the change in heart rate, does gender differ?
583: What part of the brain controls concentration?
584: What type of music affects concentration the most?
585: Does listening to music while taking a test affect students test scores?
586: Does music affect concentration?
587: If my hypothesis is; if volunters listen to "pumped up kicks" by Foster the People at 25 50 75 and 100db, then there heart rate will change most after 100db, then do you think age would matter? With the above information do you think that what they where doing before the test would matter? Do you think that during the test the volunteer should be without distraction? My last question would be, do you think that I should test the volunteers heart rate or tust they will give me the right answer?
588: How do different kinds of music affect concentration?
589: Does melanin have other functions besides protection from ultraviolet radiation exposure?
590: How are scientists able to know the role of neurotransmitters in the human brain when they can not see the synaptic connection among neurons?
591: If we were able to unfold the brain, how big would it be? Would it be long like an intestine or flat and round like a tortilla?
592: What is the effect over a persons vocal range if the singer warms up before singing, and which other factors affect the persons vocal range?
593: As to your answer to the experiment of testing the effectiveness of a rubbing alcohol in killing bacteria http://www.scienceline.ucsb.edu/search/DB/show_question.php?key=1310071505&task=category&method=&form_keywords=&form_category=chemistry&start=, which one should fall apart first? And why?
594: I was just wondering how many chromosomes it takes to make one strand of DNA? Thanks, hopefully you reply soon.
595: Why aren't monkeys turning into humans right now?
596: Is there a scientific name for when a person has two different color eyes? meaning each eye is a different color. Also, is it an inherited trait? Is this trait on a specific chromosome? Thank You
597: What is the most common disease in teenagers, that is fatal?
598: How do our brains function similarly to small animals if they aren't the same size?
599: Since a Stimulant increases the body's activities, and a Depressant is the exact opposite, is an Anti-Depressant considered a Stimulant?
600: Since an inhalant is something inhaled, is an inhaler considered a drug?
601: What makes some twins of the same sex identical and others not?
602: Im wondering how come people have different brains, minds, and intelligence?
603: We were studying about different kind of lenses. How can contact lenses help people see better, when they are on top of your eyes?
604: Why can many plants and animals adapt better than others?
605: I always hear about pH on things like bottles of acne face wash, which claim to "restore your pH balance", or deodorant that is "pH balanced just for you". What does this mean?
606: We want to know is blood blue or red? It looks blue in the inside and on the outside it is red.
607: In your body is your blood blue or red?
608: Does the carbon dioxide change the pH of our blood? (I was doing an experiment and we were using straw and we had to blow inside the water and the pH changed.)
609: Why does water only smells when it is mixed with something?
610: Is it possible if we brought all the supplies to live on the Moon?
611: What concrete evidence do scientists actually have that we evolved from monkeys and that the "big bang" actually happened?
612: Do you believe in aliens?
613: If we use only 10% of our brain-what is the other 90% doing?
614: Why does Lyndsay have one blue and one brown eye?
615: Why are the trunks of trees brown?
616: What are the black dots you see when you close your eyes?
617: How many different traits are located on the 23 pairs of chromosomes?
618: Why do some girls grow a little mustache? Is it normal or is there something wrong with them?
619: I wonder, did humans ever metamorphize in any time? Because I saw insects did it. Did the neanderthal change in some way so that they could look like humans today? I know it's not the same exactly as insects, but how are they the same?
620: I know we have a vocal box, but I do not know how the vocal box works. Could you help? We do not have any reference book that I could use to look up this topic.
621: I wonder if you know of any web sites or information on the ozone layer.
622: Is there really life on Mars? What evidence is there that there may or may not have been life on Mars?
623: I was wondering how ultrasound works. Ive seen it in T.V. and it looks really weird. When I saw it all I see is something moving, How can you guys tell where the arms and the legs are? Is there a better method for looking inside the stomach without hurting the baby?
624: How big is the ozone hole? Is the hole getting bigger or smaller? Can the ozone layer/hole be repaired, by nature or otherwise? How long do CFCs take to reach the ozone layer and eat it up? How big will the ozone layer get by the year 2000?How could we stop the ozone hole from getting bigger? Will the ozone hole affect the earth's gravity? What will happen if the hole gets really big? Would we die?
625: I have a problem, and I need your help to solve it. My teacher took away my laser when I shined it at another student in class, because he said it's bad for our eyes. He said I could get it back if I could find out WHY its bad for our eyes. Does it really hurt you eyes? If it does, why?ps. Please write back fast because the laser isn't mine!
626: I never heard of ozone near the ground.Does it affect in any way or protect us in others? Is there any way we can improve it? If the higher ozone gets destroyed, can the lower one protect us?
627: Why does the heart need to beat and pump blood through the body? How and why do people get heart diseases? I already know that smoking and drinking can cause heart diseases,but what else? Why does the body need a heart? I know the heart is a major muscle but why does the body need it? Is there another way to move blood? I am also interested in any information sources you have on the heart.
628: Why cant our eye and brain process certain parts of the electromagnetic spectrum? We know that we can see the visible part, and that other animals can process infrared, for instance. What is it that makes our brains different in this respect?
629: My school is surrounded by fields. I always see helicopters and trucks spraying the fields with pesticides. Our track at school is less than 20 feet away from those fields. We run a mile for P.E. about 2 times a month. Kids at our school always go home sick. Since our school is so close to the fields, I think that we inhale those pesticides. I was wondering if there is any information about short term effects like when you first breath it and if there is any information about long term affects like stuff you dont know thats happening but its happening? Thank you for your time.
630: Pretend you are one of the field workers, you are working really hard, and you are hot and sweaty. When you sweat your body opens up these little pores that let out the sweat. My question is, when the pores of a field worker open can pesticides or germs get in the body through the pores before they close?
631: Our beach had an oil leak sometime around 1992- 1994. I want to know how that oil leak could effect us and the animals that live in the ocean? Maybe you heard about the Unocal oil leak in Guadalupe. I havent found good information on the health problems. I want to know.... what are the effects to us.... where could I find out?
632: Somtimes I get an asthma attack from cigarettes,and other times not.Im wondering if the difference is in me or in the kind of smoke from different cigarettes?Can you help with this question? Thanks for your help.
633: I have been to LOS ANGELES and I stayed there for four days and my eyes started to hurt so I was wondering if pollution affects eyesight that cant be treated.
634: I heard tail pipe exhaust is harmful to the environment. Can you make a filter for a tail pipe that can block the harmful parts of the exhaust? (I guess I need to know what is in the exhaust that causes problems first)
635: Are all chemicals harmful to future generations? Do bug sprays harm babies? What exactly causes air pollution? What type of diseases does pollution cause for humans? If pollutions was to enter a black hole what would happen?
637: I'm interested in the Sympathetic Nervous System. How does it work? What nerves make the different organs in the human body work? What happens when something goes wrong? Can this system be fixed?
638: Why does helium make your voice high?
639: Why is it that your body starts to age? Why must your body get thin and fragile?
640: Why are some people more flexible than others, and how do they get so flexible? Why are some bones stronger than others?
641: I am doing the rubber bone experiment to take minerals out of chicken bones. I am using vinegar. I want to learn how my bones get the calcium from the milk I drink. How does the milk get from my stomach to my bones?
642: How does the fetus develops inside the mothers stomach? How do cells develop in the fetus?
643: I am studying the humans heart I found interesting information in books, but I don't read in English too well yet. I found a page in the Internet that told me the names of the parts of the human heart . I don't have a lot of information but I hope you could help me.
644: I heard what I consider an old wives tale. Does the amount of X or Y chromosomes produced by a male human depends on the frequency of sex that the male is having? I was told a man is more likely to have boys than girls if he was having sex more often.
645: Why do humans only use 10% of their brain?
646: Why do we have toes?
647: Why do people have to die?
648: How does your skin heal a cut? How does it know when to stop healing?
649: Could life survive on a Asteroid? On Earth there are six characteristics of life. In the search for alien life forms are the characteristics of life the same?
650: How long would it take for an island formed by a volcano to become habitable?
651: Why do we have hair and why in their specific locations on the body?
652: How much pressure is needed to cause a bone fracture?
653: What are boogers and why do we get so many?
654: What causes the disease hemophilia? Who can get it?
655: Why do we have freckles and birth marks?
656: Why do people dream?
657: If all of the plants on Earth died, how long would it be before we run out of oxygen?
658: How did bacteria develop on Earth?
659: Is it possible for people to live in space? Why do people want to do that?
660: Is there any possible way that people here on Earth could live on other planets like Saturn, Jupiter, or the Sun?
661: Why do we have deja vu?
662: What causes spontaneous combustion?Extra question from those X-Files fans: Can humans spontaneously combust?
663: What is the scientific meaning for love?
664: Do we have the technology to freeze people and brind them back to life? What would happen to the water in our body if we were frozen, wouldn't it expand...and isn't this a potential problem to freezing humans?
665: Why can't we send an astronaut to Jupiter on a satelite or probe? Will we ever be able to send a human to the outer planets?
666: When twins are identical, what factor causes one to become right-handed domiance and the other left-handed domiance?
667: We watched the Guinness Book of World Records and saw that scientists were growing human parts, like ears, on other species, such as rats. We were wondering how this process was possible. We would appreciate any response. Thanks.
668: I am trying to find out what kind of poisions are in cigarette smoke. can you help me?
669: Has the cure for cancer already been found? On the internet, I found referecnes to the cure for cancer (already detected in the years 1920-1930 by different scientists like George Lakhovsky, Nikkola Tesla and Royal Raymond Rife?). Using a Multi Wave Oscillator they ware able to regenarate the human body cells. Are there any modern science investigations done to confirm or deny this? Is this just a myth?
670: How are recombinant plasmids moved through the membrane into the receiving bacterium.The story in the high school bio textbook is simply that restriction enzymes clip the gene of interest, it is recombined with a ligase, and then this transformed plasmid is reintroduced into the cell - but no real explanation. Can you explain this process?
671: Why do your fingers wrinkle after soaking in the bath?
672: Why do the sun and moon look bigger when seen on the horizon than they do when high in the sky?
673: I am currently participating in a project where I have to design a space settlement. I would like some data on the materials and the processes being developed/studied here. If you have any such information, could you help me?
674: In regards to extraterrestrial life, I wonder about their "rate of life". I mean, could what we call a second be a year for their species. So, a message from us like "Hello" would be a year- long "HHHHHHHHHH...eeeeeeeeee...lllllllllllllllll lll...oooooooooo." If our thought processes are at two very different rates, then communication would seem impossible. OR, is there one rate of life in all the universe? It seems that this would have to be the case for any contact to occur since the probability of another species' "rate of life" being close to ours appears to be zero. Do you think our rate of life is connected to the speed of light. So, for example, an alien species with a rate of life one hundred times ours would see light travelling one hundred times slower? (or faster?)
675: As a scientist, how would you explain how the Earth was created after the Big Bang occurred? Where did animals, plants the human race come from?
676: If the sun were to explode, what is the probability that human life forms would survive? Is there a possibility of a "Counter Earth."
677: How do computers contain so much information in them? They are so small, but we are bigger and contain less information?
678: How many skin cells get damaged when we first get out of bed? How long before they die? Does any cell ever [avoid being] eaten? How do skin cells get their food to stay alive? Do skin cancer cells live longer than regular cells?
679: Since I [started]...Junior High, and Ive seen many cases on TV where young ladies had babies during their adolescence . I have been wondering about the cause for teenagers to be involved in sexual activities. So my question is: What is the reason for sexual activity between teenagers?
680: Why can't humans make the 8 amino acids which we need toget from the diet? Is it a loss of a past ability, or are we maybe gaining the ability? What amino acids do you acquire from beans and rice, versus milk, and versus tofu?
681: Why are some people gay or lesbian?
682: Why do the bruises change colors over time?
683: Do cells go through the same changes as human beings, or do they go through different changes? In other words, do they start little, go through some kind of puberty, then get old??
684: Why do people have different skin colors?
685: What are the reasons that could keep humans from living longer than anyone does now?
686: How do people die without any accident or any disease? Do they really die of old age?
687: Why do old people get white hairs? Who found out about cells in our body? We are very curious!
688: How does respiration work? How fast does respiration work?
689: When we take a bath or a shower, do cells fall in the water? Can cells sense stuff?
690: What do we know about the specifics of the bonding process between a diatomic oxygen molecule (O2) and the third oxygen atom, the combination of which ends up as O3? Does it have to do with radiation? How exactly does it happen? What are the effects of inhaling ozone on the human body? I know that it is harmful to plants and even deadly to them, but what does it do to humans?
691: Do you think all stocks of polio virus should be destroyed with the upcoming eradication of the disease?
692: Why does hair grow in your nose?
693: During mitosis, why is there a line that splits the cell when the cell divides and what causes it to do so in animal cells?
694: Do any other animals have an appendix? If so what is it used for? Do you know what ours was or is used for? Could ours have been used for the same purpose long ago?
695: If brown hair comes from pigments (proteins), aren't gray hairs formed when the pigment is no longer produced? But then why have I seen gray hairs that are gray at the end but dark at the root? What is the story with gray hairs? How do grayhairs form?
696: From what does the yolk form? Endoderm? Mesoderm? Ectoderm?
697: Why do some people believe schizophrenia as having a largely environmental component?
698: How does the eggshell form on the egg?
699: How long does it take before your eyes get damaged when looking at the sun?
700: What did we use our tonsils for in the past? Why do they get infected? Why do we remove them? Why don't we use them any more?
701: What characteristic of radioactive material creates mutations in organisms? Do certain radioactive elements have different affects on organisms, or is it purely chance that a material would cause mutations?
702: I wanted to know if a human were to be totally comsumed by tar and the body was 50ft under ground if the body were to be dragged out after thousands of years would the body be compleatly preserved or would it be all rotten and decomposed due to the natural way of thing?
703: Are there any organisms on earth that have a triple helix DNA strand? If so, how did these organisms evolve this way? If not, is it possible for an organism to have a triple helix DNA strand?
704: How many chromosomes does an elephant have?
705: Since an inhalant is something inhaled, is an inhaler considered a drug?
706: Viruses fascinate me. How is that they are not living organisms? Do you have an idea how did they evolve from other organisms? I was thinking that they probably evolved from the mitochondria, is it possible?
707: Is it possible to have a real life Furry. You know, the animals that can walk on two legs, and have human characteristics. Is this possible?
708: Is hand sanitizer really effective? Also, since it doesn't kill viruses, should it really say "Kills 99% of all germs!" It seems a bit of a lie. Isn't it better to just wash our hands?
709: What type of sound waves does an accordion produce?
710: How many joints are in a human body?
711: Can physical health effect your ability to learn?
712: When a person gets diabetes, what organ is malfunctioning? What is it failing in the human body that produces any kind of diabetes?

Hello, I am a current intern at Nationwide Children's Hospital in Columbus Ohio and I am having some trouble with teaching myself some cell signaling pathways for microbial pathogenesis. I taught myself the three complement pathways to destroy pathogens through the use of C5bC78 added to around 10-16 C9s to make a MAC, but I am trying to teach myself the toll-like receptor pathways and others like that. I am very much a visual learner but these pictures that I am getting online are too complex for me to decipher. Also, the videos online that I am finding are too simple and I need to go more into depth. I have a presentation of what I did in the lab for the past few months coming up on August 10th and I need to be as well prepared as I can be because a scholarship is on the line that I am competing with other students for and it is vital that I am well prepared to be as versed as I can be in the topic of microbial pathogenesis and immunology. Are there any sites or books that you would recommend me looking for? I would really like help here! Thanks so much.

714: Why are tears so salty?
715: Do multi-cellular plants and fungi possess immune systems analogous to those found in animals, with white blood cells?
716: What is the theory of evolution?
717: What is microbial biotechnology?
718: Why living things need to be fed?
719: Why is GTP used in translation and transcription instead of ATP?
720: How do divers equalize the pressure in great depths?
721: Does stem cells treatment can cure frontal temporal disorder?
722: How do biosensors transmit messages to the cell?
723: When do sperms come in the human body?
724: When a red blood cell gets old and worn out a white blood cell surrounds and engulfs it, forming a vesicle that then fuses with a Lysosome. What is this process called?
725: What happens when you drink too many energy drinks?
726: Why do we need water to survive?
727: In how many directions do our blood circulates in the body?
728: If cells are the smallest unit of living things, are cells made out of cells?
729: If a woman has sex with two different men can the child have the DNA of both men and the women? The sex was say within three hours of each orgasm.
730: How is blood sugar controlled in a healthy individual? I would like to know the role of enzymes, hydrolysis, condensation and the hormones that control blood sugar via bio-synthetic and catabolic processes.
731: If a red blood cell is damaged. Does it get paralyzed or not?
Thank You.


I have a question about the genetic similarities between the major primate species (orangutans, chimpanzees, gorillas, gibbons, and bonobos) and humans. A lot of times one hears about how humans and chimps are the closest to each other genetically, differing in their genetic makeup by only a few percent. I´m wondering though, how close genetically are the great apes to each other?

For example, how close are chimps to gorillas, gibbons, or bonobos? Or gorillas to orangutans, etc.? Do you guys know of any references comparing the genetic codes of all of the great apes to humans (from which I could deduce how similar the great apes are from themselves)? Or perhaps a direct comparison of primate genetic codes to each other? I´m mostly interested in the overall percentage difference between each species, but I´d love to look at any additional information as well such as where their genetic codes differ with regard to each other.

Any help or references to resources on the subject would be greatly appreciated! Thanks!


733: How many chromosomes are there in a Geometrid Moth?
734: From my own research I learned that cancer cells are created by abnormal cells that have undergone a change,and they use the amino acids in your body literally eating you alive. Can cancer be killed by the depletion of the amino acids in a person's body? Also, how could we sustain their life because amino acids are the bases of a human protein and body, but they are also the fuel and build if cancer?
735: Can viral RNA multiply itself inside the cell membrane with ribosomes and get through all of the cell defenses (such as lysosomes and splicer insomes)? Are there such things as defensines?
736: How do you prove in an experiment that digestion occurs and how?
737: Can viral deoxyribonucleic acids infect the nucleus and other organelles? Do defensins poke holes in an infected cell? Does viral DNA and RNA look the same as our DNA and RNA?
738: I was wondering if you know where can I buy callus initiation medium and clone induction medium? I'm doing a project dealing with plant cloning. If you know where to get them that would be a big help!
739: Is it necessary to insert the nucleus of somatic cell of any animal in an egg cell of the same type of animal in cloning? Can we insert sheep somatic cell in cow egg cell and have a successful cloning? If so,why is it possible? If not,why is not it possible?
740: I think that Science has successfully done cloning. I think that Science is doing progress in body preservation after death. Combining body preservation and cloning, can Science recreate and bring back a death body, let say after 4 years of being buried? I mean, can Science work on a skeleton, fixing every part of the body and bringing it back to life?
741: What is enamel?
742: If you compare the two sequences of HindIII and HaeII, is there anything unusual about the sequence itself? Is there something about AAGCTT or AATT that might suggest it is something other than random if you came across it in a DNA sequence? If you wanted to cut up a genome into smaller pieces instead of larger pieces, and you had the three enzymes to choose from that we talked about above, which enzyme would you use? The 4, 6 or 8 base pair cutter, and why?
743: Why people living in India and UK have different eye color ?
744: How does the cardiac muscle contract and relax in a proper way (rhythmically) if it has not bony attachment or nerves?
745: Why are some people visual learners and some people auditory learners? How can you test them to find out which one they are? Thank you!
746: If I wanted to do a science project having to do with does middle school math stay with through adulthood? Should I test them on basic everyday life questions or more complicated math that is not used in everyday life?
747: Is Panda bear related to Raccoon?
748: What is the function of the nucleus pulposus in adult? Not Embryo
749: Is a thumbprint from someon\'s left hand identical to a thumbprint from the right hand?
750: Are the smooth muscles in continuous working (contract & relax) for life? For example, if the stomach is empty, will it work or not? How do both states (contract & relax) work in the body according to the organ? Note: ignore the peristaltic period please.
751: If red blood cells would become curved, what will it happen? How can we improve blood circulation & reshape red blood cells if they are damaged?
752: Can you show me a picture of spider bites?
753: How do the nerves in our tongue work?
754: How does the dizzying motion after-effect (from spinning on a swing) affect hand-eye coordination? How long does the effect last in comparison to how long one spins for?
755: Hi, I am currently working on my eight grade science fair project. I am testing if stage fright is real or just in your head. I was wondering if there was an expert I could interview about my topic. Someone trained in Psychology is what I was thinking. Thank-You!

Hi scientists,
I am in 8th grade and I\'m starting to work on the science fair project. The question for my project is:
How does sight affects taste?

I will test that by having 3 equal amounts of soda drinks in clear cups. One will be cherry, one will be grape and one will be lemon/lime. The volunteers will first taste each drink and try to guess the flavors. Next, I will blindfold the volunteers and have them guess again. Then I will add food coloring to the drinks to make the cherry look like grape, lemon/lime look like orange and grape look like root beer or cocoa cola. The volunteers will then test each drink and tell me what they think each flavor is. My hypothesis is that on the control and blindfolded test, most people will guess correctly. On the incorrect colored test, I think people will guess the cherry to be grape, the lemon/lime to be orange and the grape to be coca cola.

a. Do you think that the procedures should be done differently in order to answer my question (How does sight affects taste)?
b. Do you think the colors of each flavor make a difference, or should I change them?
c. Do you think my hypothesis is correct?
d. Is there anything important that I need to know before I start conducting the experiment?
e. How many volunteers do you think I should have to make the experiment reliable?
f. How do you think I should graph this information?
g. Do you think this are too many variables to deal with, and should I make it to just one flavored drink?
h. Is there anything else you know about why sight effects taste that you think is important to conduct this experiment?
i. What do for your career, and what is your knowledge in this topic?
Thank you so much for your time and expertise on this subject. This will help me greatly on my science project.

757: How does chlorine affect material over a long period of time? How does chlorine affect peoples’ health?
758: Does your nose run in space?
759: Why chilly tastes bitter?
760: 1. What part of the brain stores and helps with concentration? 2. Can music improve test scores? 3. What part of the brain does music trigger? 4. How can I make my project the best it can be?
761: I am doing my science fair project which is: Does chewing gum improve memory? These are my questions:1. What section of the human brain holds memory 2. What techniques improve memory? 3. Can chewing gum improve your memory? 4. How does gum stimulate the brain? 5. How can I make my project the best it can be? 6. What is your profession? Thank you

My science project is: How does music affect blood pressure?

1. How do you think music affects blood pressure?

2. Can music be healthy to listen to?

3. How can I make my project the best it can be?

763: What happens if your body does not produce red blood cells? Is this something that has happened to anybody?
764: What is tetnus?
765: I am working on a science project about how color affects taste and I was wondering if you could help me with advice. I would like to interview a scientist via email. I would be asking questions like: Are there any flaws in how I set up my experiment? What do you think is the most efficient way to test this hypothesis? I would also like to do some questions about the topic itself.

Thank you! What is your favorite part of life science? Least favorite?

Also, I was planning on conducting my project by:
1) having 15 test subjects throw 5 tennis balls each into a hoola hoop / bucket 10 meters away.
2) spinning 15 test subjects on a swing for 30 seconds and then having them immediately throw 5 tennis balls each into a hoola hoop/bucket 10 meters away.
3) once the subject gets off swing I will have a timer set to time how long they feel dizzy for and will stop the timer when they notify me they no longer feel dizzy
4) recording and comparing results

Do you have any suggestions to help make my experiment more accurate? precise? better in general?

thank you so much!


I am doing a science project on How smell affects memory and I am interested in finding someone to interview and answer my questions.Here are my questions, and I hope to hear back about someone I can interview. Thanks. Questions:

1. How are the brain and olfactory bulb connected?.
2. How does memory work?.
3. How much of the information one learns is remembered for the average person?
4. Are smells remembered?
5. Can perfumes be linked to memories?
6. How does the brain store memories?
7. Where does the brain store memories?
8. Are there certain smells proven to trigger memories?
9. What are some smells that have effects on the brain?

768: Is there a speed at which the force of the car's motion makes it so that the seat belt can no longer protect the passenger?

Hi, I am doing a science project on how sight and smell affect the taste of food. I am testing 5 sugars and I have five questions.

1. Have there been experiments done like mine? If so what were the results?
2. What do you think my results will be?
3. Do you know the connection between smell and taste?
4. Have you tested the connection between the two senses often?
5. What do you do daily while working?

770: Why is the blood type AB called AB
771: Why is the giant panda classified as a bear and not classified as a raccoon?
772: How do single-celled organisms function?
773: How is the phenomenon or syndrome called when somebody can not understand his or her writings?
774: What types of test should I use for a music concentration experiment?
775: Do people have better visual or auditory memory?
776: How are human organelles affected?
777: What are some bad things that organisms do for our cells?
778: Why do we grow? How did we come upon to be humans?

My science fair question is: How does music affect concentration? I have 4 questions.

Question 1. What is your Major?
Question 2. What type of music would be the most affective?
Question 3. Do you think my procedures are correct?
Step 1. Get 10 people.
Step 2. Get 10 groups of 10 mazes( same level mazes).
Step 3. Have each person do a maze one-by-one without music and time them.
Step 4. Repeat 5 times per person with a different set of mazes for each trial.
Step 5. Record observations and data.
Step 6. Have each person do a maze one by one with music.
Step 7. Repeat 5 times per person with a different set of mazes for each trial.
Step 8. Record observations and data.

Question 4. What is your prediction of the conclusion?

Thank you.


How has musical therapy been effectively used?

Is a heart rate monitor the best tool to monitor heart rate?

What background do you need to be a musical therapist?

Will the music someone is listening to change their resting heart rate?


1) Do Great White Sharks purposefully attack people?

2) Why are people so afraid of a shark that looks so fake in the movie?

3) Is there a possibility of overtaking fear in your mind?

4) How exactly does fear work in the human mind?

5) What is your current job and what do you have your credentials in?

782: 1. What is music therapy?
2. What kind of degree must someone have to become a music therapist?
3. What kind of music would affect concentration least? Most?
4. How many times should I test the experiment?
5. What kind of predictions do you have for the outcome of the question: What kind of music affects concentration most?

783: At which phase of cell cycle does the mitochondrial DNA synthesis takes place?
784: How are scientists helpful to us?
785: What are the structures of a red blood cell? I have a project to make a model of the cell, and I wonder how I should design it. Thanks!
786: Do different colored lights affect how images are seen or interpreted? Can colors show help people visualize images? Does sexuality cause people to like or dislike a color? What effect does environmental color have on someone's mood?
787: What are some malfunctions of red blood cells themselves?
788: Do older minds work differently than younger minds?
789: Does everybody have the ability to see the same optical illusion?
790: What is an optical illusion?
791: Are there any physical differences in eyes that are looking at optical illusions and in eyes that are simply reading?
792: Does it take longer for an older person to see a picture in an optical illusion than a younger person?
793: Do all living things grow?
794: Why do we have eyelashes? How fast do they grow back?
795: Do our toes have prints?
796: Why is the body's muscular system different in male and female?
797: How long does it take to die from no oxygen?
798: Hi I was wondering if you could help me answer the following questions for my science project about how preferences bias our choices:\r\n1: can color preferences have biological origins?\r\n2: could preferences made by different stimulation of neurons in the visual cortex affect other brain functions like our behavior?\r\n3: if i tell the test subject that they need to pick out 20 m&ms as fast as possible do you think it would affect the colors they choose compared to if i just told them to pick whichever 20 m&ms they like (and not tell them to go fast)\r\n4: How is the visual part of you brain connected to the area that controls your hand coordination\r\n5: what other factors might affect the colors a person chooses out of a bowl of m&ms
799: Does excessive exercise lower your immunity levels?
800: Why do brain cells not undergo Mitosis? If it is because they are missing certain mechanics to do so, would it be possible to insert these mechanics into a brain cell and induce mitosis? If successful do you think this could help with damage from concussions or even elongate human life?
801: Which cells are bigger, from plant or from animal, and why?
802: Are people born more flexible than others? If so, why is this? Is the cat the most flexible animal with vertebrae?
803: Why do we sneeze?
804: Why do cells require oxygen?
805: Which hormones are necessary for differentiation of white blood cells from hematopoietic stem cells in the red bone marrow?
806: Would it be possible to just inject salt into a cancer cell, so it stops making more cells and then just remove the tumor?
807: What is the scientists view on euthanasia?
808: Why do oranges and lemons have citric acid?
809: Where do neuron cells come from?
810: If an organisms muscle cells or nerve cells are damaged, what problems would there be? Which stages of cell division require energy? Which stages would require that new biomolecules and cellular structures be made?
811: I just did the Rubber Bones experiment and successfully remove all calcium carbonate for the chicken bones. However, I added a step by then soaking the bones in Whole, 2%, and fat free milk, to see if the calcium in the different types of milk would help the bone harden back up. It didn't. They were actually softer afterwards. Can you tell me why?
812: Why does it take venom to make anti venom?
813: Is there any chance of life up in space?
814: Why do have to wear a helmet in space?
815: How big is our heart?
816: What is the most dangerous disease for human beings?
817: Hello there,
I am a masters graduate in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. I would be much grateful if you could lead me to an online dictionary in evolution expressions or even Biology, as I am developing lectures in the Origin of Life. Sophia

818: Why don't we have a large appendix?
819: Are farts germ carriers? I was thinking about it, and SOMETHING goes from one body into another. Is airborne disease not an issue because clothes are like masks?
820: Why is it that human females usually have dominant traits and human males usually have recessive traits?
821: How many bones do we have?
822: What is it meant by cell specialization?
823: What color would your blood be if your skin was blue?
824: If humans receive biochemical damage from solar radiation what can happen to them?
825: Why do animals have whiskers?
826: Why does water have no flavor?
827: Why cannot we breath under water?
828: What is Gold used for?
829: Why are humans on Earth? Are we population control to animals?
830: How can students avoid getting shocked on plastic slides? What can we build?
831: What was the first living thing on earth?
832: What happens when u put a chicken bone in vinager?
833: How many times do we blink a day?
834: Can a tree produce enough oxygen to keep a person alive?
835: What is the purpose of the Whale nervous and response system?
836: What is melanin?
837: How do people help plants?
838: How can I check if I see red color for example the same ways as you would see it?
839: Has there ever been a human clone? What are your thoughts of cloning in the future? Okay? Not okay?
840: How would the human body be affected without the process of mitosis?
841: Do smaller bones soaked in vinegar become bendy sooner?
842: If a bus with passengers is moving an amount of CO2 released by the vehicle itself as well as by the passengers, is this amount of CO2 greater or smaller than the CO2 released only by the passengers if they were riding their bikes?
843: How advanced is the world in the development of artificial intelligence?
844: What is an ecosystem and what is it made of?
845: Is it possible to refill the holes of ozone? Can a new compound be discovered which could act as a protective covering for earth from harmful rays of the sun? If this is possible, please tell me the elements which are protective in function to UV rays . Can you send me related web sites where I could learn more?
846: Can we survive on the sun?
847: Who was the first person alive before the cave men were born?
848: How did all the houses and streets looked before the dinosaurs came?
849: How many cells do we have in our body?
850: What are phospholipids?
851: What are the benefits and harms of solar radiation and solar rays?
852: What color is our blood inside of our bodies?
853: What is a nucleus?
854: What is the effect of tea on physiological process of gastrointestinal tract?
855: Hi, I am a parent at Laguna Road Elementary School. I have been reading online about Wi Fi radiation (EMF or high radio frequency) and the health risk in children. I am concern about it and heard that in France they are pursuing "wired" technology in their schools. Our school plans to implement iPads (wireless) next year for each child as part on the 21st Century Technology Initiative. Do you have or know of any research that can help me understand this further? What are the risks since the technology is fairly new? I know that the FTC's guidelines are outdated since their standards are based on the 1950's or something a long time ago. I have looked at EMF portal's website and found things but I think we need someone (ie. Physicist or person who works in the field) who is more knowledgeable to put things in perspective. I think of UV radiation and smoking when I think of WiFi radiation. I would not like to find out years later of the harmful effect. I would rather have it tested out to be safe then use it, if possible. There will be many children affected by this. Please help us understand better.Thank you for your time. Lily
856: Is there any cell that has round shape?
857: In our class we want to know how long does it take to digest a doughnut? It was asked if it was really 10 days?
858: Thank you very much for opening this fantastic forum to benefit students from all over the world. My question is if the planet Earth emits heat from radioactive decay, I will also be right to say that it emits all the dangerous radiation as well. If so, why are humans more afraid of a nuclear explosion when we have been exposed to dosage and dosage of nuclear radiation naturally? And we seem to careless about it.
859: How is ATP produced in a cell?
860: Hello,Today in science we were learning about Darwin, evolution, and artificial/natural selection. I was wondering why there aren't sub-species of human like there are types of geese and breeds of dog.
861: How are phobias triggered, do childhood experiences affect this, and how does the brain process this information so it becomes a phobia?
862: How do fraternal twins differ from identical twins?
863: Are their any fossils that haven't been found yet?
864: How is milk produced in a female body?
865: Why can we see colors? And why can we see light?
866: How does weather and climate affect human activities?
867: Is there hair on the bottom of our feet or on the palms of our hands?
868: What causes small animals to grow, while big animals tend to shrink? (over long periods of time) My teacher was talking about how for example spiders used to be bigger? But how can that be? Yes I learned some things about evolution and how over long periods of time things tend to change, but why shrink? Why grow?
869: Why the tooth ache is increased at night time as compared to day time?
870: Why fluoride is essential for tooth? Is any other member of Halogens family helpful in tooth health and protection?
871: Why do animals need energy from the sun even if they get energy from the food they eat?
872: Which organisms have the ability to regenerate limbs, eyes, and internal structures?
873: Are there any organisms which can regenerate their entire bodies from a central section, or from one limb?
874: How can brain get cancer, if nerve cells can't under go mitosis cell division, so how does it get cancer cells?
875: What is the meaning of "biology"? We were taught that "bio" meant life, and "logy" meant "the study of". Have you been taught this also? Thank you for the courtesy of a reply.
876: Is there a living thing that does not move?
877: My husband was bitten/stung by something - we think a spider of some sort, last May. The bite was painless. It started as mosquito bite size and went through the same progression/symptoms as a Hobo spider bite. I had the same thing happen 3 weeks ago and am still recovering from the "bite". Do we have Hobo spiders in Santa Barbara? We never saw what bit us, what could it be? I'm still recovering.Thank you.
878: What is the minimum number of cells a living thing can have?
879: Can you tell what kind of bones are the ones on the pictures below?
bone 1
bone 2
880: If two boys were to come inside a woman, would the sperm make two babies or one with all parent's genes?
881: What are things that are alive, but display characteristics of non-living things?
882: Hello.I am researching the role of the spleen in the immune system, particularly in response to peripheral cytopenia. Do you know what happens to the spleen if it experiences a sudden increase in abnormal erythrocytes? Does this cause any spleen pathology? And finally, what does loss of spleen function mean for the immune system? Thanks.
883: Does petting a dog could affect a person's blood pressure?
884: What is the organelle that is found in the nerve cell and does not replicate?
885: How does a mitochondria in a cell get energy from food, water, protein, etc?
886: What are your lungs made of?
887: Why do we need cells to live?
888: How do you know a cell is alive or not?
889: What is a nutrient or anything that comes from outside of the cell membrane, which does it go to the nucleus (even if it ends up like a waste)?
890: How come you don't see everything blue if your eyes are blue?
891: Do people have better visual or auditory memory?
892: How bad can acetone nail polish remover affect your body, and what will it do?
893: How is it possible to breathe in zero gravity?
894: Scientifically, what happens to a person when she/he dies, where does she/he go?

Dear UCSB Researchers, I am an 8th grade student hoping to research methods of resisting bordetella pertussis disease. I was thinking that if there was a vaccine that would increase the growth of cilia on our ciliated epithelial cells in our respiratory system, then we would be more protected from whooping cough. Would you think this could be a good hypothesis? "If our epithelial cells in our respiratory system produce continuous amounts of cilia, then our bodies will be more protected from bordetella pertussis." I see two possible questions to study:

1. Is there a chemical that can grow more cilia on lung cells?


2. What can I use as a safe substitute that is just like bordetella pertussis?

I think that pertussis is too dangerous to use as a bacterium, so what would you recommend as a substitute? Also, how could I grow these cells at my home without a lab? Is there a way I can grow more cilia on cells? How could I actually measure how many cilia are present (would I take a picture and count)? Thank you! From an 8th grade scientist.

896: How do I measure Happiness indirectly and reliably, using a survey?
897: How often do astronauts die out in space? And if they do what causes them to die? And how long can you live in space and your body is still fully functional?
898: Why is that when cells from a multicellular organism falls off it dies? When I look at unicellular and multicellular cells they look some what alike.
899: Will a human body explode in space if sent without helmet in space? According to me, internal pressure will be very high and there will be nothing to balance it so it must explode. If no, then why?
900: Does a relationship exist between a person's eye color and his/her ability to identify colors in dim light?
901: How do people with 4 cones in their eyes see color differently than most people who have three cones? Why do they see so many more colors? How do cones work?

I read an article attempting to explain why viruses attack cells. The argument mentioned by the author hinges around the idea that a virus is genetically programmed to attack cells. We already know that. What is missing is how this viral genetic code was written in the first place. This is not a philosophical question!

The point is as follows: evolution is an ongoing biological process and different life forms are different form one another. Having said that, it is not clear how the genetic make-up of a virus can be designed in order to successfully attack cells. Consider the differences between a bacteriophage and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Clearly, they have different structural properties that allow them to successfully invade the corresponding targets. Why? How did it happen? What are the fundamental mechanisms underlying viruses, i.e., design and build a virus that will be able to infect the following cell? Scientific answers are required to tackle these hard questions.

903: My Question is: How much oxygen will land based microorganisms convert in a Mars like atmosphere? I need help getting the tools for this experiment. Is there somebody who could help me?
904: Why does Mitochondria provide energy for the cell?
905: If you got cut out in space, what color would your blood bleed out as?
906: How does Photosynthesis affect other organisms?
907: Do you know how climate change accurs and why it happens? Do you know what wwf-international is doing about it?
908: Do twins have the same DNA?
909: What are enzymes and how are they important to living things?
910: What happens after people die?
911: I know that plants take in carbon dioxide and give out oxygen. But do all plants need oxygen? What if all the plants where gone what will happen to the presence of the humans? Will we all die slowly? What will happen to the animals?
912: What is embryonic development?
913: Do any of the UCSB scientists believe in creation instead of evolution?
914: How would an ecosystem comprising of grass land be effected if all carnivores were removed?
915: How does different surfaces affect the preservation of finger prints?
916: What would you need to survive on Venus?
917: How people can drink ocean water, but animals like fish can not; and how can fish breath ocean water and drinking it is not healthy for those animals which live in bad ocean waters? PLEASE WRITE BACK, thank you, love.
918: A cell knows what to do because it is programed to do what it do. But, what or who programed the cell or any other unconsciousness life to know what to do? I mean, how the atoms of the first living thing know how to be arranged to construct this programed "machine"?!
919: Do Unicorns and Pegasus exist?
920: Why is the atmosphere of Venus more friendly to plants than humans?
921: Are gorillas our (Humans) Ancestors?

In the beginning of this experiment, I hypothesized that Classical music would lower the heart rate and blood pressure by releasing greater amounts of Serotonin into the bloodstream. I also hypothesized that Rap, or any high-temped music, raises norepinephrine levels.

My studies have shown that this is true, but not in every case. 50% of my subjects’ blood pressure rose while listening to rap, but the other half did not, instead staying neutral e or even lowering. 75% of the subjects’ blood pressure decreased with Classical music, but the effects were not as drastic. 50% of the subjects enjoyed rap, which is probably the cause of the lowered blood pressure. 50% enjoyed classical music, or knew the song, which is why their blood pressure lowered. The heart rates of all the subjects made no pattern during this experiment, except after the classical music was played. In conclusion to my experiment, I realized that whichever genre of music you enjoy lowers the blood pressure, not due to the rhythm.

Can you relate to my conclusion? Do you think it is accurate? Thank you so much!

923: How does Transpiration work?
924: If someone's body gets a DNA mutation, what could be symptoms that happen to them or the cell?
925: Why does the appendix cause illnesses?
926: What's the difference between bacteria and virus?
927: What exactly happens during meiosis?
928: How does hand sanitizer kill germs?
929: Can babies in two different sacs be born at different times?
930: What color is blood without oxygen in our body?
931: What is the scientific name for kneecap and fingers?

Much of science fascinates me and I find that the more I learn, the better I understand the world around us. One of my main interests was herpetology and having observed different lizards in the wild as well as consulting various knowledgeable people in the field it has in fact brought me to ask a few questions about humans and why we do what we do. I am currently studying psychology. With slight variations within a species having created a sub-species it begged the question about humans and namely racial variations. On researching it on the internet it brought me to your website and namely this one:

click here

Does this imply that there are indeed sub-species of Homo sapiens? If so; what are they? Are there any scholarly articles about this subject?

If you could point me in the right direction, I would appreciate it.

Kind regards,
933: Compared to several decades ago, do you think the Internet has changed people's lives?
934: Why do people think that we evolved from monkeys?
935: Hope you are fine, I am confused about the nature of life, the main point is that if the first organism on earth is Bacteria, then where the organism (Bacteria) came from? How did it come to exist on earth?
Please help me. Thanks,

936: I'm really confused... when I was born I had black eyes. After a few months they started to turn in chocolate brown. As time passed by they turned in clear blue color. And now that I am 14 they're changing again but this time into green. I just want to know what is happening to me. I'll appreciate so much if you guys would give me an answer. Thank you.
937: Hi, I am a freshman in high-school and I was wondering if magnets can cause any long term affects like cancer or some other type of disease. I would like to hear back. Thank you for your time.
938: Why is sound so important?
939: Does venom save lives?
940: Do birds urinate?

Do chromosomes make up DNA or contain DNA? If it does contain DNA, how does 46 chromosomes make up the 220 different somatic cells with different functions?
46 =/= 220, because doesn't each different somatic cell have different DNA(double helix)?
How does this work?

942: Can you engineer viruses that attack harmful bacteria in the same way that HIV attacks T Cells?
943: Why do salamanders need their skin for protection?
944: People have different types of blood (e.g A, B, AB or O). Is it possible for animals to have those same types too?
945: Why do people with dark skin have darker eyes?
946: How does conduction flow through a cell?
947: What is blood pressure?
948: It says neurons do not divide. Can we expect brain cancer due to division of neurons. Or are the brain cancer solely due to division of other cells in the brain?
949: What would happen if we did not have a digestive system?
950: Why does the sun help us to live?
951: If a tree can live for thousands of years, and humans only live for about 80 to maybe 100 years, surely the trees are doing something we have done wrong. Is it possible to combine a plant with a human and cut off the growth problem which may solve immortality? Have scientists tried to combine animal cells with plant cells?
952: Can we kill viruses?
953: Are snails scavengers?
954: Are plant cells rectangular or circular? I get confused on them. They aren't hard to understand, but they ARE definitely confusing. Thank You all who answer my question. Love sent out to all.
955: Why humans do not have tail?
956: How were humans created?
957: Are humans and animals the same?
958: Hi, I have been doing a project about what would happen if you switch one species brain to a different, example (human to frog), and what part of the body makes you grow?
959: Why do we go through puberty?
960: Why do we have hair?
961: Which human cell is the most important?
962: Does a ferret see color?
963: What does salt do to the human body?
964: Does eye color affect a person's ability to identify color in low light?
965: Is it safe to eat snow or drink it melt?
966: If plants absorb sunlight and we eat plants or other organisms who eat plants, does that mean we have a fraction of the energy of the sun in our system?
967: Dear Scientists,
We all know that skin types were best suited for people in their own natural habitat and countries, what would be the Fitzpatrick skin type best for Toulouse, France and Aix en Provence, France. Is it skin type II or Skin type III or which Fitzpatrick type? Thank you

968: I am aware of how the process of parthenogenesis occurs, however I wanted to ask whether it is theoretically possible to stimulate/program the reproductive cells of other organisms to perform this process, and how it would be done.
969: I've seen different drawings of human cells. They use different colors to show the different parts of the cell. My question is, what is the actual color of the inside of a cell?
970: How much energy of the phytoplankton is given off when eaten?
971: What is the highest frequency that most humans can hear?
972: I'm doing a science project for San Marcos High School. My question is "How does exercise affect memory? Thank you.
973: Do all living things reproduce?
974: Are tears a waste product?
975: Why are skin cells undergoing mitosis continuously?
976: What would happen if the earth had no photosynthesis?
977: What is the Ebola virus and should I be afraid?
978: How is metamorphosis different from the development of baby mammals?
979: I have a dream to become a scientist, I want to change the world and create antibiotics. I feel like I was made to do something on this earth. My questions:
Next year I am taking biology or should, I take Earth?
If we can make our DNA strand from keep dying, can we humans keep living at the age it stops replacing?

980: How is lumber related to the process of photosynthesis?
981: How does the sun help the plants grow? How does the sun help humans? How does the sun help the solar energy?
982: Say all of the plants on Earth were to die off tomorrow, what could be some possible causes and could humans survive it?
983: Are the lungs and blowhole connected?
984: If hearing loss is "cured" and the cochlea is restored, will tinnitus go away? Will tinnitus be eliminated permanently? How would the brain know to stop making the ring noise?
985: How do viruses attack cells?
986: Why do we get itches on our body?
987: What are mice used for experiments?
988: I color is just certain light reflecting off a certain object(example: if something is orange, it reflects "orange" light), then is there really any color? Would the question be not "What Color is it?" but "What Type of light is being reflected?"
989: How many people are on earth?
990: Were whales land animals?
991: How many kinds of cells are there?
992: What are the things that cause cancer? Why does cancer have to exist? Will there ever be a way to get rid of cancer for ever?
993: What is the difference between genotype and phenotype?
994: Is there any blue blood in our bodies at any time? Or is it all red with different shades?
995: I am curious on how a toothpaste whitens teeth. I would like to make a science project on which brand of toothpaste is effective on whitening teeth? But what should I use and do create my project? And what is in the toothpaste that makes the teeth whiter?
996: Are there really Aliens from outer space?
997: Hello, People evolved and selected by the genes which adapted to the environment that are favor to them. So, for example, people who live at the higher latitude area have lighter skin color, and vise verse, people live near the equator have darker skins for the ultra-violate protection reason. If a white couple (their grandpa and grandma and the past generations are all white) move to somewhere near equator, and then the generations past on (and all of their offspring mate with pure white people), will their skin color change because of any environment reason? Thank you so much for taking time to answer this!
998: Why do we have Tissues in our body? Why do tissues that work together form organs?
999: What type of cells do the examination of the cell's cycle? (Qué tipos de células examinan el ciclo de célula?)
1000: I've heard that Fluoride is bad for people and animals; fluoride can kill us. So why is there Fluoride in toothpastes like "Colgate" and "Sensodine"? Why is Chlorine not? Why have Scientists approved Toothpaste with Fluoride in it? Is fluoride good for a person's teeth?
1001: What is more comparable to stomach acid, lemon juice or vinegar?
1002: What is the cell wall made of?
1003: Why are specialized cells needed in the human body?
1004: How are plant and animal cells different?
1005: How does pollination differ from fertilization?
1006: Can you give some information about the kingdom of fungi?
1007: How do plants and animals use the food produced during photosynthesis?
1008: Which animals don't have blood?
1009: I have a question for you. I read that brain cells do not replicate, but some brain stem cells are replicating. If mitochondria divide each time the brain cells divide, does this mean that only then we can have new cells? I have read that they also replicate at random at any time of the cell cycle. My question is also: if the brain mitochondria are different than the skin mitochondria because they must last much more time, does skin mitochondria last as long as brain cells?
1010: Why are people going through puberty at younger ages than they used to?
1011: What rate do red blood cells die at?

1012: 1) Why do sports players usually hurt their ligaments instead of tendons? 2) What's the difference between human cartilage and shark cartilage? If a human needed cartilage could a human use cartilage from a shark?
1013: What is life?
1014: What happens to the brain when you think? Why do we need a brain to do things?
1015: How do microorganisms enter our body?
1016: How do eubacteria obtain food?
1017: Is there an organelle which has to be colored a specific color in an animal or plant cell? If yes, which is it?
1018: Does thought require language?
1019: What is the Human Body System?
1020: How can our body carry out digestive functions on a daily basis?
1021: When did humans first start roaming the earth about how many years ago ?
1022: Is there possibly going to be a cure for Ebola, if so how long is the expected time for the cure to be released?
1023: What is one weather condition that can limit the growth of a population?
1024: How do ATP and ADP work in a cell?
1025: How can you change a nightmare or dream? I am very curious! I also want to control it. Please let me know!
1026: I'm having a conversation with my friends at lunch and the topic of blood pigmentation and whether it is blue when it has no oxygen or not. I showed them your website that in fact states that it is always red but may give off a blue hue. However, some of my friends do not believe that there is any way for you to scientifically prove that. So my question to you is, how do you know that blood is always red?
1027: What is vitamin B12 and why is it so important?
1028: Is it true that the brain has the mind, but the mind has no brain?
1029: Why does a dead rat get mold after a few weeks?
1030: Approximately what percentage of the things around us are made from polymers?
1031: Do antiseptics contain triclosan or triclocarbon? And do they cause resistant-bacteria? Do alcohol-based sanitizers contain these compounds? What are the mechanisms of action for both antiseptics and alcohol based sanitizers as well as antibacterial agents?
1032: NASA and the whole world is basically looking for other life on other planets within our solar system. Or, more specifically, "life as we know it." What is life as we know it? What are we looking for, and what would be defined as life that we don't know?
1033: Which organism has most chromosomes?
1034: What happens to the cancer when the person dies, as in lung cancer. Does the cancer stay in the body and dies along with the person, or does it leave the dead body, and then invade a new living body? Thanks,
1035: After being outside when it is sunny, why do you see green spots when you come inside?
1036: How does aquatic, salt water plants like seaweed get the fresh water they need from their environment? It was just hard to wrap my mind around it since salt water aquatic plants somehow manage to stay alive without a source of fresh water. As well as this, I have also been wondering how a salt water fish filters salt water in order for it to be fresh? Thanks!
1037: Is there a way to get rid of the black tongue disease?
1038: Given that many modern day containers, utensils, cookwear, clothing,...are coated or composed of types of plastic which are publically recognized as having the ability to transfer\'estrogeni\' chemicals to whatever they come in contact with, is it possible that these 'estrogenic' compounds may be a contributor to decreases in fertility, neurological conditions and obesity in the population as a whole? Could this also be a contributor to a decreased sex-drive in women, given that testosterone is the 'sex-drive hormone'? Thank you for your time.
1039: Since all living organisms produce some kind of waste, wouldn't cancer cells produce a detectable amount of waste? Wouldn't that be an easy way to test for cancer?
1040: When you look at the sun, is their a moment when you cant see at all?
1041: What covers and protects the brain?
1042: Could the regeneration process in some animals be quickened by selective breeding or cross breeding with two animals that both poses this function? Could one animal that poses the regeneration function breeding with an animal that does not have it; if so would the offspring have the function of regeneration of limbs or other body parts?
1043: What makes carbon atoms essential to life?
1044: Why does the sun have sunspots even doe the sun is the sun?
1045: Why is mass not always measured by weight?
1046: What triggers the cry of a baby when she/he is born, just after leaving the mother’s womb?
1047: I am doing a science fair project "Which sex develops the most bacteria on sweat molecules? Male or Female". I need to know whether or not it is possible to take a culture of sweat and then grow it on gelatin. I will appreciate some help for which are the proper parameters to use(time line, kit or no kit?, etc.) in order to do this test in the correct way. Thank you.
1048: Were do babies come from?
1049: Is a person's fingerprint pattern related to their toe print pattern?
1050: Did dinosaur and people ever exist on earth at the same time? And if not does that mean the Bible is wrong since it says man earth and beast were made basically at the same time (7 days)? I basically believe in the evolution theory, but then where did humans come from?
1051: Are there any organisms besides humans that produce 2 eggs from the same oocyte?
1052: Since stomach has pH of 1, and the intestine has pH of 7, how do stomach and intestine deal with the pH difference?
1053: How many BASE PAIRS ( not bases, not separate nucleotides) are there in the human genome?
1054: How do animals get their energy?
1055: What kind of animals eats elephants? What kind of animals eats cheetahs,lions, tigers, leopards,and wild cats?
1056: Does the carbon cycle function the same during the night as it does during the day?
1057: Is there a scientific reason we do not have tails?
1058: We are under the impression that certain type of food is digested by a base (alkaline). Protein needs an acid to digest. The question is, does ALL food get an acid bath or does the body only dump acid when it's needed?
1059: I recently learned that the velocity of blood moving in veins is faster than that in capillaries, but the blood pressure in veins is much lower than that of any other blood vessel. Since veins have a relatively high blood velocity (at least compared to capillaries), shouldn't they also have a higher blood pressure? Why don't velocity and pressure in fluids go hand in hand?
1060: What is the difference between producer, consumer, and decomposer?
1061: Do cells come from other cells?
1062: How many different kind of cells are in the human body?
1063: Does drinking caffeine increase your reaction time dramatically or noticeably?
1064: By what process does waste leave cells?
1065: We had a can of mandarin oranges that was swollen and leaked brown liquid on to the pantry wall. My mom is using a bleach solution to clean the pantry shelf/wall what else should we do to make sure we don't get sick? Is there any way we can know what kind of bacteria it was for sure?
1066: What are the benefits of orange juice?
1067: Why are skin cells undergoing mitosis continuously?
1068: Why do mitochondria have its own DNA in a simplified version?
1069: What causes heart attacks?
1070: Hi! I have a student who is wondering approximately what percent of the air we breath out is carbon dioxide. He understands that we take in oxygen during cellular respiration and we give off mostly carbon dioxide along with some nitrogen and oxygen. But....he wants to understand what percent is carbon dioxide during an exhale. He wants to compare your answer to the answers he's getting for his own cellular respiration data he's taken for his science fair project.
1071: What happens every 28 days in the reproductive system?
1072: What would the world be like without chlorine?
1073: Why do people die? And why can't we live forever?
1074: While we were working on a current of the world's oceans lab, Nathaniel came up with a question that I do not know the answer. I'm thinking this may come from more of an anthropology background and I am a geologist by nature. His question is: Why do different races of people have different eye shapes? For example: Peoples of Asian decent compared to Egyptian peoples, Mexican peoples, etc. The class started laughing because they felt that it was a "racist" thought but he was serious. I do not know if there is a scientific reason such as survival of the fittest for eye shape in northern or southern latitudes. Any help for my general science class? Thanks!
1075: Hello my name is Ashton and I am doing a science project on influenza and how it is produced. Do you think that it is important to make sure that I am testing people with the flu and things they are around? Also do you have any advice for this project?
1076: Why do we think the way we do? What is it in our brains that allows us to not only process information, but allows us to imagine or have emotion? Theoretically, what would separate a naturally developed brain from one 3d printed from stem cells in terms of thought?
1077: Why do we need Vitamin D?
1078: Does tea and/or coffee stain your teeth?
1079: Why are cells small?
1080: Why can Sea animals breathe under water and we can't?
1081: What is a protein?
1082: Why is people's poop brown?
1083: Why don't we collapse under the weight of the atmosphere?
1084: It is often said that we get our energy from food by breaking down the bonds in glucose molecules. How is energy 'stored' in these bonds? And what is the role of ATP in carrying energy? What, on the molecular level makes ATP so special to be called the 'energy currency'? Thank you!
1085: How would you get air in space?
1086: Why human's eyes are in front and not on sides like birds?
1087: Why chromosomes differ in length ? Why one arm is shorter and one in longer (except metacentric). What is the reason for this design ?
1088: What are all the bad gases to breath and which ones can kill you?
1089: Does the number of chromosomes determine the complexity of the organism?
1090: What would happen if Earth were to lose both human and animal lives, would Earth become another planet or still be Earth?
1091: About how many times does DNA have to fold up to fit in a cell?
1092: How does DNA fingerprinting work? How do they do it? Thanks!
1093: What is DNA fingerprinting?
1094: How does DNA fingerprinting work?
1095: How do the brain store memory?
1096: Hello! I'm doing a project on DNA fingerprinting for the last project of the trimester. When you studied about DNA fingerprinting, what was your favorite part? Or do you have any other interesting information? :) Thanks :)
1097: Memory B and T cells are meant to last for a lifetime, but what happens when they are no longer needed in the body? Do they undergo Apoptosis? (Reference to the Immune System)
1098: Why am I black? I want to know.
1099: Why is there life on earth?
1100: How many wavelengths would you need to have in the photo receptors to make color vision like humans?
1101: Why is it important that the end result of the process of meiosis is sex cells that contain half the amount of DNA that is in body cells?
1102: Earlier humans had a tail with appendix bone. But now the tail has disappeared. Why?
1103: Can humans live on the sun why or why not?
1104: How did different race and languages become about, if we all come from Africa?
1105: I would like to know what causes the redness and a green flashing light in my mom's eyes.
1106: What would life be without oxygen and what do we need oxygen for?
1107: What is mitochondria?
1108: What is sperm?
1109: Do Triplets occur naturally?
1110: What are ways for our eyes to see better with?
1111: Can you influence dreams?
1112: Why do a lot of people die from cancer? My aunt yesterday die from cancer in my own arm.
1113: What is most likely to happen if we did not have a stomach?
1114: What would happen if the cell cycle would not take place?
1115: How do species change over time?
1116: What is an anus?
1117: Does everything in the world need the sun to survive?
1118: Who was the first person(s) alive, what was her/his name, what year were they born and pass away?
1119: What is the function of the folds within the mitochondria?
1120: What is the vitamin required in order for our bodies to have a good eyesight?
1121: Which has more genetic information, a body cell or a gamete?
1122: Why are plants important?
1123: Why are all humans different? We are all animals. Is it because are we different species or race?
1124: About one-two years ago I stared at the sun until I saw a full circle. When I looked back down at earth, it was dark for about a minute. I closed my eyes during this time. When I opened my eyes, everything was normal - no pain, no darkness. Was that even normal?
1125: What is a vacuole?
1126: Is it possible for a fish to be frozen in a block of ice (suspended animation?) and survive? My friend says that sometimes fish in Canada get frozen and will thaw out in the Spring/Summer.
1127: How did animals come to be after the big bang?
1128: I wonder why overtime my hair stopped being curly and is now wavy.
1129: How does mental health conditions like schizophrenia occur? How does it get into your brain?
1130: Why are people able to remember things with their brain but forget them when they get severely brain-damaged?
1131: What are the mechanisms behind human speech?
1132: What is the mechanism behind fear?
1133: Why do all living things die?
1134: Not including humans what is the most civilized species?
1135: Is cancer hereditary? If so, how can you prevent it?
1136: How long will it take for the brains of animals to be as evolved as the human brain?
1137: Why do people kill each other?
1138: How are trees able to live so long without dying?
1139: How was the first animal tamed?
1140: I wonder why are brain cells different then normal cells?
1141: Can other kinds of animals evolve like us? And can humans evolve more?
1142: Why does the gravity lessen in space? Is it because we are going away from the earth? Then why don't we just float away on the earth? Is it because of the atmosphere protecting us? If so, What if the Atmosphere didn't exist?
1143: I wonder why people and animals talk different languages
1144: Does the moon really affect our mood?
1145: I wonder why there are more boys than girls in different parts of the world?
1146: How fast do your nerves react?
1147: Why animals have such strong immune systems compared to us (humans)?
1148: How do animals understand humans. How do they know there names and know when to come when called?
1149: Why do dogs' eyes change? Why do fishes change color and glow some times?
1150: How did Ocean life form, and why did they evolve?
1151: Where did we (human beings) come from? Are we monkeys? Are we fish or will we never know? I think we are monkeys but not a similar one as in the zoo, I think we are a type of monkey that we don't know about.
1152: How do dogs understand people?
1153: Why do tortoises live so long ?
1154: How did dogs adapt to humans?
1155: How deadly is the flu virus?
1156: Is our air from our breath hot or cold? If the air that comes out from our breath is hot then why we try to blow the hot food to make it cooler? But if it is cold, so why then when we feel cold we start to blow our hands to get warmer?
1157: Why can't women produce sperm?
1158: Why do things give us the creeps?
1159: How do voices work?
1160: What organism is all multicellular?
1161: Besides Hyenas, vultures, and sharks, which other animals have the strongest stomach acids? Thanks.
1162: Can photosynthesis and respiration create a cycle of energy? Why?
1163: Can and how does eye color effect the way you see colors? I've noticed that sometimes my friends will see a color differently that me, like I see dark orange and they see red.
1164: Is there a way for someone to live with lung cancer?
1165: How do brain diseases happen? Diseases like Bipolar Disorder and Major Depression. How do some people get it while others don't? Does it happen with a family line or just random?
1166: How fast can neurons transmit through your body for the nervous system to function? Thanks
1167: My mom had blood drawn from her arm at the doctor's, and it looked black. What does it mean black blood? Thank you for the answer.
1168: How many cells die per minute in an adult male?
1169: Mitochondrial DNA does not contain genes for [self] replication. It's almost like the genes were edited out by the host cell. 1. How would this occur? 2. Do unused genes generally get dropped or rationalized if unused?
1170: Why do different colors of light have different energy levels?
1171: Could life survive in/on an asteroid?
1172: Why do people have to take shots and medicine for diabetes?
1173: Are people born flexible?
1174: Is it possible that Earth originally developed prokaryotes as a form of collecting ingredients from its surface and atmosphere in order to re-utilize them for preservation?

I wonder this because how else could inanimate material come alive, and I once read that the Earth is alive itself, leading me to believe that Earth could have been the first producer. I still wonder how the Earth would have come alive itself, but I theorize the electrical forces of atoms and specific molecules pulling or pushing themselves together or apart, as well as the natural movement of heated atoms, along with the already present forces of Earth's spin and movement produced by the big bang could have caused the inanimate Earth to begin "come alive." The original moving up of iron (or whatever element was attracted to another) from inside Earth could have led to a chain of reactions that led to more chains of reactions, and so forth, so that a never-ending push and pull were then created via the original electrical attractions. I realize this is a complex idea and a far-fetched question, but I found your website and thought I'd ask. Thanks either way!

1175: Why can't something live without some type of genetic material?
1176: How is it beneficial to humans if scientists find out more about the layers of the earth?
1177: Can we describe viruses as being parasitic?
1178: How can a fossil provide evidence that a certain animal existed?
1179: Can fingerprints have more than one ridge?
1180: Can a cell die without reproducing?
1181: What happens if you get bitten by a turtle?
1182: What are different ways a human being can get sick and how can you get rid of it?
1183: What is the skin cells purpose?
1184: Normally our body burns calories to keep us warm. When we feel cold, does our body burn more calories than usual? Do we need to burn more calories during winter just to keep our bodies at our normal temperature? If a person gets an infection and the body temperature rises, do we need to burn more calories in order to increase the temperature?
1185: Which are factors that does not affect fossilization?
1186: What are the differences between the structure and function of plant and animal cell organelles? In other words...What are all the organelles that plant cells have that animal cells do not and what are all the organelles that animal cells have that plant cells do not and what are the organelles that are in common and what are the functions of all these organelles in the cell? Thank you
1187: When do cells duplicate their DNA?
1188: Why cant their be a cure for hemophilia?
1189: What are ways that animals respond to their environment?
1190: Is there any proof against the theory of evolution?
1191: On genetic engineering and CRISPRS: If a gene is modified in an individual cell how does that translate to all the other billions of genes in an organism? Given that the changes you make in one cell will replicate in new cells, how many cells need to be modified to repair whatever you want fixed, and how long does it take?
1192: How can a baby be born with a humped back?
1193: There are red blood cells filled with oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body. There is a lot of oxygen in other red blood cells and very little in other body cells. There is more carbon dioxide in the body cells than in the blood cells. How does the carbon dioxide and oxygen move to where they need to go? Is it by osmosis, by diffusion or any other process?
1194: I am doing a presentation, and I can't find anything on how color affects size. If I have a white object it will appear smaller than a black one, right? I tried but am not finding a reason!
1195: My teacher has asked me and my class to take a case file to find the disease and what caused it. I have a case that the disease turned out to be Salmonella. I currently trying to find out the mortality rate for the disease untreated and treated. I was wondering if you had any advice on how to find out more about this. If you can help me that would be great! Thank you for your time.
1196: Is there any possible way to access neuronal stem cells or produce them? Thank you so much for all your help!
1197: Hello,I was wondering if you could please explain to me the functions and structure of the blood brain barrier in a more in depth manner because I do not quite fully understand the topic.
1198: Is getting bone marrow from an infant with Tay Sachs possible?
1199: If we were to take stem cells from bone marrow and use gene therapy to edit it how can we use stem cells to replace the neurons and get it back in the brain?
1200: Before photosynthesis appeared on the planet, from what did the autotrophs made their food?
1201: How are genetically modified stem cells to the brain possible? Where have they been tried?
1202: How are DNA, chromosomes, and genes related?
1203: How does the magnetism on Earth affect every atom on Earth? Does this magnetism affects in the same way at the North of the Equator or at the South of it?
1204: Why doesn't Earth's atmospheric pressure crush our bodies?
1205: What type of food do eukaryotes eat?
1206: Say someone gets very badly injured and is losing a lot of blood, why can't doctors just keep giving that person blood to keep her/him alive?
1207: What colors are absorbed to get brown or black skin? Are there any benefits of it?
1208: What color are your capillaries and how deep in your skin are these capillaries?
1209: When did cavemen exist? What year did they exist? Is it possible for you to send me some info on the past. To be more specific, I want to know more about dinosaurs and cavemen.
1210: What will happen if I inject blue dye in my tongue? I am wondering because I am getting a tongue piercing.
1211: How often do skeletal muscle cells go through mitosis?
1212: How does visible light work? How is it that color goes from waves to visible color in our sight?
1213: I really want to ask you a question, I am a student and I am confused if to study medicine or electrical engineering.
1214: What happens if you do not have your urinary system?
1215: What is the function of the cerebellum?
1216: Why are humpback whales classified as mammals?
1217: How did cats evolve to shed their fur?
1218: How does phosphorylation take place in animals?
1219: Does your brain change the shade of colors you see based on your mood?
1220: Why do many animals think about only basic survival and reproduction, while humans have developed much from that stage, to ponder about economy, politics, appearance, and much more?
1221: How do animals choose a pack leader?
1222: How do animals adapt their eyesight in the midnight zone?
1223: How many layers of skin do people normally have?
1224: How does the universe have an impact on humans?
1225: How can animals sense human feelings. For example, how can service dogs detect when a human will have a seizure or is stressed?
1226: What types of leukemia are there, and what is the probability of getting each one?
1227: The question I was wondering about is related to the other extinct species of humans. Are there people living today who are related to them? How and why did they die out and what enabled Homo Sapiens to outlive them? And what would the world be like if at least a few of these extinct human species were still living today and how would they compare to modern Homo Sapiens in intelligence and capability?
1228: How does the heart integrate oxygen into the blood?
1229: Hi, my name is Praize and I am an 8th grade student at Glen Taylor School. I am conducting a research on mountains. I would like to know if you are able to provide me with information on Why Is There Little Air On Mountains? Please contact me as soon as possible. Thank you.
1230: Why did Ebola come out when it did and why did people's immune systems not work?
1231: Why do spiders have eight legs?
1232: Why do we have not useful body parts in our body that can be removed with no effect?
1233: Why don't humans live a lot more than the average age to die?
1234: Why don't humans live a lot more than the average age to die?
1235: What is the difference between all fingerprints? And how are they different? I looked at my fingers and they are not different. How do we know if they are the same or different?
1236: Can the apocalypse actually happen?
1237: I am doing a science fair project about measuring carcinogens in meat. I was doing some research on how to be able to measure them, but I came across difficult ways to do it. How would I be able to measure carcinogens in meat in the simplest way possible?
1238: How did animals evolve into what they are now?
1239: How did humans get to earth or how were they created?
1240: Why do different continents have different types of living organisms?
1241: Will there ever be a time in the future where the sun will be harmful to humans, and if so, when will it be?
1242: Why does my hair stand on end when I take off my hat on a cold, dry day?
1243: Why do shark attacks happen?
1244: How come people who can not see far can see the stars without them being blurry?
1245: If the sun blew up, would there be any way to know before our demise? (As in like a final 5 minutes before everyone dies.)
1246: Are all non-living things abiotic? We are trying to figure out if abiotic factors are things that are only naturally occurring, or if they can be man-made? For example, if there is plastic (trash/pollution) in an ecosystem, is it considered an abiotic factor because it could have a impact on the living things?
1247: Why cannot we imagine a new color?
1248: Will humans be on earth in 3029? I am afraid we are consuming lots of plants and stuff so I hope you text me back.
1249: Why the body shrinks, when people gets old?
1250: What are all the types of pediatric cancer and how easy or hard are they to cure?
1251: What is displacement?
1252: How can our lungs breath oxygen?
1253: Is there a specific name for organisms that eat fungi? Herbivores eat plants and fungi is not a producer. This was a student question that stumped me- and my background is wildlife science/environmental science. I thought it was a great question. The tropic level depends on what is being decomposed, but it seems we have a name for other feeding habits, but not this one. Thank you.
1254: How quickly can the nervous system relay messages?
1255: How do antibiotics work in order to be selective of the right bacteria to be killed in our bodies?
1256: What makes you yourself? How you are unique from others? Because of your body, mind or memory?
1257: Hello, we are learning about cell respiration and mitochondria and are wondering how scientists know enough about what is occurring within the mitochondria to make animations such as the one presented by Bioflix ( watch here ). We have learned about electron microscopes and have a basic understanding of how scientists see individual organelles, but we are skeptical as to how they actually know what the ATP synthase 'turbine' looks like. How on Earth do they know that H protons are what cause it to spin? We have tried Googling this but haven't come up with anything satisfying. Thank you!
1258: What are the pros and cons of using pesticides? Do the pros outweigh the cons? Are there safe and environmentally- friendly pesticides? Is it really better to only farm/ purchase organic food?
1259: Can a virus reproduce without the presence of another organism?
1260: I have nightmares about every 3-4 weeks and whenever I wake up and think about it later I realize the thing in the dream that’s the focus is not very scary, but it is in the dream. I noticed right before I wake up I get some kind of jolt (the jump-scare). Is that adrenaline? What is giving you the jolt that makes that part of the dream so scary?
1261: Are animals able to feel emotions, as humans do? (Like grief, happiness, excitement, etc.).
1262: Why do living things need water?
1263: Are fingerprints inherited because people say that everyone's fingerprint's are unique, but I think it has something to do with genetics like if you get half of each of your parents DNA then I feel like fingerprints would have something to do with that.
1264: Why do only some people have dimples?
1265: How does the eclipse affect someone's pregnancy?
1266: If the sun went out, how long could life on Earth survive?
1267: Can you explain human evolution?

I am confused and I think my questions are to check my thinking. I did read your explanation maybe it's the terms you don't understand. Mine is not the terms, but maybe connecting it to a karyotype.

So, I see 2 kinds of karyotype pictures; this I know: \"X\" chromosomes are diploid and undergo mitosis, 23 pairs of \"X\" in autosome cell (non-sex cell); \"l\" chromosome is a chromosome found in sex (somatic) cells, like Egg/Sperm; there are only 23 chromosomes, haploid, not in pairs. Does this make sense, or am I missing something?

What I need explained is this:
If you look at a karyotype, KARYOTYPE #1: sometimes you see some with a pair of \"X\" and KARYOTYPE #2: sometimes you see a pair of \"l\". (Look on
karyotype to see the pair of \"l\").

My question #1 is: When I see the pair of \"X\" with 23 human chromosomes karyotype, am I looking at non-sex cells?

Question #2: Which karyotype will you use to determine a disorder?

To answer my own question, I think - since all the DNA is the same in every cell, the unknown genes wouldn't matter which cell you would look at, but if you are looking for Turner's Syndrome, then you would have to use a Somatic cell. Or does it really not matter if you have somatic cell autosome; which karyotype picture would I look at, the \"X\" pairs or the \"l\" sex cells?

THANK YOU! Sorry for the lengthy questions, trying to be specific and understand this confusing thing!

1269: Do animals need sun or not?
1270: I have the feeling that my brain is not working properly. Why can this be?
1271: What does it mean when we say an individual is hybrid? what does it mean when we say an individual is purebred? How does non-disjunction insure that there will be differences in traits between generations?
1272: Why is the sun important?
1273: Why do we store visual memory better then auditory? Can you explain more about how the visual memory can possibly be stored twice? Can auditory be stored twice?
1274: How do we exist?
1275: Why does time seem to go by so slowly when your young and seem to go by so quickly the older you are? Is this in any relation to how time speeds up in space versus on Earth?
1276: What are different ways animals help spread seeds so that new plants can grow?
1277: Upon learning about chloroplasts producing glucose, then breaking it down in their own mitochondria: "I know plants don't have blood, but if you fed them a diet of sugary water, could you give them plant diabetes? What do they do if they have too much glucose?"
1278: How does the atmosphere help life on Earth?
1279: Which are the different systems involved in maintaining homeostasis?
1280: Why do you think liquefied food stays in the intestines for such a long time?
1281: What are brains made out of?
1282: We know that we speak with the help of vocal cords. Could animals also be able to speak like humans do, if they had the same vocal cords?
1283: Can plants use CO2 released during respiration for photosynthesis?
1284: If a person had their own magnetic field, how would that affect them and everything around them in relation the the earth's magnetic field?
1285: Why is a person big and fat?
1286: Does dark hair retain more heat, or becomes hotter than blond or fair hair when out in the sun?
1287: What causes a population to change? Is it natural selection, variation, and adaptation?
1288: If we all came from a single cell, that is we have evolved from one single cell which went through rapid cell division. How is it possible for a single cell which has no brain to think on it's own and become a monkey or a dinosaur or something else? Even if you say it evolved during it's cell division, How is it possible? Because it is the first cell, it can't have genetic variations and so on.
1289: What will happen if the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood would get mixed?
1290: How can you tell if a fingerprint is from the right hand or left hand?
1291: Where do we get our supply of oxygen?
1292: Why are human beings the only species that has a mind that can think and reason? Where did our ability to think come from?
1293: What is the probability of a human being able to survive the gravitational pull of the earth yet along with the exact amount of centrifugal force not to fly off the earth---what is the probability of getting that delicate balance of gravitational force and centrifugal force to support human life?
1294: What would happen to nutrients in our body if they do not get used again ?
1295: What does a plant do with the CO2 that is produced as a product of cellular respiration?
1296: If you receive a blood transfusion or an organ transplant does your body change due to the DNA in the blood and tissue? Will it ever be the same as before?
1297: Why do the Inuits have dark skins given that they live close to the North Pole?
1298: How does enzymes work in our daily life and why do we have to learn about it because I know that we don't have to use enzymes in our daily life so why in the world are we learning this?
1299: What animals reproduce both asexually and sexually?
1300: How are animal cells and plant cells different? In which ways are they different?
1301: What would be the effect or what would happen to your other systems if your digestive system failed?
1302: What does ribonucleic acid do, and how does it affect your body?
1303: Are dolphins' brains more capable of doing complex problems and solve ideas compared to other species on land and water? I know that dolphins have a bigger brain (1600 grams compared to 1300 grams from other species), but does that mean they are more complex and more intelligent overall compared to other species?
1304: What colors will light grow fastest in and why?
1305: What would be the chemical reaction which provides the food for most organisms on Earth?
1306: How does UV-C light kill bacteria?
1307: Where does the tongue end?
1308: How are animals cloned? And can we clone them intentionally to make many of the same exact animals?
1309: I wonder: How were animals and men first exist. I know that at first they were cells, but how were they so much that turned them into animals, and then into humans? I wonder. How many cells would that take? I wonder.. how much time does it take to create a living being?
1310: How does sugar give people pimples and zits?
1311: Who is the oldest person alive in the world?
1312: Why is everyone so different? How come some people allergic to stuff while others aren’t? Is it that some peoples DNA and molecules react to foods and/or any kind of product differently than other peoples' DNA?
1313: What are the most common symbols in children dreams?
1314: How can twins look so different?
1315: Are there any viruses and/or diseases that can cause someone to be “mind controlled”? Either completely controlled or send the person into a zombie state?
1316: Does eating avocado stimulate hair growth?
1317: Where does the Oxygen found in CO2 go during photosynthesis if the oxygen we breath in comes from H2O?
1318: What is our skin made out of?
1319: Why are red blood cells red?
1320: Are dolphins more intelligent compared to other species and or humans? I'm asking this question because I know that dolphins have a bigger brain and use echolocation which is advanced compared to other species. I also want to know why humans and only humans are the only living animal that has been able to speak and live and thrive in this world.
1321: First of all I am very excited to be able to have someone probably understand this question. I know very strange things happen at Absolute Zero, and we haven’t gotten there... yet. If we got there and we put a human in a chamber that happened to be absolute zero, then wouldn’t their perception of time stop? I know that molecules don’t completely stop, but they still slow down enough to be considered still. I know that they would die very quick but I still want to know.
1322: Does music have any effect on animal's behavior?
1323: Hello, I’m a fifth grader at IV Elementary and I was wondering what decomposition is all about. Is decomposition important for the ecosystem, and how/why does it work? I’ve heard that nitrogen has something to do with it, and I’m wondering why that’s important. Thank you!
1324: I don't understand: 1.) people claim that exposure to oxygen kills bacteria, fungi & viruses. Why is that if bacteria, fungi & viruses are living & all living organisms require oxygen?
1325: We heard about the people who remember about their previous life. What is the concept behind it?
1326: With cannabis become legal in certain states, I wanted to know what amount of THC would a 150 pound adult have to ingest to die? Or because their are no endocannabinnoid receptors in the brain stem is there no amount that will stop your heart or lungs from breathing?
1327: What is life? Is it pointless?
1328: What happens if we drink too much salt water?
1329: What other systems would fail if it were not for your digestive system?
1330: How are the roles of meiosis, fertilization, and then mitosis different in the development of twins versus identical twins?
1331: I am trying to understand if plants and animals use the water that is released in the process of aerobic respiration? I am teaching a class and I want to better understand what happens to the “waste” water.
1332: Which organ is the most important in the digestive system?
1333: Is there a way for a mammalian (specifically human) fetus in vitro to grow and develop into a/an (human) infant? If so, what would the process look like? How could this be ethically tested and achieved?
1334: How much sugar must you eat to have a sugar shock?
1335: What are the various Genetic Engineering techniques currently used in science?
1336: Why only humans are able to construct these big infrastructures (like our brain) as per we know evolution has been occurred to every species, then why not the cats or dogs are able to develop this much as we have been? To be precise why not other than humans any species has a developed brain as we have?
1337: Why is life possible on Earth?
1338: Why do people forget what they read?
1339: Where do cells come from for the muscular system?
1340: Why the 70 percent alcohol which kills microbes by dissolving lipid cell membranes and protein denaturation DOES NOT AFFECT HUMAN CELLS ?
1341: How does an antacid react with an acid?
1342: Why is it important for DNA to be duplicated before mitosis?
1343: What does a Centriole look like? Could you submit a picture, please?
1344: What is the difference between kingdom plantae and kingdom eubacteria. Need it please.
1345: Why do you think DNA is duplicated before a cell divides? Why do you think that the sister chromatids are attached to one another?
1346: So when genetic crossing over occurs, DNA mixes creating a unique verification. But where does each half of that DNA come from, considering meiosis happens before fertilization? Meiosis makes either a sperm or egg cell and each sex cell is a little different each time so where does the DNA come from to make a sperm or egg cell? Because just a sperm cell or just an egg cell can't grow into a human, it must be fertilized. More specifically, when genetic crossing over happens where does the necessary DNA for crossing over come from? And does meiosis happen before or after fertilization?
1347: How do you know what blood type you have?
1348: Would we be able to breathe on Venus?
1349: Which is more important to life on Earth, the chloroplast or the mitochondrion? I know we need photosynthesis for production of oxygen and energized electrons stored as glucose, but I also know that the first organisms were heterotrophs. Thank you.
1350: Would pre-Cook Hawaiians have been able to extract any usable metals from the land? (This goes along with questions about whether most pre-Western cultures were hampered by their environment-not their culture or race.)
1351: Since a dog has 78 chromosomes in their body cells and humans have 46, are dogs more complex than humans due to having more chromosomes?
1352: What happens to the iron that is removed from the heme during hemoglobin recycling?
1353: What muscles do you use when you throw a football?
1354: What muscles do you use when you are running fast?
1355: What muscles and part of the brain do basketball players use to dribble?
1356: What part of the body do you use when you sing?
1357: How does your brain form when you are in your mom's womb?
1358: If humans managed to get to Mercury, what would happen to them?
1359: In what era did humans appeared?
1360: Can the gas formed inside our bodies be absorbed or does it has to be released always?
1361: What are the long term dangers of mixing white blood cells during sex, given the fact that white blood cells can attack?
1362: Does our drinking water contain dead skin cells? I've been pondering this question for quite sometime.
1363: What substances are termed by cholesterol?
1364: What can live without sunlight?
1365: What role does gene expression play in determining traits of an offspring?
1366: Why do we feel as if we weight the same on Venus as we do on Earth? Do we weight the same in both places?
1367: If part of the gastrointestinal tract fails, what will happen to the nutrients in our foods?
1368: How does nitrogen work?
1369: How do we know we all see colors the same? I could see green as what you see as blue, but, since it is always that way. Would we ever Know?
1370: Do people only use 10% of their brain?
1371: How does the structure of a cell suggest its function? What are some examples of that?
1372: Why do fingerprints form when your are in your mother's womb?
1373: What similarities are there between all animal kingdoms?
1374: What is sound energy used for?
1375: Is there any possible way a person can get a triple helix strand that would cause a rare form of cancer? If this person is not a twin, could high levels of radiation also cause it?
1376: I know that it is possible for certain animals to regrow limbs, but is it possible for humans to regrow limbs sometime in the future? Why are humans not able to regrow limbs but other animals can?
1377: What would happen if the sun stopped shining?
1378: How does fava beans cause hemolytic anaemia?
1379: Will humans need to evolve anytime soon? If so, what will it entail?
1380: What do blind people see when they sleep/dream if they are blind from birth?
1381: How do we see color?
1382: How does 3D printing organs work?
1383: How did humans get addicted to things like games and drugs?
1384: For every pound of beef how much greenhouse gas is produced/released?
1385: Why do people have fears?
1386: Why do we have two kidneys when we only need one?
1387: Why are we able to float on water when we are lying down, and not when we are standing?
1388: How many number of coils of DNA stand in a single chromosome?
1389: Dear USCB Science Line, Hello! How are you all are doing? With all do respect I have read your story online about cows that fart and burp on your website that was dated back in 2011 ( here. I wanted to let you know that not only cows fart and burp but all animals and us humans burp and fart too sometimes. Now I’m all for improving the environment and climate and healthy food from plants which provide health benefits. So why should we do something about cows when all animals and humans do the same thing? I don’t see what will solve the problem when it comes to burps and farts. Can you please email me back with an answer? I’m sorry, please do forgive me for sending this email if you all happen to not like what I wrote here. Thanks and God Bless!
1390: Can fish lungs collapse?
1391: Hi, my name is Samuel and I want to know what is Sonic the Hedgehog but I don't know if can you help me.
1392: Can we humans eat poop?
1393: Hi! I teach an AP Environmental Science class. We are currently talking about pestilence & diseases. Our conversation turned to STDs, crabs and eyelash mites. (I know, students bring up the oddest things.) My students suddenly turned to a very odd question that is borderline appropriate but they really want to know the answer. Here it is: Do skin cells cover the testicles on a male or are they covered in taste bud cells like those that would be found on our tongue? (I guess there are websites out there & something on Tick-Tock about how the skin on the testicles are actually made of taste buds.) I hope to hear from you because this question actually got my mind wondering....
1394: What color is blood until it hits oxygen?
1395: What body structure protects the lungs from outside harm?
1396: Are the fingerprints on all the fingers of an individual of the same type. For example if the thumb of an individual has loop, then the rest of his fingers should have loops?
1397: Are gold teeth bad for your health?
1398: Can a nerve cell be replaced?
1399: What causes sunburns? If we need sunlight to survive, why do we get burned from it?
1400: Why do Inuit people have dark skin?
1401: Why don’t the palms of the hands and soles of the feet have hair follicles, but the skin of the arms and legs do? Hint: Think of the function of the different structures and their locations.
1402: Do any muscle cells divide? Like smooth or cardiac?
1403: Red blood cells are damaged, if damaged, how is it possible for them to be replaced?
1404: Why do we have facial hair?
1405: Are fingerprint patterns inherited?
1406: Students learning and helping in the Coronavirus effort.
1407: How do organisms process energy from the Sun? How do organisms process their food and water to help in producing optimal energy levels for their bodies and bodily functions to run at an optimal level? What is needed in the human body for it to run optimally? Which Vitamins and Minerals are involved?
1408: If you donate a kidney, are there any side affects of having one left? How does the body survive with only a single kidney?
1409: What is Covid-19?
1410: What is the function of the white blood cell, basophil?
1411: How does earth impact our every day lives?
1412: What is the best theory about why we exist in the universe?
1413: Animals living in forests have self treatments if they get sick. Humans have all facilities and can see a doctor if we get sick. I see that alligators have strong immunity. Animals eat disgusting food that humans cannot eat. I believe that animals have stronger immune systems than human beings. Am I right?
1414: Why are most men taller than women?
1415: What is the meaning of life?
1416: How can you tell if something is alive?
1417: Why do we dream?
1418: Imagine a column of air that extends from the top of this flower all the way to the upper edge of the atmosphere. Even though it is made up of air, this column has an enormous weight. Why doesn’t the air pressure crush this tiny flower?
1419: If I were to inject my vein with black food coloring, will it turn my blood black?
1420: How long can any virus live outside of our bodies?
1421: Why does it take so long to develop a vaccine?
1422: Why coronavirus is so dangerous compared to the flu virus?
1423: Do oxygen + hydrogen + carbon dioxide kill a virus?
1424: As cells constantly divide, why don't we end up with way too many cells?
1425: During sexual reproduction, what happens if the egg lets in two sperm from 2 different men?
1426: Dear UCSB ScienceLine: Despite that cats are four-legged and walk on their toes, shouldn't the fact that cats retain a large foot indicate descent from a bipedal (upright) ancestor? As the elongated foot is a hallmark of bipedalism, my understanding of evolution tells me that kitty would never have evolved an elongated foot if her ancestors had never walked upright. Please help!
1427: If a cell's wall is not alive then how does the cell's wall grow?
1428: Why is your skin an organ?
1429: How does the human body work?
1430: What are the steps to follow in order to have ready the vaccine against Covid19?
1431: If dinosaurs had survived the Yucatan comet 66 million years ago, or it had never happened, what is the chance Homo sapiens would still be here?
1432: What is the importance of molecules for growth and maintenance?
1433: Before Homo appeared there was Australopithecus, Ardipithecus, Orrorin, and Sahelanthropus about 7 million years ago. Were these genera better hunters than Homo? Were many big carnivores, like the sabre tooth cat, going extinct during their lifetimes? Maybe dinosaurs would have changed their evolutionary path. Or sent them into extinction, or vice versa?
1434: How does the structure and make-up of the cell wall make it retain its structure even when no longer living? Does this also apply to the cell membrane of an animal cell?
1435: I need to know 10 ways in which weather affects humans on Earth.
1436: How many muscles are in the human body?
1437: What are 10 different ways that weather affects humans on Earth?
1438: If neurons do not grow and cannot be replaced, how is it possible to have brain cancer?
1439: How the viruses of influenza, common flu and covid 19 are all related?
1440: If the amount of water produced during cellular respiration is low, what does this mean?
1441: Maybe scientists have studied the physical characteristics of the people of different countries like India, China, Russia, UK, Europe, etc. Could you tell us the difference between the basis of the different people in different countries like the size, shape of the eyes, color, the shape of the eyebrows, etc. Are these and other characteristics very different in different peoples of the several countries?
1442: There was a rainbow in the sky the other day and I could see 10 colors, 3 colors past the visible spectrum. I could see them just as clear as all the other colors. I just want to know how this is even possible. Thanks for taking the time to read this, and I eagerly await your response.
1443: Which is the most dangerous virus for human beings that scientists know so far?
1444: What is the mitochondria? Is it in all human cells?
1445: Are all objects on Earth constantly radiating particles harmful for living things?
1446: What is cell division?
1447: When you look up"how many skin cells do we shed a day" you will commonly get an answer of 30,000 to 40,000. How exactly did scientists arrive at this number? What was their method for actually figuring this out?
1448: If COVID19 is a virus, small, then what kind of material can stop the droplets containing it from entering into our body, through our eyes, nostrils and mouth? What are the characteristics of this material which can stop the droplets? Is it a synthetic material, or cotton, or silk, or what?
1449: Is human blood blue?
1450: Why do we get freckles all over our skin and not the palms of the hands?
1451: Why do blonde hair and blue eyes tend to go together?
1452: If estimated how long will we have on earth before our world is non inhabitable?
1453: How do scientists know which flu vaccine to prepare every year if the virus is constantly mutating? Will this situation be the same for Covid19?
1454: How does eyesight work?
1455: What separates humans from other life forms? Is it one feature, or is it multiple?
1456: Are there any mammals that glow in the dark?
1457: What is an mRNA Covid-19 vaccine and how is it different from other vaccines?
1458: How good or bad is that the Covid19 virus is mutating?
1459: Some people are saying they will not take the Covid19 vaccine and my parents are listening to them. Can you write about the reasons why we have to get the vaccine when the time comes so I can convince my parents that we all have to take it?
1460: What is a scientific discovery that you were most excited about in the last year? Why?
1461: Is there anything humans know instinctively from birth?
1462: What developments have been made for prolonging living conditions that would sustain life outside of earth?
1463: Will cybernetic enhancements ever be more than just arm and legs and be like computer chips in your brain like science fiction movies?
1464: What happens in our brain when a person is depressed?
1465: In the future what will humans most likely going to look like after evolution?
1466: I know very little is known about our brains, so what are the more powerful tools scientists have in order to study conditions like schizophrenia, paranoia, or any of those conditions which can affect us?
1467: Is it possible for a vegetarian mammal to become a meat eater (non-vegetarian)?
1468: How do antiviral drugs work? How do they interact with the virus?
1469: I heard that shingles are the result of the chickenpox virus dormant in the body. If a person was vaccinated as a child for chickenpox, but never got the chickenpox, is it still possible to get shingles in the future?
1470: I had a vaccine for chickenpox when I was a child. Is there a chance that I still get shingles in the future? Why do people get shingles?
1471: Vultures are known for stomach acid that kills many pathogens but there are no vultures in Australia. Why doesn’t Australia run wild with these pathogens like botulism, rabies and anthrax? Thank You,
1472: What are the different gases that living things produce? What makes a gas have an odor?
1473: Can a city be considered an ecosystem?
1474: Is it possible to start manufacturing all vaccines only mRNA vaccines instead of the traditional ones using virus?
1475: I was curious of what information can be drawn from DNA. Isn't it true individuals can damage your DNA by abuse or neglect? Is it true your DNA shows information regarding other people? How can you enhance your DNA to make it stronger? Is it possible to repair DNA? How is DNA drawn? Does DNA change throughout the years? Can you give me more information on what exactly can be shown through DNA testing? I know I have a lot of questions but I am interested in learning more. If possible please explain.
1476: I know that there are several vaccines for Covid19 so far, from different labs and countries. Are all of them mRNA or DNA vaccines? Are any of them using the attenuated virus like the conventional vaccines?
1477: What is an adenovirus?
1478: How can scientists work with viruses if they are so small? Can you see them when you work with them? How can you work with DNA and put it inside the virus?
1479: How well does a helmet protect the head? How much of the energy of a blow can be absorbed by the helmet before it breaks? What materials are helmets made of?
1480: Which are all the parts that the human immune system is made of?
1481: What are muscle cells?
1482: Is blood considered a liquid? What are the dynamic properties of blood?
1483: What would happen if your cells didn't work?
1484: How was the first person ever on Earth born?
1485: How far are scientists from the day when the genetic code of a person could be changed in order to cure an illness/disease or prevent it?
1486: Why is HCl acid released from a gastric gland in the stomach? And why are not other acids like HNO3 also released?
1487: Are seeds and eggs living things?
1488: Can a virus live in oxygenated blood?
1489: What are the fundamental reasons why DNA replication on the lagging strand cannot be polymerized in 3' to 5' direction?
1490: When a Woman is pregnant can we agree that a lot of external sensory development is happening? Question. Can things such as clothing with small soft bumps and or anything in contact with the abdomen change and or promote healthy fruition? For example, if a piece was kept in contact as compared to let's say innards of a bean bag chair that's warm to touch. Is there any research in regards to sensory development internally and externally?
1491: What is the meaning of the number (percentage) in sunscreen bottles? Does the number have something to do with the hours it protects the skin? Does a 50% protection means 50% protection of the UV rays reaching the skin, or does it mean 5 hours or protection during the day? Please explain. If we are using sunscreen almost everyday, we should know more about it. Thank you.
1492: Which organs of the human body can regenerate, apart from the skin?
1493: Do we need the sun?

I will appreciate it if someone looks over the following calculation. Thank you! So I've heard that bananas have tiny amounts of radiation in them, due to potassium, and if you eat too many bananas you can die of radiation poisoning. Of course the next logical step is to ask the question, how many bananas do I need to power my house? We start by getting two values, the radiation energy emitted by a banana and the amount of electricity the average American house needs. According to Wikipedia, a banana emits .1 microsieverts of radiation. According to the US department of energy the average American household uses 893 KWH a month. Therefore we just have to convert 893 KWH into its equivalent in microsieverts, multiply by 10, and get the amount of bananas required to power the average American house for a month.

893 KWH = 3.66 joules, one sievert is equal to 1 joule of energy, therefore we require 3.66 sieverts, which is 3.612 microsieverts, multiply by ten is 3.613 microsieverts, which means that it takes 3.613 bananas to power the average American household for a month. (That's a lot of bananas)Thank you for reading this calculation. It's probably wrong (the joule to sievert conversion is really iffy). Please correct me on any errors. Thank you :)

1495: Why do plant cells look so close together when animal cells look like they're floating around?
1496: Good day! May I ask what the pattern of inheritance of dimples is? Is it really autosomal dominant?
1497: Can humans survive over a long time on the planet Mars?
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