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1851 questions in the Category: chemistry.

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1: What did James Chadwick do to "conclusively" confirm the existence of neutrons?
2: I have a question about the placement of the degree symbol. At the moment we learn how to calculate the specific heat. I was just wondering how our book writes C. Sometimes the little point is in front of the C, like this C and sometimes they write it after the C . Is there a difference between the two types of writing, or is it just because of the different type?
3: I'm setting up a series of investigations of changes of matter with my 3rd grade class. One of the activities I have planned involves making playdough with flour, water, salt, food coloring, and cream of tartar. Could you also give me a list of easy-to-demonstrate examples of chemical and physical changes of matter (for 3rd graders)?
4: Why is Thymine replaced by Uracil during the transcription of DNA to pre-mRNA?
5: Why are bubbles seen in the bulk of water when boiling?
6: We would like to know why butter is formed when whole milk is shaken in a baby jar?
7: How does Jell'O turn from liquid into solid when it cools down?
8: Why is the earth mostly made of silicon (rocks) and iron and other elements are much less ?
9: We are kind of interested in dyes. If you dye your hair how do the dyes react with the hair? We know when you use watercolors or so it washes out but the hair dye products you can buy don't.What makes a dye stay in hair but also in fabrics like a T-shirt? Again, when we color our T-shirts the color washes out but when you buy a colored shirt they do not.
10: Can a gas be more dense than liquid anywhere in the universe?
11: How can it be determined if rain is acid rain?
12: Why are rainbows bent? Is it because the water reflects?
13: How do you take caffeine out of coffee? I have heard that it is not healthy to drink decaffeinated coffee because of that process.
14: Why do apples turn brown when you cut them? Why does it help if you put them in the refrigerator?
15: We're studying the inhibiting effects of alcohols on the iodine clock reaction & have heard that iodine can complex with alcohols as well as starch. We're using starch as an indicator and have noticed some different color changes for endpoints particularly when using high concentrations of alcohols. Can you offer any advice on this system or direct us to useful support materials?
16: Why have beach sands different colors?
17: What are the ingredients in hair dye? How do these ingredients work to produce the desired effect? Are there any problems with hair dye? Are there any possible solutions?
18: I'm doing a project in my chemistry class on hair dyes. We have to do a demonstration that shows how it relates to chemistry, but I couldn't think of anything to do...can you help me think of something easy to demonstrate this concept??
19: Why is the sky blue? Why are different flowers of different colors?
20: How does the type of soil, light, and water affect a plant?
21: I'm doing a science project on ethylene gas, and I need to find a way to test for levels of ethylene gas. My question is if you could sugggest a place in town where I could to do this or even if I could do this at one of the labs at UCSB? Thank you for your time!!
22: Is blood a solution or a suspension?
23: I noticed that when we oxidize magnesium and "ash" it, we are asked to place a few drops of distilled water on the ash and try to determine a faint ammonia smell. We did. My question then is: If the mass of the reactants equals the mass of the products (Conservation of mass law), where did the nitrogen smell come from? I thought we were reacting (burning), magnesium (magnesium and oxygen reactants only) and the product was just magnesium oxide? I balance the equation and I don't see any nitrogen anywhere. I know the atmosphere is 78% nitrogen but how is this affecting the chemical reaction from a chemical equation standpoint?
24: What is oscillating reaction? One example is the Belousov-Zhabotinsky- reaction? How does it work?
25: How are pyrite and gold different? How do miners tell the difference between "fool's gold" and real gold? Which is more dense? pyrite or gold?
26: Please explain the pH scale: If acids have more H+ ions, why is the number for acids less than (1-7) bases on the pH scale?
27: What would happen if you mixed sodium with polonium?
28: Why is snow "white" but ice cubes are colorless? Both are frozen water?
29: Do molecules have color?
30: I need some info on PVC plastic. I need to know the process of making it and all the chemical reactions involved. Thankyou
31: How is nail polish made? What ingredients are used and what chemical reactions occur when making it? Chemically what is happening?
32: What ingredients are in lip gloss/lipstick? What chemical reactions and chemical structures are there in the process of lip gloss making? How does lip gloss work chemically?
33: What are the main ingredients used to make sunscreen? What chemical reactions are there? How do these ingredients work chemically to help protect the skin from UV rays? Can you please help me find some good sites relating to sunscreen...
34: Please help me complete this equation Mg + 2HCl = MgCl2 +
35: How are fireworks made?
36: I need to know like what kind of chemicals are in lip glosses and how it is made.
37: Do the chemicals in lip gloss damage your lips if worn too often?
38: Lip gloss does not stay on my mom's lips, after just about 30 minutes it spreads aka "feathers & bleeds". She is not wearing it over lip stick, it's just lip gloss, why ??
39: How does ethylene affect ripening fruit?
40: Students have asked recently: How does titrating with potassium permanganate test for hydrogen peroxide? Why does hydrogen peroxide turn KMnO4 clear? 2. How does catalase break down hydrogen peroxide?
41: Hi, I have a question regarding contradictory properties between lithium's first ionization energy, which would make it the hardest of the alkali metals to lose an electron, and lithium's position on the reduction potential table, which puts it as the most reactive metal. Could you help explain this seeming contradiction? Thanks.
42: What are the coordination complexes of iron that the AP board requires students to know?
43: How does Lugol's stain (iodine) stain starch? Does the staining of starch affect amylase's ability to hydrolyze starch back to glucose?
44: Where can I find information on alkaline earth metals for a research project?
45: Why is it when you pour salt water into fresh water it separates instead of mixes together?
46: I was wondering if you have any information about how aluminium is extracted when mining and the process that occurs so the aluminium can be used.
47: I am doing a report on lipstick. I need to know information about the chemical properties of lipstick, and things like what happens when sunscreen is added or how do they make it last so long.
48: How fast do gas particles move?
49: Why does hydrogen gain an electron when in an acid? Why does hydrogen give up an electron when in a base?
50: My friend and I are working on a science project for my chemistry class. We decided to do our project on making many different kinds of soap using different kinds of fat and oil. We are having trouble thinking of quantitative data that we could collect. So far we are testing for pH, density, and the amount of foam created by our different soaps. If you have any suggestions on what we could test it would be greatly appreciated.
51: Does light affect crystal growth? If so, How?
52: 1.Does propylene glycol dissociate in water? 2.Will a 1.0 m copper(II) sulfate solution have the same freezing-point depression as a 1.0 m copper(II) chloride solution? Why?
53: I want to search for some elements such as: methoxycinnamate cyclomethicone ethylhexyl oxybenzone salicylate. What does they mean and what are they used for?? What could be a good web page where I can search for this kind of chemical elements.
*I really need this info as soon as possible!

54: In the alpha decay of Radon-222, what happens to the electrons? An alpha particle is a helium nucleus with the positive charge of two,but the equation in our text book doesn't account for the electrons...
55: Can you freeze air? And if you can, will it freeze in layers, one layer for each type of molecule? (e.g. oxygen, carbon dioxide etc.)
56: What is the reason that the temperature of a substance does not change during a change in phase? In other words, what causes the "flat part" in a boiling or freezing curve?
57: Is there any type of testing that could be used to determine how long a metal bolt has been imbedded in the sidewalk? Thank you
58: We are studying the periodic table and I would like to know why do some elements have the letter they start with on the table and others don't? Why does potassium have a K on the periodic table?
59: Are atoms with more protons better than the atoms with less?
60: What are the different kinds of soaps? How can soap clean and remove dirt?
61: Thank you for answering my last question.I have another one. How come that some elements are gas and others are soild even they are so close together on the periodic rable? For example C is next to N and C is solid and N is a gas but they have only one more proton?
62: Why is mercury a liquid and not solid like all the other metals around?
63: What shape is the surface of water in a container? This is a question about the meniscus. I think it curves up at the sides. Is that right?
64: I want to ask if animals and human bodies have the same elements.
65: Which bread last longest?
66: I know that liquids will form little bubbles that float around. Do these bubbles form into any kind of pattern or shape if let alone?
67: What is the difference between an Atomic Bomb and a Nuclear Bomb
68: What is a pink eraser made of? It totally stumped me.
69: How do people store nuclear atoms?
70: I was wondering if you could please show me how to do problems with mole. I really don't get it at all. I have a worksheet that asks how to determine the mass of a certain amount of atoms and the equivalents and how many atoms are in certain amounts of elements. I just really don't get it and I was wondering if you could please give me a few examples. Thanks!
71: Last week we were at UCSB and we did an experiment. We put a penny in a zinc solution and it turned silver. How do you make this zinc solution?
72: I am doing a science experiment with Thermite for a term project in my AP chemistry class. For safety's sake I would like to know about how much thermite releases how much energy, more specifically, what size flame, or explosion. I also don't know what type of reaction it is, a slow burning jet of fire, or a violent explosion. There was a picture in our science book that showed the reaction but there is no way to determine how much was used. Any additional information about preparation, safety, etc., will be very much appreciated. Thermite is
Fe2O3 (s) + Al(s) -> Al2O3(s) + Fe(l)

73: What are minerals, gems, and crystals made of?
74: How do heat pads work? What substance do they contain? Why do they go solid when you press the metal disc inside? I think that the heat is given out as the substance changes state (liquid to solid which I know is exothermic).
75: How do sapphires form?
76: Hi - I am taking continuing education courses and have a couple of questions that I can't seem to figure out. I am looking on the web for illustrations of what happens to an acid and a base when added together. For example, I have 4 molecules of HCl and 4 moleculess of NaCl. What happens when I add another 2 molecules of Hcl to it? 2. Is there really 2 forms of Boron? Boron 10 and Boron 11? 3. Is HBr and PBr3 an electrolyte? 4. I see where Ca(OH)2 in some areas is a strong base, but also a weak electrolyte? Which is it? Thanks for your help if you can, or please point me in a direction where I can find some answers!! Ken
77: My partner and I must do a demonstration for our AP chemistry class on 3/19. We have chosen to do a breathalyzer reaction. We are going to compare how the indicator reacts with vodka to its reaction with beer. We have all the materials, and we have followed the directions carefully. However, we have had major problems getting the reaction to occur quickly and noticeably enough.

We have had problems with step 3 (getting the gel) and 16 (making the reaction happen). Initially, the reaction was slow. The mixture we used was supposed to turn from orange to green. Instead, it turned from yellow to clear with some blue tints, taking over ten minutes to complete. After experiencing this twice, I added a few more drops of potassium dichromate and was able to make the gel orange. When I added ethanol (about five drops of vodka), the reaction was slightly more noticeable. Putting several drops of the ethanol directly onto the gel changed it to green/blue in a minute or two. This was better, although still not fast enough. My partner and I tried again to see if we could make the reaction faster by adding even more potassium dichromate solution. Instead of obtaining the desired orange gel as I had done before, the mixture was mostly a yellow liquid with only slight gelling. Adding more sulfuric acid and sodium silicate did not seem to help. My partner and I need to get the reaction working well very soon so that we can have an interesting demonstration for the class. We are looking for a gel that will completely turn green in a pipet in about a minute when ethanol from a balloon is blown into it. We would like to compare this with adding beer through the balloon. Why did the mixture stop gelling and turning orange despite all the trials and adjustments? What can we do to get an orange gel that will work well, as I described?

78: What is the degrees in Fahrenheit of liquid nitrogen?
79: What do scientists use to measure thermal energy?
80: I'm researching the manufacturing of lipstick for a science paper, and I was wondering if producing lipstick causes any problems for the environment, and what the positive aspects of lipstick manufacturing could be? I was also curious on how lipstick is made and what it involves in terms of the environment?
81: Why does food stay so long in the stomach before it is being allowed to pass gradually into the small intestine?
82: If you melt dry ice, can you swim in it without getting wet?
83: Why is stainless steel less susceptible to rust than other metals?
84: Why do we get shocked when we slide down our plastic slide at school? Are electrons moving from us to the slide or from the slide to us?
85: Hi, I am doing a science project for my AP chem class and I was wondering if you could provide me with a good source of information as to how to electroplate copper pennies using metal solutions and an electric current. We need to know exactly what we need to use for the solution and solid metal in the other beaker. My partner and I have already made most of the setup but we need to know what the most efficient solutions are to use and need a procedure. We would also appreciate a list of various solutions that we can use to plate the penny with different metals. We had planned on using silver nitrate to plate it with silver, but we would like to use more than one solution and plate the penny multiple times. I wanted to plate it with chrome, but I was informed by a tutor that the only suitable chrome solution would be chrome cyanide, which would not be very healthy. Mr. Bausback thinks it comes in other solutions but he is not sur;, can you verify this and/or tell us if there is a more healthy chrome solution available?
86: Who discovered electrons,protons, and neutrons?
87: Amongst the AP science teachers this year there has been an epiphany: nobody knows exactly what fire is. Obviously, it's an oxidation reaction requiring oxygen, heat, and fuel. However, there is still indecision about what exactly defines the edge of the flame itself. Is the flame superheated air that simply releases photons according to how much energy each molecule has? If that is the case, would the flame's boundary extend as one views the flame at increasing wavelengths?
88: I'm doing a science project on electroplating and I need a good solution to bond copper onto steel. I have tried the vinegar solutions, but they are too weak and only create a thick film that rubs off: I need something stronger.

89: My house has mildew on the blinds and the curtains. Is it possible to kill it with ammonia?
90: We are studying about mixtures, solutions and compounds and came across a puzzle. What is Jello? We (the class) seem to be confused. Some of us think it's a mixture, while some us think it's a solution.
91: I am currently working on a science project and I am struggling with finding a mentor that can teach me about how vitamin C is lost when you cook various vegetables/fruits. If you know of anyone intrested in helping me on this school science project please e-mail me A.s.a.p Thanks!
92: Why do certain bacteria change color at different temperatures? Is this an evolutionary strategy?
93: Please explain to me why the Ar for Chlorine is 35.5 and not 35 as might be expected from a model of the chlorine atom containing 17 protons and 18 neutrons.
94: I am trying to do a science project using electroplating, and one requirement is that the project tries to explore/answer a question. However, I am having difficulty determining a question that I could answer definitely, unlike "how well" something plated. I know I could attempt to measure the amount of something plated, however the measurements would be extremely small, and I don't have the tools to measure that. So, I would greatly appreciate any help I could get as to what question I could answer with an electroplating science project (plating copper onto a quarter/nickel)...Thank you!
95: If the outer core is melted metal it would have to be hot enough for the metal to melt of course. If the inner core is also made of the same materials as the outer core, then why does the inner core not melt as well? If the inner core is completely surrounded by melted metal than it should be breaking down as well shouldn't it? What causes the inner core to stay solid?
96: What chemical best reacts violently with electricity when combined?
97: I understand that monoclonal antibodies are made by fusing a lymphocyte cell and a cancer cell but wouldn't this hybrid cell have double the normal number of chromosomes?
98: Can you clean water at your house?
99: The reaction between a cyanoacrylate super-glue and sodium bicarbonate is one that intrigues me. It forms a type of cement that is virtually unbreakable. I have looked all over the internet for what occurs in this reaction, but have found nothing. Could you help me out by telling me what happens in this reaction? Thank you!
100: Can you explain why a soda cools faster in an ice- bath than a refrigerator?
101: What does 0.1 cm3 of water weigh in grams?
102: When you fill a balloon with hydrogen and let it float up, and you then put a match on it, it will explode. Why is that so?
103: How do you measure humidity in the air? Also how does humidity effect people's hair?
104: We are studying states of matter. We have a question about glass. We have discrepant information from the Internet about whether, at room temperature, it is a liquid with a very high viscosity or a solid. Could you please answer our question: At room temperature, is glass a solid or a liquid? Thank you very much!
105: I am doing a science fair project and I was wondering what would be a good substance to use as an emulsifier to mix water and gasoline to be burned in an engine. I know it can be done I just need to know what will work. Please send a reply with anything you can offer. Thanks.
106: Is it possible to mix water and gasoline? If so how do you do it?
107: What happens in an ionic bond?
108: Does blonde hair turn green in chlorinated water because chlorine is green?
109: Can diamonds appear in graphite?
110: If a virus and a bacteria were introduced into an environment of pure oxygen, would the virus be able to reproduce via the bacteria? Does this only occur with certain types of viruses and/or bacteria? Would the virus, bacteria, or both die off(either way)? Would they be able to live in harmony even if the virus didn't reproduce via the bacteria? Or would they both die off?
111: Why does the sun get sunspots?
112: Where do plants prefer to live?
113: How do heterotrophs live?
114: How is a solution different from a suspension?
115: How do chemists play a role in the medical field? What kind of research do chemists do that has an impact on the life of an everyday person (besides studying chemical reactivity,and discovering and creating new laboratory elements that many people do not ever hear or know about anyway)?
116: How big can a Molecule actally get (spread)?
117: How do I tell if a mixture is separated?
118: Why do liquids have surface tension in a beaker?
119: Why can't solid particles move around as much as any other substance?
120: Why does water boil from heat?
121: I wanted to know, how did they figure out when they use nuclear fission on a uranium-235 nucleus it would make a lot of energy and heat to produce a nuclear bomb without the scientists getting hurt when it was first discovered?
122: Is it possible to take pure alcohol out of an alcoholic drink with a physical change, since alcohol is a homogenous mixture?
123: Who invented the study of chemistry?
124: Why does the sun affect the pigment in your skin?
125: Let's say you have a copper plate. The copper plate is at 30 degrees celsius. That's 86 degrees fahrenheit. Why is it that air at 86 degrees fahrenheit doesn't feel as hot to your skin as copper at 86 degrees fahrenheit?
Another aspect of my question: Heat is the average kinetic energy of a substance, average translational energy I believe, ie the motion of the particles, in a gas the particles have kinetic energy, and move about chaotically, and collectively this energy is the substance's heat energy/internal energy. In air, the particles are free to move as described above. In the copper, the total heat energy of the particle is described by the average energy of the particles, which i suppose are vibrating, not moving about translationally.
So let's say you have your copper plate at 86 degrees fahrenheit, and you have a certain volume of air at say 80. The metal plate will warm the air, transferring heat, until the air reaches 86. The whole system will probably settle at a common temperature of like 83 or whatever, and in reality it would eventually just reach a lower equilibrium as more and more heat dissipated. But I don't know if I am correct in this.
It seems like the copper plate at 86 degrees is much hotter than the air at 86 degrees, and the plate will continue to dump heat into the air. Maybe I'm wrong.
What about water? What if you have an 86 degree copper plate in contact with water at say 84 degrees. It just seems to me like the plate feels much hotter than the water, yet it would seem thermal equilibrium would tell us that the copper plate will only heat the water two more degrees, and then no more heat transfer will occur. Is this correct? Thank you very much for your help.

126: Hi, I am doing a science project with bacteria and I have another question. Are there any circumstances besides temperature that will cause a bacterium to change or lose its pigmentation?
127: I know how lightning works, but why doesn't strike when it snows?
128: What are hydrofluorocarbons?
129: How does bleach whiten clothes and why does it ruin clothes if to much is applied?
130: Does saltwater affect the production of rust?
131: Why is odor always classified as a physical property as opposed to a chemical property?
132: What is the line between heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures?
133: In the summer when I go to the beach, my hair gets a lot lighter. What is it that causes it to go that? Is it the sun, saltwater, or both?
134: Why is it that dry ice is colder than regular ice? What different "elements" make it colder?
135: Can you tell me the animals with the strongest stomach acid? Can you tell me what these animals can digest as a result of this stronger stomach acid?
136: What is acid rain and what causes it?
137: I was mixing up a solution or iron (III) nitrate for my chemistry class to do a lab on equilibrium. Of course, as the iron nitrate dissolved, the solution took on a brownish color, characteristic of the Fe (III) ion. The solution needed to be mixed with a few ml of conc. nitric acid. When the acid was added to the solution, the brownish color left, and the solution became clear - colorless with maybe a slight purple tint. OK, what happened to the color? The Fe(III) is still in solution (I think)...seems like it should retain the color. Could it have been oxidized to something higher that is colorless? What's with the purple? Help.
138: When using thin layer chromatography is it possible to separate out enantiomers?
139: Is it possible to bring a substance to "absolute zero" on the Kelvin scale? If so, how would it be done?
140: How is it that certain things can combine in such ways to form new products, or formulas? How do they come about.
141: How is it that when you have a bubble and you blow it up with oxygen and then light it with fire the bubble kind of explodes, into a ball?
142: How is it possible to combine a noble gas such a Xe with other elements?
143: What is involved with actually splitting an atom, since I heard that was invovled with nuclear bombs?
144: if our lungs needs oxygen to breathe how come we can't take in Carbon Dioxide.
145: Do you have an experiment that will work to show the effects of carbonated soda beverages on tooth decay?
146: Why is water clear?
147: Can a different chemical, change the boiling point of H2O? My hypothesis is that the reaction is based on the chemicals used on this experiment.
148: Can man reproduce water?
149: It is known that living cells can, to some extent, repair their DNA. Do you think this process can be done without using some form of energy?
150: If a person was do digest and acid or a base with a pH of 14 or 1 what would that acid or base do to their insides? What is the lowest or highest pH someoen can eat without injury?
151: How does hair conditioner work? How does it de-tangle the hair and does it truly do anything?
152: Hi, I was wondering in how the effect of surfboard resin works in harden if it is a liquid and it turns into a solid really fast after putting it in the sun. Is it a chemical reaction?
153: What is entropy?
154: What is Spontaneity and Gibb's free energy?
155: What is the difference between Alkanes, Alkenes, and Alkynes?
156: What is Titration?
157: What is the most dangerous two chemicals to mix that we know of? And why are the so volatile together?
158: How can I separate pure water from salty sea water? Pure water has to be left.
159: I am currently doing a science project on natural oil seeps and their effect on kelp. Though I am not finished with my experiment, I have counted bryozoans and found that petroleum kelp contained these colonies, whereas the non-petroleum kelp did not. Basically I have found that petroleum does not affect the kelp because the petroleum does not stick to the kelp, like it does to so many other organisms. My question: why does the petroleum not affect the kelp, what does the kelp have to make the petroleum not stick to it when the petroleum sticks to feathers and kayak paddles?
160: What makes dirt? I am pretty sure rocks make sand, but what makes dirt?
161: What happens when the PH of a pool is not balanced?
162: Why is the anode connected with the negative charge on a battery? And the cathode with the positive end of the battery? Why are they related?
163: In chromatography, why does the blue color separate last? We did an experiment at school and for some reason if a piece of paper started separating and if it had blue in it the blue was always last.
164: What reaction takes place when you wear copper and your finger turns green?
165: Please tell me name of some metals or alloys which behave as superconductors at room temperature or above.
166: Why do we get burned so fast if we don't put on sunscreen? I know it has to do with the rays but is it something in our skin too?
167: Are red socks an element, compound or mixture? Using buoyant force, how to determine the "weight capacity" of a boat? Process when frost forms on your windshield in the morning?
168: Cells use chemical energy. Some organic chemicals are rich stores of chemical energy. Why is this?
169: I am in need of a mentor for my science project, and i am going to be baking bread. My question is What is the chemical reaction of yeast in bread? I am starting now and ending in january. is there some one who can help. thanks
170: I have an important question for my school project: Can I put some plastic bits into the pulp when I recycle paper? Or is there some way of combining paper and plastic together? Thank you very much.
171: I am doing a science project and am in dire need of a mentor. I was recommended to contact you for help by Mr. Olin Bausback, my teacher. My science project question is: Does the gas inside a light bulb affect the brightness of the bulb? If I wasn't able to aquire a light meter I would change the question from brightness to heat, but I am planning on brightness. If you could find a mentor for me it would extremely appreciated. Thank You very much for your time.
172: In regards to the Bohr model, how does the change in pH affect the color of flower petals, I read the article on a website but do not really understand it. Why does the color red use less energy than blue?
173: Would you please help me to understand how I could determine the atomic weight of a sample of an unknown pure element? I don't understand the procedure or the equations involved in the process? THank you!
174: I'm trying to understand how I could determine the molecular weight of a liquid from its vapor density? I missed this lecture in class and the book doesn't seem to be helping much, can you please help?
175: We did the lab for Halloween where you add 18M sulfuric acid to sugar(sucrose) and get carbon left in the test tube. My question is does the acid act as a catalyst for the breakup or do the H+ ions hydrate the -OH groups on the sucrose? I know the waste product still has to be neutralized which is why I think it is acting as a catalyst.
176: What is DNA made of?
177: Why is it best to whip cream in a metal container? Does the porosity of the surface have anything to do with it?
178: I was trying to think of the mechanism of bleach at work in the laundry. I know the hypochlorite ion is hard at work but I am not sure how.
179: Is there a way to re-thicken our ozone layer?
180: We are studying solubility in chem class. Why are all the salts from alkaline metals soluble? Is there a salt that is insoluble as NO3 (nitrate?)
181: What are the materials that are in different types a fabrics? How are fabrics different?
182: My science classes need more hands-on activities involving biochemistry. Although the are only 8th graders, the California State Standards are tested quite rigorously. Can you suggest any lab work that might address the following state standards: Standard #6 a)Carbon, because of its ability to combine in many ways with itself and other elements, has a central role in the chemistry of living organisms. b) Living organisms are made of molecules largely consisting of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, and sulfur. c) Living organisms have many different kinds of molecules including small ones such as water and salt, and very large ones such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and DNA. The labwork we do always gets into the chemical structure of the molecules and how they interact on a very basic level. Thank-You for any help you may offer.
183: What elements make up ketchup?
184: Does the pH of water affect the dissolved oxygen at room temperature (20 d. celsius). Also, does the pH affect the dissolved oxygen at 10 d. celsius and 40 d. celsius. In other words, I know that the temperature affects the amount of dissolved oxygen but what about the pH affecting and dissolved oxygen. Thank you, Jeanette
185: Do plants put oxygen into the air? Does Chlorophyll give plants their green color?
186: What is the difference between a reversible and a non-reversible change?
187: How do some chemical changes produce a gas
188: I wonder if someone can live up yo 200 years old
189: Can heat be created or destroyed or only transferred and why?
190: Purple cabbage is often used as an acid/base indicator in high school experiments. I am guessing there is a metal centered compound that gives it the purple color and then changes state to give the different colors. Am I right? What metal? thanks
191: Which freezes faster hot or cold water?
192: Why do maple leaves turn red during autumn?
193: How can light, sugar level, and the ph value affect anthocyanin in plants?
194: How much carbon dioxide do plants give off?
195: We learned that yeast produces ethanol as a waste product during fermentation, and that it is this "waste" that is in alcoholic beverages. So is "non-alcoholic" beer made without yeast at all, or is the ethanol somehow removed?
196: When I empty the dishwasher the plastic cups always have lots of water drops on them. The glass cups are dry. Why don't the plastic cups dry like the glass ones so I do not have to use a towel?
197: WE are doing a science project on rock crystal formation. We are making rock candy. My daughter is in first grade and I want her to be able to discuss the crystal formations. Can you give me an idea, at her age level, what discussions should take place regarding crystal formations?
198: What is the half life of an isotope of an element? How are isotopes different than regular atoms?
199: Why does warm soda have more carbonation?
200: What is involved in the process of desalination?
What are the pros and cons of desalination?

201: How do heat, time, and pressure contribute to mineral formation?
202: How do the different flavors (sour, bitter, salty, and sweet) interact with your tongue?
Why are some people more sensitive to taste then others?
How does your olfactory system interact with taste?
Does body temperature affect the gustatory cells and what we taste?
Does food temperature affect the taste of things?
Could the gustatory cells be damaged from intense heat and cold?
There are also taste buds on the roof of our mouth; are there definite areas of tastes on there?

203: What is your current research on Hemophilia? How is this research helping with finding a cure or a better understanding of the disease? How is this research being funded? What are the future prospects for finding a cure? Do you know any one with Hemophilia and if you can give me their e-mail or a way to contact them?
204: If the ocean is 75 F it feels like you are in a warm bathtub but if you are in a swimming pool and it is the same temperature it is so cold it is hard to train in. I have tried as a swimmer in college and high school. My guess is that it has something to do with the difference in density between the two, but I still can't rationalize the difference very well.
205: What is a simple mixture that can demonstrate the fermentation process like that in wine?
206: Hi! Do birds excrete urine? I really don't know if they do and me and my friend were pondering this the other day!! Thanks so much, have a great day!! :)
207: What are the two main contributing factors to global warming? Do factories contribute to global warming? And if so, what is one example?
208: Could you please tell me why the p is little and the H is capitalized? Our Science book doesn't explain it. Thanks, Lia Simnacher
209: In which part of a pencil would you find metallic bond?
210: When the atoms of the same molecule are undergoing inter molecular force of attraction, there will be a polarity between the atoms of the same molecule and, will the polarity change if the atom of one molecule is bonded with the corresponding atom of the other molecule? and if so, how could the chemical combination take place if the atoms have abnormal polarities?
211: We would like to know if oxygen is lighter or heavier than air.
We want to know how both nitrogen and oxygen seems to be the same weight as air.
When air is called thinner at altitude and there is less oxygen, is there also les nitrogen, and what causes the thinning?

212: I am doing a science project for my AP chemistry class right now. We want to electroplate a penny with silver chloride. The problem is that in order to do so we would have to melt it but the melting temperature is too high.
I was wondering if adding sulfuric acid free up the Ag+ ions so that they could plate the penny?
If this does not work, are there any other ways in which we can electroplate a penny with silver?

213: Why are some of the periodic table elements reactive?
214: Why don't any of the transition metals on the periodic table have charges?
215: What is in mercury element, which makes it so dangerous to be exposed to?
216: At what percent oxygen does air become spontaneously combustible (25%? 30 %?) Or does it ever without an ignition source?
217: I'm working on putting together a science fair project and then asking someone in your chemistry department to be my mentor. I would like to though, before I do that, know a little bit about the oxidation of things, especially in fireworks, and I'd like to see if you would have any suggestions on how an experiment testing the stability and oxidation rates of oxidizers used in fireworks could be done.
218: I am currently enrolled to the AP biology course at Santa Ynez High school; I was very disappointed after we performed a lab in an attempt to form coacervates. We mixed Gelatin (1%), Arabic gum (1%), HCL (1%), Methylene blue (.1%). After mixing all of these together we saw nothing except air bubbles. I was curious as to what might have gone wrong. If you could send me an email with an explanation of what could be done differently to succeed in forming coacervates that would be greatly appreciated.
219: Are vitamins in tablets more efficient than the vitamins in their natural source, like in fruit? I am trying to figure out a way to be able to test this.
220: Why does electricity run through water so easily? For example, if you drop a hairdryer that is on in the bath and you are in the bath, you will get electrocuted.
221: I am doing a science fair project on how does soil affect the filtration of acid rain and I need a mentor. I was wondering if I could have the names and e-mail addresses or phone numbers of people who would be willing to mentor me on my project.
222: Is the tip of the flame hotter or colder than the base or origin of the flame? So basically, which one is hotter on a gas stove?
223: What elements are in diamonds, gold, and rust? What is the scientific name for rust?
224: My class was doing a "Properties of Water" lab yesterday and one of activities we did was to place salt in oil to see what it would (or would not) do. Well, I left the oil and salt in the test tube overnight, and today when I came in there appeared to be a layer of water in between the oil and the salt. Very perplexing. My class and I hypothesized over where this water could have come from, and if it even was water. We asked the chemistry teacher (I teach biology) and he didn't know, either. It was just regular corn oil and table salt. Thanks for your help!
225: Why do atoms need neutrons? And also I like to know why there are isotopes and why do some atoms have many isotopes and others only one or two? Thanks
226: How many electrons, protons, valence electrons, and neutrons are in Oxygen?
227: I will be attending the Discovery Channel Young Scientist Challenge in Washington, DC from October 14-20 as one of 40 students chosen nationally to compete for over $100,000 in prizes. In preparation for a number of science challenges that I will be participating in, one of the skills that I need to possess is to be able to separate polymers of differing densities. Despite researching online, in books, with teachers, I have been unable to find a specific method to be able to do so. Again, my question is regarding separating polymers of differing densities.
228: What liquids explode when mixed together?
229: Why does fire need oxygen to burn?
230: What are the numbers of atoms for potassium?
231: What is in Carbon Dioxide that can kill you?
232: It is possible for yeast cells to decompose hydrogen peroxide?
233: We did a lab where we mixed 18M H2SO4 with sucrose to get charcoal (carbon) and water vapor. My questions, the hydronium ion removes the -OH functional groups but does it also remove the oxygen in the pyran and furan rings and the ether bond? Is it just the first H+ that comes off and does the work or does the second one also contributes? Does it get hot enough to cause SOx gasses to form from the sulfate ion?
234: How do you prevent rust?
235: What is the charge of the iron atom in FeO?
236: When placed in citric acid, what happens to iron?
237: Do we need sun to survive?
238: I am doing a project on elements and my element is carbon and I need to know what the symbol for carbon is and the atomic number.
239: Is rusting a physical or chemical change in matter?
240: Why is it that during the light reactions of photosynthesis photosystem 2 comes before photosystem 1? Or why are they named photosystem 1 and 2?
241: What makes a snake's venom dangerous? Why are some venom that do not kill humans and others do?
242: How do scientists know that some materials for clothing can stop UV rays? Are the advertisements for this clothing reliable?
243: What is the Earth's atmosphere made of?
244: What is in stainless steel that makes it anti- rust?
245: What do you do to turn Lead into Gold
246: Earth's minerals contain what percent oxygen?
247: I just won 2nd place in our district science fair. I grew a bunch of different types of crystals and compared them with store bought crystals to see which ones grew faster and better. I'm now going on to regionals and need to expand my project. Do you have any ideas of what I can do to expand my crystal growing project for regionals?
248: What is the difference between a nucleic acid and an amino acid?
249: Where do atoms come from?
250: Where are minerals stored,
251: Hello, I am currently working on a science fair project that involves the effects on fuel emissions when different types of oxygenated gasolines are used. I have access to a dynamometer but I don't have access to non- oxygenated gasoline or a controlled gasoline source that would be able to change the additive in the non-oxygenated gasoline to the exact amount necessary for testing. It would also be nice to be able to work with someone that knows something about the topic. If you could contact me as soon as possible that would really be great. Thank you.
252: How do you find limiting reactants and limiting yields?
253: What is the actual mass of a proton, a electron and a neutron
254: How many hydrogen atoms would you find in 1g of hydrogens?
255: I need to find a mineral that is hard enough to scratch a diamond. I also need to determine its hardness.
256: How can you test if our water is acidic?
257: How does color affect crystal growth?
258: I am doing a science experiment on the energy output of some different fuels. I am going to be burning small amounts of fuel in a closed chamber and then measuring the heat generated, and the pollutants generated. I am going to filter the air for soot and unburnt hydrocarbons, and use a thermometer for measuring heat, but I want to know what products are produced from the burning of the fuels. I need help finding out the chemical formulas for burning these fuels with air (not pure O2, just air). I managed to find out the formula for methanol, but am having trouble with the rest.

The fuels I am thinking of testing are:

Diesel fuel

If you know of any web sites that might help me find this information, or know the formulas yourself, I would appreciate it if you could inform me. Also, if you know of where I could find some thermal testing instruments, I would like to know. Thank you for your help!

259: I am interested in doing a science project that involves measuring the elements in a substance by the substane's light emission lines. My teacher does not want us to test water do you have a suggestion about which substances might make a good experiment. Do you know the equipment needed, like a spectroscopy, and is there some one that would allow a student to use one. I am also looking for a mentor. Any advice is welcomed Asap. Thank You.
260: What causes banana peels to turn brown?
261: How can the actual vaccines for COVID-19 be modified in order to be effective against any mutations of this virus, like the Delta mutation? Are the actual vaccines only working on the "spike" or any other part of the virus?
262: Hey, my name is Kimberly and I am right in the middle of the Science Fair. I am required to have an interview with someone who is an expert or knows about my research topic. I was wondering if I could ask someone a few questions about my topic, like an interview.

My question is: Can I make a pH indicator by using vegetables?
Now that you know my question, here are some questions for anyone who can answer them.
Q. Is there anyway to test if a solution is a salt?
Q. Many plant materials, such as red cabbage, contain compounds that are indicators. What compounds does Red Cabbage contain?
Q. So far, I know of 7 acids (sulfuric, Nitric, Hydrochloric, Citric, ascorbic, carbonic, and phosphoric). How many acids [estimated] are out there?
Q. Which acid is the most deadly and where is it found?
Q. What is the definition of corrosive?
Q. If bases can harm skin, and if your hands being to feel slippery you should immediately rinse your hands with large amounts of water because you might have some sort of base on your hands, then why aren't we harmed when washing our hands with soap?
Q. What are some other plant materials that can be used as indicators or have some compounds that are indicators?

263: How are crystals uses in science? How do scienctists use crystals in science? Why is crysla growing important to us?
264: I would like to know whether milk is acid or base. Is it good for a gastric patient to consume milk?? I would also like to know why hydrochloric acid resolves in water when it is a covalent.
265: What type of reaction is it when you add sulfuric acid to a solution of sodium thiosulfate? What are the products?
266: I'm doing a science project in which a put a charge through a tub of sea water. The anode is titanium mesh and the cathode is steel mesh. I am measuring the growth of solids (mainly calcium carbonate and magnesium) on the cathodic steel mesh structure. Everything that is happening so far I've expected except that there is brown and red foam forming on the surface of the water and there is red settlement of the floor. I would greatly appreciate any feed back into what's happening chemically to make this happen.
P.S. Someone suggested that it may be galvanic corrosion. This may be feasible because the steel is galvanized (I'm assuming that that's what's on the steel to stop it from rusting).

267: I am currently a student-teacher, through UCSB, in a 7th grade Life Science class. I recently assigned disease reports to students and some of the assigned diseases are caused by prions. I'm certainly not expecting them to know all of the details about prions, but I figured that I should know about them in case I have questions. I've looked up information on the Internet and read the prior prion question that is posted on Science Line, but I still just don't understand how prions work. How are they infectious? How do they change other proteins? Are they anything like viruses, or more like regular old protiens. I've also seen information about them being caused by humans' own genetics, so I just want to know, basically, what they are and what they do.
268: I want to know why silkworms eat mulberry and what's present in mulberry that is not present in other leaves?
269: How do particles in a fluid exert pressure on a container?
270: Thanks for responding to my question, I have a few more if you'd be so kind as to answer them. First, the titanium anode didn't corrode at all, it was the steel cathode. But by being the cathode, wouldn't it have cathodic protection from corrosion? Also, we just studied electrochemistry in my chemistry class. From this knowledge, I am assuming that the positive calcium and magnesium ions in the water are being reduced by electrons supplied by the electric current, but what makes them electroplate on the steel structure and not the walls of the tub as well? And where do the carbonate ions come from? I didn't know that they were present in sea water. Each subject received the same voltage, but a different amount of current (6v:300mAmp, 400mAmp, 700mAmp), would the total kilowatt hours be the same for all of them? And why would the current make a difference?
271: In my school science project, I have a submerged steel mesh structure and titanium mesh strip. There is a charge running through this seawater, the titanium's the anode, and the steel mesh is the cathode. From what I already know, the current through the sea water causes the dissolve carbon dioxide to become carbonate ions and attach onto the cathodic steel mesh structure. I was hoping someone could give me the balanced chemical and redox reaction for this process. The steel mesh structure is rusting so maybe this has something to do with it? I didn't really understand the answer to why the cathodic steel mesh structure rusted despite being the cathode nor why the calcium carbonate formed on the steel structure instead of just anywhere.
272: What are the chemical combinations for chlorophyll?
273: What will happen if you light Citric Acid in the powdered form on fire or expose to extreme heat? Josie
274: Do bubbles implode or explode, and wich one has more density: dry ice or regular ice?
275: What is chemical corrosion? How does it happen in metals? How does science deal with corrosion?
276: I am doing a science project for my chemistry class, and my partner and I have come up with this question: What is the effect of common/uncommon acids and bases on the amount of corrosion in steel and copper pipes?
277: I am doing a science project regarding the corrosion of pipes. I know that the amount of oxygen in water would effect how much a pipe corrodes; but my question is: Is there a way to measure or add oxygen to water so I could do an experiment involving this?
278: Do you have an application for gold nano- particles?
279: There are 3 things that go from solid to gas without going through a liquid stage: Dry ice and moth balls. Can you tell me the third?
280: Hi, I would like to conduct a science fair experiment and measure the amount of energy produced by electrolytes in sports and other drinks when they cross a semipermeable membrane. I wondering if I could get some advise as to how to set up this experiment. Thank you.
281: If you took an element out of air, would it still be considered air?
282: Does soap explode?
283: I want to measure electrolytes in sports drinks. I have a voltmeter. How do I set up the experiment? Thank you.
284: What would it happen if you drink liquid nitrogen?
285: What would liquid nitogen do in space ?
286: What is the chemical formula for the liquid inside glow-sticks?
287: If a carbon atom with a +4 charge bonds with a carbon atom with a 4- charge is the result carbon carbonide? Is this possible? I am following the text that says the positive ion comes first and the negative ion second. Also, the ending is supposed to change to -ide.
288: How do crystals form and what are some scientific uses of crystals?
289: How can I make potassium nitrate safely and legally?
290: What metal when rusted becomes blue
291: If teeth sit in different concentrates of acetic acid (vinegar)then how will they react differently? Thank you and I hope you can help me!!! : )
292: What is a good way to test the production of carbon dioxide in humans after different types of exercise? What is the very best method to measure that? My teacher wants me to use a better method other than having the person blow into a cup of water with a straw for 30 seconds immediately after the exercise, then testing to see what the pH of the water is because CO2 is acidic. Thank you very much.
293: Why is saltwater salty?
294: How many Carbons, Oxygens, and Hydrogens are there in Photosynthesis?
295: I measured insect respirometry in Carbon dioxide ppm and I'm looking for an equation to convert that into oxygen.
296: What is a lattice?
297: We were doing an experiment with vinegar and some fossils. We poured the vinegar on the fossils and they fizzed. In about an hour we saw whitish crystals, some were slightly rusty colored. We wondered what this was and what caused it.
298: Is there an easy experiment on fulgurite I can do? If you can, can it be safe? Is it impossible for me to make fulgurite?
299: How do we turn ocean water into drinking water?
300: How many moles are contained in the following at STP? I have 22.4L of N2. Do I have to convert to get from liters to grams then to moles?
301: Hi, I have several questions regarding essential oils. Please answer as many questions as you can that is within your expertise. For each of the following naturally occurring oils:
Citronella ,eucalyptus,cinnamon leaf,nutmeg,clove,rose,jasmine,lavender
a) How easy is it to produce each of them chemically as compared being extracted from natural sources?
b) How effective are the chemically produced ones for each of them compared to the ones extracted naturally? Are there any harmful effects using the chemically produced ones?
c) In the market ,if one does not know the origin of a particular oil, how likely are each of them to be produced chemically as compared to be natural?
d) Apart from laboratory tests, are there any other way of distinguishing between the two?
e) When the lid is taken off a bottle of the oils, the oil evaporates to fill the room with its aroma. But after sometime, no more oil evaporates unless one stirs it. Why is it so?
Thank you.

302: A cement compound CaO.Al2O3.10H2O gives certain peaks when using the powder diffraction method. The compound now increases its water of crystallization to become CaO.Al2O3.11H2O. Will the diffraction pattern obtained be basically the same as the former, with only a slight difference, which corresponds to a slight increase in the d spacing? Or will the diffraction pattern be an entirely different pattern?
303: Why don't we just swich to all nuclear power? What are the negatives? (Besides it is dangerous)
Do any scientists disagree that humans are in fact the cause of Global Warming, and that global warming is due to high CO2 levels?

304: Does the temperature of water affect its ability to fight fire?
305: How many times can one sheet of paper be recycled?
306: Can food coloring dye contact lenses? And if it works,can it be toxic to eyes?
307: Bryce's history teacher was talking about the atom bomb the other day and mentioned heavy water was used to make it. She asked her students if anyone knew what it was because she didn't know what it was. So, what is heavy water? Is it naturally occurring or is it man-made? Is it only used with the atom bomb or does it have other uses?
308: Let's say that a particle with no charge/neutral charge such as a neutron makes contact and is affected by one of any of the fundamental forces (gravity, electromagnetic, weak, strong) Will the contact between the particle and force be able to change it's charge from a particle with no charge to a particle that has a charge such as a protons or electron? If so, what forces would do that to what particles?
309: How does the sum of the charges on the positive ions compare to the sum of the charges on the negative ions in ionic compounds?
310: Why do Hexane extracted lipids from diatoms look yellow-brown (like a light beer)?
311: When you put a balloon filled with water over a flame such as a candle, why doesn't the balloon pop or burst?
312: Is there a formula or equation or proccess to figure out the thrust, lifting capacity, etc... of a rocket by burning hydrogen and oxygen given certian values/variables, ect...? If so, What is it?
313: Could you help me in understanding what do I get from Na (+1) + O (+2) =?
314: If you are using a plant for phytoextraction of metal in the soil, how would you seperate and measure the amount of metal in the soil and in the plant?
315: Are organic or inorganic fertilizers more effective?
316: Is there a simple way of measuring the amount of lead present in soil or in a plant? I know there are lead test kits that tell whether or lead is present, but if you want to know about how much lead is present, how would you find that out?

Hello, i am doing a project on gel electrophoresis and just had a few questions.

-What is the basic process?
-What is it used for? What fields?
-How is the gel prepared/made?
-How are the DNA segments tracked?
-Could the average person conduct their own gel electrophoresis experiment?

Any answers to any of these questions would be greatly appreciated.

Thank You

318: Can you extract atmospheric CO2 in order to reduce global warming? If so, how would you do it?
319: What is sodium?
320: What is oil made of?
321: How do you create synthetic elements?
322: To make genetic mutations do you have to change DNA or RNA? Why?
323: How does Photosynthesis help animals survive?
324: Why is chromatography useful in the separation of photosynthetic pigments?
325: What are all the types of acid? What is the strongest and how is it made?
326: Whats the difference between an Alkane and an Alkene?
327: What do you get when you mix lithium with astatine? Is it used commonly? What for? Thank you.
328: If you put a mento mint in diet coke, would it really blow up?
329: I am teaching ionization potentials and we are doing a lab with Ag(7.2574 volts), Cu(7.724 volts), Mg(7.644) and Zn (9.391 volts). The voltages are from the handbook of chemistry and physics. Here's the question why is silver nonreactive in a solutions of Mg(NO3) 2, Cu(NO3)2 and Zn(NO3)2 when according to the voltages it should be the most reactive. Thanks
330: How do you illustrate a metallic bond? I understand covalent and ionic bonding, but can't visualize metallic bonding. Thank you
331: What is the chemical composition of fire retardants used on clothing?
332: What are the most common chemical compounds found in fabric softeners?
333: Is a strand of hair stronger than a strand of steel the same size?
334: I am doing an exiting project on absorption of water and pine. Where can I find some research about this topic?
335: I would like to know the name and more about the law that says that "energy can never be created or destroyed, just transformed from one form to another".
336: I am studing the effects of ethylene on fruit ripening. I found an experiment that requires Potassium Iodide(KI) and Iodine(I) to make a stain for the fruit. I can't find the Potassium Iodide anywhere! Can you help??? I need to get going asap. Thank you for your help. Madison
337: One day I read this article and it said that cow farts are the number 1 cause of global warming is that true? If so, why?
338: When I mix Cayenne Pepper and cinnamon in hot or cold water, after it settles the pepper and cinnamon gather into some kind of goo. What is that?
339: Are there any known organic substances that are anti-carcinogens?
340: What is the likelihood of an organic sunscreen actually being effective and marketable?
341: Are any of the chemicals in commercial sunscreens known or suspected to be dangerous to humans?
342: How would a professional scientist test the efficiency of organic sunscreens?
343: I am doing a project and I wanted to test how does dioxin affect the burrowing speed of a mole crab. I Know dioxin is really toxic, but I was wondering if we could work with it or not. If not, do you have any suggestions on another product or pesticide, something that is harming or is in the ocean that may affect the speed? Thank you very much
344: Why the same poles attract in magnets?
345: I have some bismuth metal, but it doesnt seem to repel from magnetic fields. So I was wondering if I need a stronger magnetic field or more bismuth, how can I calculate the diamagnetic force caused by bismuth? Any information would be a big help.
346: In order to combat global warming, would it be possible to electrolyze carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases to produce oxygen and stop the greenhouse effect?

Hello, I am doing a Scince Project experiment and our question is:

How does Atrazine, a herbicide, affect the burowing speed of a mole crab? - basically we are putting mole crabs in a small aquariam with 1.5 Cups of Sand and 1.5 Cups of water, and so I wanted to calculate 5% of that to put in 5% of atrazine, but then we realized it would be too much, so now we are going to do 1 ml of atrazine, but how do we state it 1 ml per 3 Cups of enviornement- the sand and water- or 1 ml per liter? Thanks, I would appreciate your help.

348: We are currently learning about rocks and the rock cycle. We are wondering how diamonds are formed. Does it have anything to do with coal? Also--what exactly is a kimberlite? How are diamonds formed in these? Is there a specific type of tectonic boundary these are formed along? What types of elements are included in order to get different colors of diamonds? Linnea, also in our class, wants to know if diamonds really are a girl's best friend but I tried to set her straight in front of the class. I also informed her that diamonds aren't really forever. :)
349: How come soy sauce doesnt freeze?
350: Thanks for your help so far, but when calculating the diamagnetic force created by bismuth, it would be much easier (at least for me) to use a formula, or a couple of basic formulas to calculate the diamagnetic force. So if you guys have a formula that I could plug in all the variables into TO CALCULATE THE DIAMAGNETIC FORCE CREATED BY BISMUTH that would be a big help. Thanks for your help so far.
351: Is possible to rid metallic bonds of atoms, in any metal, permanently or for any duration of time? And is it possible to reverse the spin of electrons, and if so, how?
352: Hi! I have been hearing a lot about a cool alloy: shape memory alloy. I know it can go back to its original shape when exposed to a certian temperature, but I was wondering, are there any alloys that do the same when exposed to a magnetic, or electro-magnetic field? By the way, how can one make shape memory alloy? Thanks for your help.
353: How does ferro-fluid work? Do other ferro- materials behave in the same way? Could you make a material with the properties of ferro-fluid (except the fluid part) into the shape of sheet metal or something else, some other shape? Is a magnetic shape changing polymer basically a ferrofluid-like material?
354: Hi! I have heard of this really cool "liquid metal" at liquidmetal.com, are there any publicly avaliable products of liquid metal?
355: Hi! I need some clarification on some information you sent me before:
M = -.000166 * H
and by defenition,
B = mu_0 * (H+M)
= mu_0 * (H - .000166 * H)
= mu_0 * 0.999834 * H
- What do all of the variables stand for?
- What purpose does the calculation serve, what do I calculate using the above?
- Is it the size of the bismuth sample... how do you calculate that?

356: Hi! Have the strong and weak nuclear forces been unified with the electromagnetic force? How could that be theoretically done? Is there some sort of formula or equation for this unification as well?
357: Hi! If you go to www.hyperphysics.phy- astr.gsu.edu/hbase/HFrame.html and click on condensed matter, then go to diamagnetism and check out the Table of magnetic susceptibilities, it states that Bismuth's magnetic susceptibility is -16.6, is that correct, is that equal to -1.66*10-4? Which should I use?
358: We have liquid nitrogen slowly boiling away in a foam bowl. We put a penny into the liquid nitrogen. We see some vigorous bubbling around the penny. After awhile, the bubbling suddenly crescendos to a big burst, with sound and some splattering, before quickly settling down to quiet bubbling with small bubbles. What's this burst all about? I would have thought intuitively that as the penny cooled down and reached some equilibrium temperature the bubbling would settle down in a smooth way. Thanks!
359: Hi, Anthony. I hope you are having a good day. I would just like to thank you so much for the help that you have given me in answering and providing crucial information for my experiment. I cant thank you enought for what you have done. Once again, and honestly, thank you so much! - Fineas When I did the initial calculations for B^2/z=mu_0*p*G/x I found that the answer of mu_0*p*G/x was negative, but any answer of B^2/z will be positive. How do I solve this problem, the formula doesnt seem to work out?
360: How long does it take to pickle an egg?
361: What is carbon monoxide poisoning and why is it lethal to humans? What is the chemical reaction that occurs in the body when carbon monoxide is inhaled?
362: I was wondering if there was any way to split toxic, polluting chemicals into their constituent parts of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, and then maybe combine the hydrogen and oxygen to make water for the water crisis and use the explosion from that to power homes or machinery. I think it's a stretch of the imagination, but is there any way for it to be possible now or in the future?
363: Why do electrons flow so freely in water, is it possible to make wires/circuits with thin rubber tubes containing water, would those tube pass electrons faster?
364: Will electricity act any different in space?
365: Why doesn't Elmer glue stick to its bottle?

Hi, my name is Vincent Siefe and I am a student at San Marcos High. I am currently doing a small repot on bitotechnology, within the subtopic of microbial biodegradation. Most of the books and sources I have found dive into too much scientific detail which I can't understand. So I have some questions.

1. I have found that microbes have been used to break down chemicals and pollutants in the earth. Yet can they be used for other environmental technological applications?

2. Do you know how these laboratory processes came about?

3. Could you recommend any sources?

Thanks for the help

367: 1. What is the difference between biodegradation and bioremediation?

Is fire considered a gas or soild?

And how does Oxygen fuel fire?

Does it change the chemical reaction or is it the force of the oxygen that spreads the burning substance?

- Thanks!

369: I was wondering why CH4 and NF3 are "stronger greenhouse gasses" than CO2. My guess is that there are more bonds and it takes much more energy to break those bonds so they trap more infrared energy. The limit would be when the bonds break? thanks and hello
370: Can olive oil be used more than once? Why?
371: Wikipedia says NF3 absorbs 17,000 times more IR energy than CO2, so why? Is it about different vibrational modes again? Thanks
372: Where can I find age appropiate research on the effects of sand, pennies, and paperclips on water.

I was watching Modern Marvels and they were talking about things that used extremely high temperatures. On the show they showed something called a plasma converter. What it does is it uses very dense plasma at 30,000 degrees F to basically melt waste into its constituent atomic elements. It said that no matter how hazardous the waste is, it still gets broken down. They also said that it uses more energy, and that the byproducts are hydrogen and other gases that can be used to produce energy for the converter and the extra energy used for other things. It also creates an obsidian-like stone that has potential for a road base. I would like to know:

a. Is this being used around the world and to what extent?
b. What is being done to make this a more common use for energy and getting rid of waste?
c. What are the cons to something like this? Do they outweigh the pros?

374: How carbon dioxide is carried in the blood?
375: What is the technique of using artificial kidney?
376: What exactly is plasma?
377: Is plasma really the fourth state of matter?
378: Why is there a reaction when one mixes Copper pennies and Nitric acid together? What is this reaction?
379: How are rainbows created? How is rain created?
380: Does plastic ever biodegrade?
381: When baking, how does pam prevent dough from sticking?
382: Is it possible that the saliva can break down metals in your mouth, for example a tongue ring or a cavity filling?
383: Is it the actual mold or the mold juice that is used to make antibiotics?

I'm an eighth grade student at La Colina Jr High and I am doing my science fair project on carcinogens that leak into water from the plastic bottle that the water is contained in, when the bottle is heated.

I am having trouble with finding a way to test for bpa or other common carcinogens in plastic bottles that I can do! It would also be okay if I could just identify a foreign substance in the water that wasn't there before.

Thank you very much for any information you can give me.

385: I have two questions that both involve the concept of an exothermic reaction. A)why does a soft roll material need to be applied to skin before a cast or splint can be applied? B)After it is in place, why are nurses told not to place a recently casted extremity on to a plastic pillow for support before the cast is dry?
386: Why do electrons only spin two different ways? What prevents them from spinning in other directions?
387: How do you determine which elements are synthetic elements? And what are the requirements for an element to be synthetic?
388: If rust is found on metal, does acid eliminate the rust and if so what kind of acid?
389: How does lemon juice produce electricity, or electrolytes?
390: How do "ionic" hair dryers affect the hair, short-term and long term?
391: Are there known toxic environmental or human side effects of either producing or consuming artificial sugars?
392: How you scientists would define the words genes, genetics, and heredity?
393: In the field of Genetics, what does it mean a trait and hybrid?
394: I would like to know what is an allele?, what is a recessive allele?, and what is a dominant allele?
395: How fast do nerves send signals to and from the brain?
396: Why do peoples hair change colors when the get older?
397: Why is it when you mix a white mouse with a colored one, it comes out with a different color?
398: Does invisible ink have a chemical reaction? How does invisible ink work?
399: How do trick candles work?
400: How does the releasing of dopamine in the brain cause people to feel good?
401: What is the chemical reaction that makes pop rocks pop?
402: Since we have problems with too much trash, but also water resources in California, my question is: Is it better to use paper napkins or to use cloth napkins and wash them? Which one is less environmentally threatening?
403: How do dry chemical heatpacks work?
404: Why can't you put pineapple pieces into jello?
405: How does liquid affects a marshmallow?
406: Why do you have red blood cells couldn't they be any color or are they red for a specific reason?
407: After swimming in a pool for an extended amount of time, your eyes burn from the chlorine. Why does putting milk in your eyes help the burning sensation?
408: How is the light produced when an object is burnt?
409: What are your views on pesticide use? Do you think their use is dangerous to the environment? If so, what do you suggest we do to decrease pesticide use?
410: What liquid works best in making invisible ink?
411: Will the earth ever run out of Helium and if so will there be a way to make more of it or make something that will be used instead of it?
412: If you try to get electricity fom a lemon is it from the acidity?
413: How does icy hot work?
414: If one were to have a iron content in their blood, would they be more likely to become electrocuted or possibly would you have a worse effect from an electrocution?
415: We as humans have currently done a great bit of damage to the planet Earth. As an alternative way of disposing of garbage, would shooting large sums of trash into space be all that detrimental to the planet?
416: Why does onions make you cry when you cut them?
417: What causes food to become stale?
418: What is gelatin?
419: Why doesn't vodka freeze?
420: When you mix corn starch and water together, how come the mixture feels like a solid at first but once you pick it up, it melts to a liquid? I did this activity when I was a kid and always wanted to know what made this happen. If you can write back that would be great. Thanks,
421: Why is it that alcohol can not freeze?
424: How does invisible ink work? And why?
425: How does the zink and copper conduct electricity?
426: What are Soluble Chemicals?
427: Is every single snowflake different?
428: I am studying the statistical distribution of the size of crystals formed in a cement clinker. I expected a normal Gaussian curve but it was more like a Y=1/X curve. Why is it so?
429: Why can you only use lemon juice on Copper to clean it?
430: How does the same thermos keep coffee hot, but milk cold?
431: Are lithium polymer batteries dangerous? Why?
432: How do Pop Rocks work?
433: Why does R22 Freon get cold when it expands?
434: Does calcium carbonate help fish live and breathe?
435: Why does peanut butter remove gum from hair?
436: What are the benefits of using vegetable based gas as opposed to using fossil fuel?
437: What are some (elementary) mixtures I can do in the classrom with my students?
438: Why is it that you use hairspray in attempt to remove ink stains from clothing?
439: Which contains more oxygen, hot water or cold water? THANK YOU.
440: I saw an airplane spreading a red material over the areas of the Jesusita fire. Can you tell me what is that material? How does it work?
441: How does Nair work? What type of chemicals are used to remove the hair?(Nair is this type of cream lotion stuff you put on your legs and leave on for a few minutes then wash away with a wet towel...and ta da! No more hair! PS. It is pain free...unless you leave it on too long and you burn yourself. Thanks!
442: Why does helium alter one's voice?
443: How much chlorine gas can be inhaled before it has a fatal effect?
444: If absolute zero is the term for when all molecular movement stops, what is the term (if there is one) for when molecules move at the absolute fastest they can?
445: Is there a difference when using an ionic blow dryer compared to a normal one? Also is there a difference when using a ceramic flat iron verses a regular one?
446: MAGIC SAND. It is sand that when under water is wet and shapeable, but when removed from the water is immediately dry again. How is this possible?!?! :)
447: What chemistry is involved in fireworks? How are firework colors produced? How are heat and light used/created in fireworks?
448: How do the stick on heating pads work if there is no source to heat it?
449: If absolute zero is the coldest possible temperature, what is the hottest possible temperature?
450: Dear scientists,
I have another question: many sun screens rant and rave how they are sweat resistant and waterproof. What chemicals make this function possible?

451: Is lemon juice a strong enough acid to clean or wear down metals?
452: How do electrons and orbitals overlap to form molecular orbitals (consisting of sigma and pi bonds).
453: I know that it is possible to harness some waste gasses, such as methane from landfills, as a source of energy. Is it possible to do the same with carbon emissions, thereby reducing emissions and producing energy?
454: What is a hydrophobic, and how would you identify it (say you were looking at the ingredients on a Coppertone can)? What chemical reaction takes place when the hydrophobic wears off?
455: How does hand sanitizer kill germs?
456: Is there anyway that we can ensure the safety of genetically modified crops, while increasing the amount of nutrients for example protein or vitamins?
457: What causes your voice to change when you inhale helium from a balloon?
458: Why is it that if chlorine gas is so fatal, we are able to use it in swimming pools and allow it to come in contact with our skin, but it doesn't have a harmful effect?
459: What do animals have,that we don't have?
460: Why cant we breath under water?
461: Why does graphite can conduct electricity and magnetite doesn't?
462: Why does pure water not conduct electricity?
463: How and why does Static Guard work?
464: Why doesn't alcohol freeze?
465: What is the venom type in a Western Diamondback Rattlesnake and what chemicals in the venom cause the body to practically breakdown?
466: Why is it that peanut butter can get gum out of someone's hair?
467: How does the Miracle Fruit make sour foods taste sweet?
468: Why is salt put on icy sidewalks?
469: How does a liquid bandage work?
470: What is the strongest acid? Against what surface/substance is this acid most destructive, and why?

What are the pH levels of windex, backing soda, soap, mouthwash, tums, rubbing alcohol, hydrogen peroxide and laundry detergent.

472: Why does vinegar and baking soda react so that it blows up?
473: What is it in glowsticks that make them glow when you crack them?

I understand that after Ozone is broken down from the energy radiating into the atmosphere, O2 and atomic oxygen are produced. The O2 then eventually repairs with another atomic oxygen to form more Ozone. However, the presence of Chlorofluorocarbons apparently destroys the Ozone layer. When I looked at the reaction of the decomposition of Chlorofluorocarbons, I found that it was CF2Cl2 <--> CF2Cl + Cl, the atomic Chlorine pairs with an Ozone molecule, creating ClO3. This breaks down further into CLO and O2.

My question is, even if the chlorofluorocarbons are present in the atmosphere, it still provides O2 for more Ozone to be created. So, why is it a problem?

475: I've heard that fruits and vegetables ripen faster when placed in brown paper bags rather than out in the open. Is this true? If so, why? Also, does the color of the bag matter? Thanks!
476: How does chemistry and the structure and function of molecules apply to my life?
477: How does disappearing ink work? Meaning how does the ink start out colored and turn clear within a matter of a few seconds.
478: I saw a video on youtube about making solid water balls. This is the video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_RCEdXTWQ4c Why and how does this happen?
479: How does lightning make glass
480: What are the pros and cons of using pesticides? Do the pros outweigh the cons? Are there safe and environmentally-friendly pesticides? Is it really better to only farm/purchase organic food?
481: If hydrogen in of itself is combustible, why can we not power our cars directly from water?
482: Hi! I was wondering how close a rotary object would need to be to another stationary surface (the clearance between the two objects) in order to make a watertight "seal" or space. Does it differ with different mediums (ex. not water but oil, or air?) Any info will be appreciated. Thanks!
483: I was wondering what the chemical name for water was. Is it dihydrogen monoxide?
484: Hi! Do you guys know where I could get a fairly long or comprehensive list of liquids and their densities? Or if you guys have a list? I've been having some trouble finding a good list on the internet. Thanks for your help!
485: What is the mean spacing between air molecules and what expresson relates the spacing to altitude?
486: AgC2H is explosive. Synthesis of an organic cmpd in presence of Ag salts leaves a residue whose mass spectrum shows an ion with m/e=132.9 but no other ions between m/e=130-135. Ag has 2 isotopes Ag-107 (52% abundance) and Ag-109 (48% abundance). Should the chemist be concerned the residue may be explosive?
487: Can you suggest us a simple way of making a polymer in class?
488: Are all polymers the same? If not, what is the Physics/Chemistry of their structure that makes them different?
489: Do all polymers have the same decay time/process? If not, what makes them different?
490: Is there any polymer with a long (infinite in terms of human life-time)decay time?
491: What is the difference between recycling and reusing?
492: What is the chemical/physical process to recycle a polymer?
493: Hi! How are you guys? I need some help: Could you give me (or do you know where I could get) a list of about 5 or 6 (it doesnt hurt if there are more, though) immiscible liquids with densities that vary quite substantially from each other? (They would all need to be liquids at room temperature) I have had some trouble finding liquids on the internet that would REALLY NOT want to mix with each other for a density experiment. I need some liquids that would not mix, or mix VERY little even when they are shaken. Thanks so much for your help!
494: I need to know the procedure for determining the amount of lead in a given sample of lipstick. I know it is like a microscopic amount .
495: How does ethyl alcohol kill bacteria?
496: On land all plants appear green, where as aquatic plants vary in color. Why do land plants have one photosynthetic strategy where aquatic plants use different light harvesting strategies?
497: We need to test lead on slugs or some other form of invertebrates. How can we do that? What sort of behavior to look for? Lead is a neurotoxin, so we assumed the response to the lead would be some sort of behavioral problem like loss of appetite or less movement, but we are not sure. Thanks for your help!
498: How do antiseptic soaps work?
499: Hi! How are you guys? I have a question: How can I calculate the magnetic force at a given distance on a sample of ferrofluid? Thanks for your help!
500: How do stain removers work? (2)
501: How did Avogadro get 6.022X1023? And what was his constant? Is there a possibility that Avogadro could be wrong?
502: How can I find out how much Chlorine and any bacteria has the water that we drink in our houses ?
503: Can you explain to me Hess' Law?

The theory goes that mutation is the raw material for evolution. Existing sequences of DNA, some of which codes for functional proteins, other sections dont, have random changes in their nucleotide sequence over time, that may persist and dawn reproductive advantage onto carriers of that gene.

I know that changes in the nucleotide sequences of the same gene have been observed across species, like in the genes that code for polypeptides in cytochrome C and hemoglobin. Based on this evidence a sort of evolutionary time line can be developed to show how far back organisms diverged from a common ancestor by comparing the numbers of differences in nucleotide sequence.

In the study of genomes thus far, is there any evidence that suggests a related sequence of nucleotides that result in different functional proteins? Not all organisms have the same proteins, so wouldnt we expect to find that when we find a novel protein on the evolutionary tree, that the nucleotide sequence that codes for that protein would be analogous or similar to a the sequence for a different functional protein? I havent come across anything on this front and was wondering what the experts know. Thanks and I hope you have lots to be thankful for! Sincerely, Bret Klopfenstein Ventura HS

505: How do you measure the different atoms in a human body since there are so many different types? Would you use the weight of the body to determine it?
506: Can you please tell me the digestive timeline for protein, fat, and starch?
507: What happens if a green leaves plant keep under a pure red light source for long time?
508: How do mood rings work?

Some people say smog in Los Angeles and Mexico City is caused because C02 can't reach over the mountains surrounding the city. If this is true, then how is C02 able to reach our atmosphere and cause a green effect if it can't even reach over proportionally small mountains?

Also, what would be a skeptics argument against global warming?

510: Why does the sun turn skin darker, but hair lighter?
511: How do glow sticks work?
512: What happens when you put a mento inside of a coke bottle? And why does it create a fountain?
513: How does self-tanner work?
514: How do Scientists calculate how many calories something contains?
515: Is there any way to make fireworks brighter than they already are?
516: Hi! My question is when you make red velvet cake, what chemicals react to make the cake turn red. Is it the vinagar and the cocoa power? Or is it something else? Thank you!
517: What is in fireworks that causes them to make the booming noise and what decides their different colors? This is a project for my chemistry class.
518: How does metal rust?
519: How does baking soda work? What properties in it make dough rise?
520: Liquid becomes a solid at freezing temperatures, but alcohol (vodca), very much a liquid, does not freeze. Why?
521: Spray on paint (from a can) will cast most surfaces. But on styrofoam, the surface melts from the spray paint. Why?
522: How does hair dye work?
523: Which are the substances in plastids that absorb various wavelengths of light? Thank you.
524: How does potassium prevent cramping in sport activities?
525: After shaking a soda bottle/can, what makes the soda explode out when you open it? Also, after a soda becomes old or sits out for a long time, why does it lose its carbonation/bubbliness?
526: Using Coke, Pepsi, & Dr.Pepper...which can break down a potato the fastest?
527: What makes a mineral magnetic?
528: What is the density of the lightest mineral?
529: In what ways can chemistry be used to reduce negative environmental impact?
530: When someone eats too many carrots or carrot juice, why does their skin turn orange? What makes the skin turn that color?
531: Hi there! I was just wondering, where does an atom get its energy from and what makes it so powerful? I hope to hear from you soon please and thank you so much!
532: Why do Mentos mints foam when you drop them into soda pop?
533: What would happen if anti matter and hot plasma mix? Would be an explosion and how big would it be? What would be the damage? Please answer honestly; I am just doing a little personal research.
534: How is perfume made? What chemical components make up perfume?
535: Why is the freezing point in Vodka or other alcoholic beverages lower than other drinking liquids such as water?
536: How is Chemistry used in order to tell the different freezing points of liquids.
537: What chemicals are used to make vodka (the alcoholic beverage)?
538: Why is there such a small amount of Lithium in the universe? (Subsidiary questions: Does Sol have less or more than most stars? If so, why?)
539: How does atomic power work and how does it relate to chemistry?
540: Hello, thank for taking your time to answer this question. I was reading this article online:
question What makes this bonding unusual? Furthermore, according to my studies, noble do not like to react with other gasses, so, why is molecular hydrogen reacting Xenon, which is noble gas?
541: I have heard that plastic water bottles are very bad for the body because certain chemicals are released into the water. Then the water becomes contaminated and we cannot digest these chemicals, and with no where to go, they are stored on body. Could this be true? If so, what chemicals are released and how(heat or time maybe)? Also, does the body not have the ability to digest them?
542: What is the science behind diesel and gasoline combustion?
543: What elements are present in the body?
544: Why does magnesium produce a bright light when reacted with fire?
545: What causes poison oak to irritate the skin? What does that have to do with chemistry?
546: What causes the hair color to change when you put different color dyes in it?

1)Can a perfect vacuum exist?
-If your answer is no, why can you not consider deep space a vacuum (where there is only about 1 atom per square meter)?; isn't that space between the atoms a vacuum?
-Also, can the space between atoms in the objects around us be considered a perfect vacuum?: ex. a block of steel or wood (or can that neither be proven nor disproven given our knowelege of particles smaller than protons, neutrons and electrons, such as quarks)
-If your answer is no, is another explaination that because if a spcae has no matter in it, then it has a teperature of exactly 0 Kelvin, and if one part of the universe is 0 Kelvin, all of it must be as well (because motion creates heat; and any movement in the universe will be reverberated between atoms) where if the universe was 0 Kelvin, life could not possibly exist.

If a perfect vacuum is not humanly attainable, then:
2)How does a particle accelerator work?... given that you are colliding subatomic particles of matter much smaller than atoms themselves(atoms being the matter that cannot be removed from a space to create a perfect vacuum).
-If you cannot remove particles as large as atoms from a space, how can you possibly keep them from effecting the path of a proton traveling close to the speed of light?If it hits anything at all, wouldn't that ruin the test?

Thank you for your patience.

548: Can you ever drink too much water?
549: My family and I are on the Feingold diet. We do not eat foods containing artificial colors and dyes because we believe they have negative health/behavioral effects...especially on my 6 yr. old autistic brother. I have a 5th grade science experiment due and would like to do something related to food dyes and how much people eat them daily but cannot think of any exact experiment to do. Any ideas?
550: Why does chlorine turn your hair green?
551: Why does pepto bismol turn your tongue black?
552: We are conducting an experiment where we need to know what washable lint rollers are made of (the sticky, rubbery part of the lint roller). Any clue as to what they use?
553: Can you ever drink too much water?
554: I am doing a science project on the amount of Bisphenol A in bottled water. How would I measure this quantity? If I need a special machine, how would I get access to this machine?
555: How does sulfur in facial cleansers help to eliminate acne?
556: Hi. In the answer to a question about ethyl alcohol and bacteria you-all wrote that ethyl alcohol can kill bacteria because it denatures the proteins in the cell and dissolves the cell membrane. I am trying to figure out how the ethyl alcohol in handgel affects viruses. I have read that all viruses have a protein coat that protects their genetic material and some have an envelope of fat that surrounds them. If the virus coat/shell is made up of proteins and /or fat if ethyl alcohol denatures the proteins in a bacterium cell, does it also denature the proteins and/or fat that make up the virus coat? If it does this, is this the reason we could say that hand gel is effective in killing viruses that may get on your hand?
557: What chemicals make throwing away technology (i.e. batteries) in the regular trash so harmful for the environment? What do these chemicals do to the environment?
558: What base and indicator would I use in an acid- base titration of bisphenol A? Thank you for any answers you can give me.
559: How is ATP produced in cells; what is the difference between the energy-producing process in animal cells and plant cells? How much ATP is produced?
560: Will food coloring kill fish?
561: Can tissues and paper towels be recycled?
562: How are sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide significant to the process of photosynthesis?
563: Is too much chlorine harmful for the skin?
564: What substances destroy your teeth?
565: How fast do fabrics burn?
566: How can I know the process to make crystals in a short time, like 2 months?
567: What kind of materials can you use to put out fires besides water and a fire extinguisher?
568: What materials put out a fire besides water?
569: what cloth burns better?
570: What are some fabrics that burn fast?
571: What type of soda melts ice the fastest?
572: Do plants give off moisture?
573: What diaper brand holds the most liquid?
574: How does potassium prevent menstrual cramps and cramps during physical activity?

I am teaching my chemistry students about electron transitions in an atom by absorbing or emitting a photon of light. Are there other mechanisms for exciting an electron that do not involve a photon?

My particular question has to do with the burning of metal salts to produce a characteristic spectra. It is clear from the line spectra that we are seeing a quantum effect of the electrons transitioning between levels. What is the mechanism for the electron excitation?


576: Why does ammonia magnetize iron? I did a science project where I was trying to see what liquids would rust nails and when I put nails into ammonia, they didn't rust, but were magnetic when I removed them. Why? Also, when I did the same thing with milk, the nails turned a darl bluish-grey. Why?
577: How is coffee decaffeinated?
578: How does the ice in coolers stay cool?
579: How does Static Guard work?
580: What is the chemical compound in sunscreen that prevents harmful UV rays from penetrating the skin?
581: How does sunscreen block harmful UV rays from reaching the skin?
582: Hi! How is coal formed? At what pressures does coal formation occur? What gases are present during coal formation? At what temperatures does coal formation occur? What materials or substances are needed for coal to form? Thank you for your help!
583: How can waste affect a plants growth?

I recently went to Disneyland,and I saw the awesome firewors display, and I was wondering what they use to get those different colors? And if you know, how do they get the fireworks to make different shapes? like smilie faces or the hearts?


585: What happens when an acid breaks down or dissolves a substance?
586: How does deodorant prevent us from sweating under our armpits?
587: Why doesn't alcohol freeze?
588: Why doesn't oil mix into other substances?
589: When clear water is placed into an ice tray. Why is it that once the ice is frozen it comes out opaque?
590: How do hand warmers generate heat just by exposing them to air?
591: A work co11egue has asked me to ask , if an astronaut was lost in space would his body decompose?
592: How does the human body use copper?
593: What chemicals in the no calorie sugar replacement, Splenda, cause cancer?
594: How do matches work? What chemicals do they have that cause fire?
595: Why is it that when you exhale into water, the water from your breath becomes acidic and fizzy?
596: How do instant hot/cold packs work? Like when you break and shake the heat/cold pack, how does it instantly heat up/cool down?
597: What exactly is carbonation? And does heat have an influential role in the amount of carbonation in a drink?
598: When there have been major oil spills, like the Exxon Valdez and the spill in the Gulf, chemicals are often dispersed on the surface of the ocean to absorb the oil. How does this chemical reaction work? How much of the oil is really absorbed?
599: Why does the sun lighten our hair but darken our skin?
600: What is the chemical reaction responsible for making clumping cat litter clump and how does it work?
601: What causes the different forms of air pollution? How can we solve these problems? How is Chemistry involved?
602: When gas, oxygen, and heat are combusted in a car engine, how is it possible that it creates enough energy to move a car that weighs over 3000 pounds?
603: How do trick candles work? When you blow them out, they light up again.
604: If soap is a base, why do we not get burned?
605: Why are former meth houses so dangerous?
606: What makes chili peppers hot/spicy?
607: What is the chemical reaction that causes the fizziness in Fizzy Candy?
608: What is the chemical process that turns a picked banana from green to yellow to brown?
609: Since the exact location of an electron can not be known since the electron is constantly in motion is it possible to tell the direction the electron is moving? Is that direction known theoretically or actually?
610: Why do some candies (like wintergreen lifesavers) spark when chewed?
611: How does The Transderm Scp patch work and how does it stop nausea?

There is a spray called Staticide which reduces static in carpets, electronics, etc. How does that product work?

Thank You,

613: How do acne creams help to make the acne disappear?
614: Hi. There are markers that are made for small children that only shows up on a special peice of paper. If a kid draws on a wall no color is produced. Crayola calls them "Wonder Markers." How do they work? Thank You.
615: What makes soda fizzy? Thanks.
616: How do teeth whitening products work?
617: How is coffee decaffeinated?
618: How does eating carrots enhance your vision?
619: How do hair dyes work?
620: What causes teeth whitener to work? How does it actually whiten your teeth?
621: Why is Gatorade better for athletes then water?
622: Why is it that Honey will never spoil or "go bad"?
623: Is there chemistry involved in love?
624: What "upper limits" exist on the Periodic Table of elements? Or, specifically, what is the highest possible atomic number that could exist, even for a splitt-second, in some state? And, if so, why?
625: How do the chemicals in Novocain work to numb a certain part of the body?
626: Hi there! I was just wondering: why are some acids harmful but others can be present in food? Also, why does acid burn your skin? Thank you so much and hope to hear from you soon!
627: How does tetracycline eliminate acne in the body?
628: I was watching Iron Chef America, and one of the contestants used liquid nitrogen to prepare part of their meal; how does liquid nitrogen work, and is it safe for consumption?
629: I was wondering how sun screen protects skin from getting sun burnt?
630: When you freeze a marshmallow why does it get so hard, and then when you expose it to room temperature it changes back to a regular marshmallow?
631: I have a number of questions:

1.I have seen for sale fossils of ginger and garlic in an antiquity shop.They look like ginger/garlic but is rock hard. The price is about $8 each,which seems to be very cheap. The shopkeeper says they were found near a cave.

(a)How do I determine whether they are really fossils or not?
(b) If they are really fossils, then they should be thousands of years old,right?
(c) How much do you estimate to be the real value if they are really fossils?
(d) Are there any research done on the fosils of garlic and ginger?
(e) We have a scanning electron microscope in our University. For research and academic purposes, what sort of study would you suggest for me to undertake?

632: Does heat make all things expand and explode?

Hello there
I have an assignment at university for Parasitology.

I have received a review article titled "Genomics of reproduction in nematodes: prospects for parasite intervention?" by Nisbet, A.J. Cottee, P.A. & Gasser, R.B.

I have to present a 10 minute powerpoint on the "main points" that this article discusses. I understand that it is reviewing sex-specific molecules, technologies to identify these all in the hope of developing anthelminitcs and control strategies.

However, I am struggling to understand the concepts within the article such as the different technologies used and the differences between gender-specific and gender-enriched etc.

I was hoping that you could help me understand the key points that this article is conveying.


634: I would like to ask, what is the significance of using an Argon atmosphere when conducting a reaction which involves the use of a Lewis acid?

I am doing a project on DNA sequence and on how changes in the sequence cause disorders. For example, cystic fibrosis is caused by a recessive allele. When you look at that string of DNA you can see there are three DNA bases missing. Here are my questions I need answered:

1) What kind of technology you would use when looking for the DNA impurities?

2) In the sequences is it easy to point out the mistakes or are they hard to see?

3) Is a specific name for this action or do I just call it DNA sequencing?

4) Is it possible to replace the mistakes with the correct sequence?

--Thank you

636: Hi, I'm a high school student doing a project. How storage temperature affects the pH levels in orange juice?
637: My science teacher gave us an assignment to "adopt" an element. I was wondering if any of you could tell me a little relevant information about my element, Argon. Thank you.
638: If a plant didn't have chlorophyll, what color would it be?
639: Why is blood red?
640: I was wondering if someone could give me some info for my project about the element meitnerium. Thanks.
641: Does Argon turn sky blue or lavender when electricty is ran through it? Thanks
642: Hi, I am doing a science project on nitrogen and I was wondering if you could give me some imformation on it by chance.
Thank you

643: Do you have any interesting information on the element Beryllium?
644: What does Vitamin D have to do with calcium?
645: Hello, I was wondering if you had any interesting or unique information on the element, titanium.
646: Hi, I was wondering if you have any unique information for the use of calcium, the element.
647: What are some interesting facts that I could learn from you that I could not find on the internet about the element, Antimony? Also, is it possible to find it as a solid even though it melts at over 1000 degrees f?
648: Hello, I am doing a science project on the element Zinc. I was wondering if you could help me with relevant information about it.
649: What is xenon used in? What is xenon mostly used in? How long did it take for Sir William Ramsay and Morris M. Travers to find the element xenon?
650: How does the creation of element 118, Ununoctium, give us insight to the creation of the universe.

I was wondering if anyone at UCSB could tell me what soil composition is like after a fire (I couldn't find a usable resource)?

652: What is the composition of fabric, specifically cotton, wool, fleece, and polyester?

How can I measure the amount of minerals the plants are taking in through their roots and leaves?

I want to compare the recovery of native and non- native plants after fire.

654: I've read about butanolides (a family of chemicals found in smoke) in an article from the LA Times, and it said that they increase plant growth and I was wondering how I could get butanolides for a possible experiment?
655: What is the melting point of a candle?
656: How does water affect fabric?
657: What are the contents of wicks?
658: What are the differnet types of wax?
659: What are the contents of wax and paraffin?
660: Do fabrics contain absorbent properties? If so what?

Kangen water? I am sure you have heard about this amazing product that is such a great antioxidant that super hydrates by reducing H2O clusters to 5 or 6 atoms! Is this a scam? Can you change the clustering of H2O by changing the pH?

Hello and hope all is well.

662: Hello- We are doing an osmosis lab involving a decalcified egg in water, salt water and corn syrup to show how concentration affects the movement of water across a membrane. The egg shrinks in salt water and corn syrup and swells in fresh water due to osmosis- pretty straightforward stuff. One of the students asked what would happen if we put the egg in oil as opposed to the other solutions being tested- great idea, so we hypothesized and tested. We supposed that since oil has no water in it, it represents an area of higher concentration, and therefore the water should move out of the egg and into the oil. This did not happen. The egg did not appear to lose any water, and with testing, it actually seems to have gained a bit of mass. What gives? Is this due to the nonpolar nature of the oil? I am stumped and looking for a decent explanation for my students. Thanks for your help!
663: What keeps earth from collapsing in on itself like at the end of a star's life? Is it not big enough or what?
664: Do you have any unique information for the use of Calcium, the element?
665: What nutrients are taken out of soil when people use too much fertilizer?
666: We are doing art with color paper and bleach. The students want to know why the bleach makes the paper white. Can you explain the chemical reaction behind? Thank you very much.
667: A cement compound CaO.Al2O3.10H2O gives certain peaks when using the powder diffraction method. The compound now increases its water of crystallization to become CaO.Al2O3.11H2O. Will the diffraction pattern obtained be basically the same as the former, with only a slight difference, which corresponds to a slight increase in the d spacing? Or will the diffraction pattern be an entirely different pattern?

In a voltaic pile with copper and zinc as the two metals and with aqueous sodium chloride (salt water) as the electrolyte, what happens to the electrons and ions and what reactions occur?

I understand that in a copper/zinc voltaic pile using sulfuric acid as the electrolyte, the zinc electrode decomposes into positive zinc ions (which dissolve into the electrolyte) and 2 electrons, which travel through the exterior wire to the copper electrode. At the copper electrode, the electrons are then accepted by positive hydrogen ions from the electrolyte solution which form hydrogen gas at the copper electrode.

The problem I see when this is adapted to a sodium chloride electrolyte is that the positive deposited ion would be pure sodium and it seems unlikely that sodium would form in its pure form both because zinc cannot reduce sodium (being lower in the reduction potential list) and because sodium is very hard to obtain in its pure form. Nonetheless, using a sodium chloride electrolyte for a voltaic pile seems to work frequently in many household experiments (according to my research),

So my question is: What is going on? Is there a new, different reaction? What happens to the ions and electrons?

669: We have learned how water evaporates or vaporizes, then later condenses and falls down as rain. We also learned that some gases can be dissolved in rainwater and cause acid rain. Then we did a lab in class and discovered that alcohol evaporates very quickly! Where does all that alcohol go? Can it condense and rain down on us?
670: Why do balloons explode when they are put in soap water?
671: When you put dry ice in an aquarium partly filled with water, you see a layer of white mist develop. Is the white mist the CO2 itself or is it water condensation resulting from the lowered temperature?
672: Are nuclear power plants safe?

After reading some stuff on ferrofluids, my son hypothesized that stronger magnets next to ferrofluids would create smaller spikes than weaker magnets. It turned out it was not true, although the differences were minimal and there were also several problems with taking the measurements. But whatever the right hypothesis is, what makes the difference? Here is the passage we took from somewhere on the web that is confusing to me. Before I paste it below, let me say that it raises my question 2: the relationship between magnetic field, magnetic force, and magnets. I know this is too big a question and might be answered with a simple explanation for question 1 (if there is a simple explanation...).

"The stronger the field, the smaller the spikes. In the weedy field from a ferrite magnet you'll get just a smooth mound of fluid with a few spikes where the field is strongest, but the spikes get a lot smaller when you're playing with one of the bigger neodymium magnets."

Thanks so much!

674: I am wondering if there is a possibility of a limnic eruption in lake Michigan?
675: In the advanced chemistry textbook we are using, Chemistry, 7th edition, Zumdahl and Zumdahl, the electric dipole moment is defined to point from the positive charge center toward the negative charge center. (page 335) Can you tell me why this would be the definition, since they also state that the dipole moment will align with the electric field. (page 336) It is well-known that the electric field vector between a pair of metal plates points from the positive plate toward the negative plate. And in physics classes, I always learned that the electric dipole points from negative toward the positive.
676: Do fractals appear in home grown crystals?
677: Is there a thread that can support human weight (like spidermans' webshooter)?
678: What is it that salt enriches flavors?
679: What was the reason why Chernobyl power plant had that big accident in the past?
680: What are some examples of solid surfactants that are insoluble in water?
681: Would it be possible to contain a surfactant in a thin membrane or capsule of some sort so that it does not mix with water, while still allowing it to interact with water (to lower the surface tension of water)? If so, how would that be done?
Thank you so much for your help!

682: What are some examples of liquid surfactants that are immiscible in water?
683: What is the reaction of a plant when you add Clorox?
684: Why are the volcanoes important to the plants on earth?
685: how go people clean water from the poop plant in Santa Barbara
686: Hello! I have a chemistry question regarding surfactants, that my teachers here arent able to answer (also I only have a very basic understanding of chemistry at this point, so this is far beyond Ive done). Here it is: Are there any surfactants out there that do not dissolve in water and can be made into (or already are) solids while still maintaining their surface-tension reducing properties? Thanks in advance!!
687: Hello! Is it possible to turn a synthetic surfactant (which is based on petro-chemicals) into a polymer or plastic of some sort while still maintaining its ability to reduce surface tension (and making it into a solid)? Thanks in advance!!
688: Hello, I was woundering if you could give me some information on the compound CH3 for a science project. Thank you
689: What is the molecular shape of Ibuprofen? And, may you please give me any opinions of yours on this molecule. It's for my science project.
690: What is something about the bond angle of the molecule, Glucose?
691: Hi, I am an 8th grade student doing a project on molecules and I need to know why the molecule diamond is in that kind of shape.
692: Hi, I am also doing a projecty on Sulfur trioxide and I need to know why it is in that shape.
693: For my science project I am doing buckminsterfullerene aka buckyball aka C60. For that project we have to include a quote from an expert of the subject matter. So I was wondering if you have any information on that molecule and maybe some of its uses. Thank You Anna Manfreda Grade 8
694: Do you have any information on Butylated Hydroxytoluene that you are willing to share for my school project? --Thanx
695: How does a nuclear meltdown occur, and how can it be averted?
696: Is the radioactive material being released into the environment in Japan worse than what is released from coal fired power plants continuously?
697: Is there an experiment that can prove why ocean water looks blue, some green and some light brown in color?
698: Why is tungsten used for filaments in light bulbs when nichrome's resistivity is so much higher?
699: Hello, I was looking online about the Nernst equation, and someone was talking about the idea that if the value of the reaction quotient ends up being 1, the temperature of the system will have no effect on the cell potential. With the equation, the log of 1 is zero, so I can see where they got that from. However, I would think under Le Chatelier's principle, a change in temperature would still affect the voltage. Now using the relationship between Gibbs free energy (∆G) and ∆G under standard condition- ∆G=∆G(Standard condition)+RT*Ln Q- It appears that when Q=1, the temperature has no effect. Why would this hold true and how would that pertain to the value of the cell potential at different temperatures?
700: What colors of light are used in land plant photosynthesis?
701: Why is the Dead Sea so salty?
702: How are the electrons attached to the atom? Is there a way in which they are arranged around the nucleus?
703: I would like to know the difference between Inorganic and Organic Chemistry from the atomic point of view. Thank you.
704: How are scientists able to figure out what the half life of an atom is when a half life can be billions of years? Do you ever completely get rid of radioactive atoms? How are we able to age the oldest rock that is 4 billion years old?
705: I am studying a polished cross-sectional piece of an igneous rock. How do I determine which phases/ compounds crystallize first (from the molten material) from the micro graphs taken?
706: Does smoke make the atmosphere thicker?
707: Why is the sky blue?
708: Is coral bleached by higher temperatures?
709: Do cow farts contribute to global warming?
710: What is the synthesis reaction for aspirin?
711: How can obligate anaerobe bacteria can survive without respiration of oxygen!?
712: How can I clean liquor bottles or liquor tanks that have been used in the manufacturing of country liquor?
713: During the Bucky Ball presentation at the MRL, we learned that bacteria have magnetic particles inside. Can you explain why and what for do this magnetic particles are there?
714: In my AP Chemistry class, we first learned that the standard temperature for gases is 273 K, but later, when we studied free energy and electrochemistry, we learned that standard temperature is 298 K. Why does standard temperature differ between these concepts?
715: Why electric lines do not attract each other?
716: What is in silk that makes it a fiber that we can wear in any season?
717: So, if plasmas are super-heated gases, could all matter theoretically be turned into plasma with enough energy input? (ex: CO2? water? gold?) Also, on the opposite end of the spectrum, are the materials that do not form solids, even near Absolute Zero?
718: How can we test the effectiveness of rubbing alcohol in killing bacteria?
719: How many micrograms of VOCs, especially formaldehyde, xylene, and benzene can a typical air purifier filter?
720: How does a car cell phone charger work (physics)?
721: What are the functions of abscisins in plants?
722: We are a drama club and want to do a skit about being silent, when you see something done wrong. We want the actors to have blood on their hands (representing "if you're silent, the blood of that person who is being mistreated is on your hands). So the fake blood is made of corn syrup and food color. We want before our audience, to put the blooded hands into a clear glass bowl that is filled with water. When the actor brings his hand out of the water, we want his hands to be clean with no blood and the water to still be clear with no red residue. We would need to put something in the water that would not damager the actor's skin or hands, but would give us the result of a clean hand and clear water. DO YOU KNOW WHAT WE COULD PUT IN THE WATER SO THAT THE WATER WOULD STAY CLEAR AND THE HAND WOULD BE CLEAN?? Thank you so MUCH for your prompt responds to this question. We have to perform it on August 20th.
723: What is an effective way to make aluminum powder from a house setting? I've heard you can chop up deodorant or antacids and dissolve them in alcohol, then skim off the top layer. The bottom layer can then be mixed with sulphuric acid to pull the aluminum out. How effective is this? Are there any more effective ways?
724: Is there a sixth human body sense and how does it work?
725: How many particles run through the human body?
726: How do scientists make crystals?
727: After treepods catch CO2 from the environment, what do you do with this CO2?
728: R-410A refrigerant (an azeotropic mixture of Difluoromethane and Pentofluoruethane) has replaced R-22 refrigerant for environmental reasons - What is the quality or aspect of R- 410A which means that it has to operate at a much higher pressure than R-22?
729: What diseases do bananas and fish carry? (Mercury, Tiny diseases on banana, etc.) How do safely carry food from one place to another without diseases getting on the food? This is for a very important group project. Thank you!
730: Are viruses alive? What about prions?
731: A classic experiment involves growing beans in wet cotton. Can the same be done in hydrated sodium polyacrylate?
732: Dear UCSB Scientists,
I am interested in doing a science fair project on fluorescence. I would enjoy having a chemist to help me create a fluorescent chemical for my experiment. Would anyone be able to guide or advise me please?
Thank you very much,

733: In which different ways can you test fingerprints? I would be very greatful for your answers!

Thank you very much

734: How do different surfaces affect the preservation of finger prints?
735: What Materials will I need to test the fastest way to heat fizzing water?
736: Do finger prints stay heat sensitive longer depending on the surface the print is applied to?
737: Does temperature affect the amount of energy a solar panel receives?
738: How far will a homemade fire extinguisher shoot if we change the bottle size or the amount of baking soda?
739: Why is gold stronger than platium?
740: What metal is more precious than platium?
741: What is the heaviest metal?
742: Can you please tell me the digestive timeline for protein, fat, and starch?
743: Do scientists ever use hypertonic solution to kill cancer cells?
744: Hello, I am doing a science project for the science fair and I need to ask a proffessional a couple of questions for my project. Would you mind answering these questions for me? Why do different types of wrapping affect the spoilage of raspberries?
745: What are the effects of grey water vs. fresh water? I am conducting an experiment and so far it looks like the grey water is doing better than the fresh watered plants.
746: What are some elements in hair shampoo that would change the way it cleans the hair? Would any particular ingredients such as glycol distearate be less or more helpful?
747: Propylene glycol is said to be used in shampoo. Is this harmful to hair, and/or does it clean sebum better?
748: There is an ingredient called detergent in shampoo, but that is a very broad concept. Could you explain it in a molecular form?
749: Would the age or manufacturer of the shampoo change the quality or cleaning ability of the shampoo?
750: I am testing three different variables to determine the quality and working ability of two different shampoo brands. One thing I am testing is the viscosity by shaking diluted shampoo and measuring the height of the foam compared to the undisturbed shampoo. What does viscosity mean exactly and how would my observers understand it better?
751: Is vacuum packaging more efficient than wrapping something with a plastic bag?
Thank you.

752: Can food be contaminated by metal wrapping?
753: What is the difference between plastic wrapping, and glass wrapping?
754: Hello,

Merry Christmas! I hope you guys are all having a happy holiday season!

I have one question:
Would it be possible to repel oil (or some other fluid) with an electrically charged plate/rod?

The oil (fluid) would be electrically charged, in a way similar to the oil-droplets in the Millikan oil drop experiment.


755: Can a plant survive without an external source of oxygen?
756: Do the elements in various sugars change/vary according to their environment? Why or why not?
757: What elements in sugar have a negative affect on the body? Do all sugars have this affect?
758: Out of raw white sugar, granulated sugar, and raw light brown sugar, which has the best nutritional value?
759: Why do crystals grow from sugar water? How does the type of sugar affect the growth of rock candy? And which type is best in your opinion? Why?
760: What element of sugar affects the growth of rock candy the most? Is it a positive or negative affect?
761: Are there any nutritional values in gluten?
762: Why do gluten free cookies collapse when being baked?
763: Hi, I'm doing a science fair project involving gluten free flour substitutions. I was wondering why glutenous flour binds cookies better than gluten free flours such as rice, oat and almond flour?
764: Have you ever had experience with using grey water on plants?
765: Are there scientific reasons why one or the other water type would do better on the plants?
766: Do farms or plantations ever use grey water?
767: What is the most popular shape of candle?
768: Can the type of container holding a candle affect the length of time the candle burns for?
769: Can a candle burn completely to the bottom of the container it is in?
770: Are there multiple types of candle wicks?
771: What are the three most common types of candles?
772: What happens if I freeze citrus fruit juice? Will it stay the same, or lose even more vitamin C?
773: If I dont have the right amount of vitamin C in me, then what will start to happen to my body?
774: If you boil any other type of vitamin besides vitamin C, will it lose the same amount of its nutrition content?
775: If the citrus fruit juice is being boiled in a base of syrup, can I raise the temperature with less vitamin C loss?
776: Hello, I am currently doing my science fair project and I need your help. Just to give you a little understanding of my project, here is my hypothesis: If I boil citrus fruit juice then, it will have less vitamin C compared to citrus fruit juice that has not been cooked. I would highly appreciate if you could help me out. Here is a list of questions that I have:
What is the temperature at which vitamin C begins to be lost? 78F -90F? 110F?

777: Could biomass fuel other objects such as cars, or other vehicles?
778: What is the molecular structure of biomass?
779: Would it be possible to use biomass as an all purpose fuel for everything if adapted correctly?
780: Can biomass be created in more effective and quicker methods?
781: How long has our society used biomass energy or if we use it much at all?
782: When was the Kastle Meyer Blood test first used? What is the history behind it? How does the Kastle Meyer Blood Test work in its process of detecting blood? Why does it produce a purple pink color that equals a positive result? What is the purpose of using hydrogen peroxide 3% in the Kastle Meyer Blood Test? What causes peroxide to be detected as blood during the initiation of the Kastle Meyer Blood Test resulting in a false positive?
783: Is phenolphthalein the same or at all similar to phenol red?
784: How do non-rechargable batteries work?
785: What are the best batteries that have been made to date?

Hello my name is Jose and I would like some help from a professional and I belive I came to the right place. I was told by my teacher that I needed to ask five questions so here I go. My questions are:

Does temprature affect the life time of a battery?
Does temprature affect it a lot or is the change minimal? Thank You!

787: Hi! I'm doing a science project on how temperatures in water and in air affect the time glow sticks last and I have some questions. Please help! First of all, how do glow sticks work? Thanks so much! -Peachtree
788: Why do they glow sticks glow brighter when heated and longer when cooled?
789: What happens to the matter inside a glow stick when it's heated or cooled?
790: Does heat affect surface tension or can substances added to it affect it as well?
791: What is interface tension and how is it related to surface tension?
792: What are the Van der Waal forces and what do they do?
793: Why do Van der Waal forces include all of the intermolecular forces? Why are they called intermolecular forces? What is their purpose?
794: Is interface tension only the contact between two liquids, why?
795: How does the use of chemicals on a plant effect the over all quality or health of the plant?
796: Can chemicals from a synthetic fertilizer actually be absorbed by our crops and end up into our food?
797: What is surface tension and what makes it increase or decrease?
798: How is a leaf constructed or born?
799: If light is coming from a bunch of diffent angles how will the plant grow?
800: How do plants trap or convert pollutants?
801: Are the size and amount of roots the main factors of a plants ability to trap pollutants?
802: What are some common types of pollutants that an be converted by plants?
803: Is there a particular substance inside both oil and salt, that keeps the oil from freezing?
804: Why won't any type of oil, would be able to freeze, as it usually does when it is not touched, when it is combined with salt? Not to be rude, but I do need an answer quick, to finish my science fair project in time...Please reply as soon as possible!!!! PLEASE!!!!!
805: What method is the best for preserving fingerprints?
806: What is the most common method of lifting fingerprints?
807: Can fingerprints last for months if conditions are right?
808: What is the best method of lifting fingerprints?
809: I was wondering how I would determine the path an electron would take through a material if a current was applied. Is this something that could be controlled?
810: How does the type of material affect a piece of clothing's ability to insulate, and how can I test out this insulating ability?
811: How are scientists able to know the role of neurotransmitters in the human brain when they can not see the synaptic connection among neurons?
812: As to your answer to the experiment of testing the effectiveness of a rubbing alcohol in killing bacteria http://www.scienceline.ucsb.edu/search/DB/show_question.php?key=1310071505&task=category&method=&form_keywords=&form_category=chemistry&start=, which one should fall apart first? And why?

I plan on using household items in my project and will not be doing my experiment in a lab. Safety is my first concern. I have no one in my family who can help me with acid and base. My grandmother gets heartburn all the time. I thought I would do an experiment to test 3 antacids to see if one worked faster than the other.

For my science fair project on heartburn relief, I plan to - test 3 antacids using the red cabbage juice as an indecator adding vinegar to make the solution represent stomach acid. I plan to test Mylanta, Rolaids, and Tums to see which of these three antacids will neutralize the acid the fastest. I want to use a stop watch and graph the results.

I'm in need of advice. Please answer a few questions.

Do you think this is a good experiment to do?
What else do I need for this experiment?
Should I test more than three?
What should I put in the report?
I want to do this project next weekend and need advice soon.
Can you please help me?

If you could make suggestions or give advice in anyway, I would be grateful.

Thank You,

814: How come plants produce oxygen even though they need oxygen for respiration?

What is the fastest and most reliable way to make large sheets of Graphene?
Is Graphene entirely transparent to light?
If you have multiple layers of Graphene would this absorb more light?

Thank you

816: I was just wondering how many chromosomes it takes to make one strand of DNA? Thanks, hopefully you reply soon.
817: Please, I would like to know what other material could be used to replace phosphor in a CRT and still produce the same effect?
818: What is a flame?
819: If water is made up of hydrogen and oxygen, two gasses, then how is it a liquid?
820: When we see any animation about diffusion, it shows a sphere of particles / smell / etc. moving out from a centralized point, from an area of high to low concentration. However, in the case of smell, we also learned that smells are made of particles. Would these particles be affected by gravity? Instead of a sphere, wouldn't all the particles just fall to the ground?
821: Woud the stomata of a leaf open or close when exposed to a glucose solution? Why?
822: How do organisms live in methane?
823: What other materials can be used in a bulb other than Tungsten?
824: Since a Stimulant increases the body's activities, and a Depressant is the exact opposite, is an Anti-Depressant considered a Stimulant?
825: Since an inhalant is something inhaled, is an inhaler considered a drug?
826: I always hear about pH on things like bottles of acne face wash, which claim to "restore your pH balance", or deodorant that is "pH balanced just for you". What does this mean?
827: Does the carbon dioxide change the pH of our blood? (I was doing an experiment and we were using straw and we had to blow inside the water and the pH changed.)
828: Why does water only smells when it is mixed with something?
829: Why is it that when you pour koolaid into water, it sinks, but if you stir it up it mixes and never sinks again?
830: How do you know what planets and stars are made of if you can't actually take samples?
831: What is heavier: oxygen or carbon dioxide?
832: We have studied a little about atoms and such, and I know that in some kind of nuclear explosions atoms are smashed together to release the energy. My question is: Exactly how are these atoms forced together? Don't the negative electron clouds around them force them apart?
833: We are wondering about some weather data. It seems like there is an indirect relationship between air pressure and relative humidity. We thought wet air would have greater air pressure (weigh more) than dry air! What's up with that?
834: RUST: The other day I was told by a man who does body and fender work on cars that "car cancer" (rust) has to be completely removed and in the really bad places cut out and a new piece of metal welded in or the rust would just continue to destroy a car. I thought that rust was the result of iron and oxygen reacting creating iron oxide! If I cover up the rust with paint or "bondo" (sp?), and air can't get to it (no oxygen so no reaction), why would it continue to get worse?
835: How big is the ozone hole? Is the hole getting bigger or smaller? Can the ozone layer/hole be repaired, by nature or otherwise? How long do CFCs take to reach the ozone layer and eat it up? How big will the ozone layer get by the year 2000?How could we stop the ozone hole from getting bigger? Will the ozone hole affect the earth's gravity? What will happen if the hole gets really big? Would we die?
836: Our class has joined the GLOBE project. We have been taking a lot of tests on our environment, including alkalinity. What is alkalinity about? I know that alkalinity is found in water. Is alkalinity good or bad for the environment? We took an alkalinity test on Oso Flaco Lake and the test showed that there was zero alkalinty. What does that mean?
837: If we know that Methyl Bromide (pesticide used by strawberry farmers that is hazardous to earths ozone supplies) is poisonous to the ozone, then why do we use it?
838: I never heard of ozone near the ground.Does it affect in any way or protect us in others? Is there any way we can improve it? If the higher ozone gets destroyed, can the lower one protect us?
839: I heard tail pipe exhaust is harmful to the environment. Can you make a filter for a tail pipe that can block the harmful parts of the exhaust? (I guess I need to know what is in the exhaust that causes problems first)
840: Are all chemicals harmful to future generations? Do bug sprays harm babies? What exactly causes air pollution? What type of diseases does pollution cause for humans? If pollutions was to enter a black hole what would happen?
842: How can clouds hold water or snow?
843: Why does helium make your voice high?
844: I am doing the rubber bone experiment to take minerals out of chicken bones. I am using vinegar. I want to learn how my bones get the calcium from the milk I drink. How does the milk get from my stomach to my bones?
845: How do we extract Helium (symbol = He) from the Earth's atmosphere?
846: I am trying to find out what kind of poisions are in cigarette smoke. can you help me?
847: When I take a hot shower the mirror fogs up. I was told to run cold water in the shower first and then when I got in to turn the hot water up and the mirror wouldn't fog. This proved to be true. I do not understand - why does cold water makes the difference?
848: We know that plasma is another state of matter besides liquid, solid, and gas. But where is it, where can we see it, and how is it used in our everyday life? We dont think weve ever seen it.
849: How and why do glow sticks glow?
850: How is soda pressurized with carbon dioxide?
851: Can ALL substances be a solid, liquid and gas if you are allowed to change the temperature and pressure?
852: Why does mint have a "cool" taste? Is there a solid in the candy that is melting, which uses heat from your body for the phase change?
853: How did the carbon get in the universe to form the nebulas?
854: What causes bubbles to form when boiling water? Where are the bubbles coming from?
855: Why can't humans make the 8 amino acids which we need toget from the diet? Is it a loss of a past ability, or are we maybe gaining the ability? What amino acids do you acquire from beans and rice, versus milk, and versus tofu?
856: What do we know about the specifics of the bonding process between a diatomic oxygen molecule (O2) and the third oxygen atom, the combination of which ends up as O3? Does it have to do with radiation? How exactly does it happen? What are the effects of inhaling ozone on the human body? I know that it is harmful to plants and even deadly to them, but what does it do to humans?
857: How do Ultraviolet Detecting Beads work? What's the chemistry behind them? UV detecting beads contain a pigment which changes color when exposed to UV light. These beads are sold by Educational Innovations Inc. Their web site is: www.teachersource.com
858: Is there any way to create ozone that could be used to fill the holes in the ozone layer?
859: Why is milk white?
860: How do glowing algae (dinoflagellates) chemically create their light?
861: We have learned that there are exceptions to the aufbau principle. How do chemists know the actual electron configurations for elements like chromium, copper, or platinum?
862: Do the hydrophobic tails of the phospholipids making up cell membranes overlap and result in thinner but denser membranes? The books always draw the cell membranes with a bilayer such that the lipid tails are separated from each other across the membrane.
863: What is the spider silk made of and how can it be so strong to hold a spider?
864: How do scientists know that molecules exist?
865: How does fluoride protect my teeth and make them strong?
866: How does the eggshell form on the egg?
867: Why is gold so soft?
868: Why is gold found only in certain areas? Is gold always found in a particular kind of rock?
869: If you evacuate water with an oil pump is the heavy bubbling of the water due to the water boiling at room temperature or is the water just degasing ?
870: Are there any organisms on earth that have a triple helix DNA strand? If so, how did these organisms evolve this way? If not, is it possible for an organism to have a triple helix DNA strand?
871: Why can you set a one dollar bill on fire but it does not burn if you soak it first in a alcohol solution?
872: Since an inhalant is something inhaled, is an inhaler considered a drug?
873: What is antimatter?
874: Viruses fascinate me. How is that they are not living organisms? Do you have an idea how did they evolve from other organisms? I was thinking that they probably evolved from the mitochondria, is it possible?
875: How do scientists know that the Earth's core is made out of Iron and not another magnetic metal?
876: Is hand sanitizer really effective? Also, since it doesn't kill viruses, should it really say "Kills 99% of all germs!" It seems a bit of a lie. Isn't it better to just wash our hands?
877: In chemistry class today, we were learning about how fuel works in powering cars and how oil is injected into a cylinder and the sparkplug makes it catch fire and the mini-explosion pushes the piston. Now, my question is, if only a small explosion is needed to push the pistons, why do we use oil and not some other flammable fuel that can do the same job and in more abundance?
878: What are the products produced in the decomposition reaction between p-nitroaniline and sulfuric acid at temperatures above 392 degrees Fahrenheit?

When we spray perfume into the air, we smell the particles of the perfume. Are those particles a liquid or a gas?

Some of us think that it is small, minute droplets of perfume liquid (like steam is condensed water vapor in the form of liquid.

Some of us think that since the perfume is volatile, that the particles that we are smelling are gas particles that have evaporated from the liquid perfume.

Could you please help us with this?

Also, how about the popcorn smell we smell when we microwave popcorn?

Thank you very much!!

880: Can physical health effect your ability to learn?
881: Does water have a "texture"?
882: I have a question about magnetic surfactants. If one puts a non-magnetic surfactant in water (soap, for example), the surfactant will spread out and form a thin film above the surface of the water. If one was to put a magnetic surfactant in water, however, and stick a magnet in the solution, would the magnetic surfactant concentrate itself on/and around the magnet (moving with the magnet, if it is disturbed)? Or would it diffuse itself through-out the water much like the normal surfactant? Thanks for the help!
883: Which is made from a plant silk, linen or nylon?
884: The cherry plant has no Chlorophyll but how can it produce cherries?
885: Why are tears so salty?
886: I did the following experiment and I have a question. I took a lit incense stick and a small lit wax candle, then I held the lit tip of the incense stick on the wax of the candle such that the wax melts in a way that the effervesces of the incense stick passes through the flame of the candle. I saw that the incense stick has caught the flame. It looks like the flame of the candle has passed through the effervescence to the stick. How does it happen?
887: Dear Researcher! I read the article on the question "How thick is an eggshell" Amongst others... the thickness of the ostrich egg depends on the age. How much weight does an ostrich egg lose...in 500 years? Is the loss of 50% of its original weight possible? Many thanks.
888: What is microbial biotechnology?
889: Why living things need to be fed?
890: Is it possible to produce helium gas through fire?
891: Why is GTP used in translation and transcription instead of ATP?

Is it possible that an ostrich egg shell has Barium in it? I understand from the article I read that ostriches eat everything and some come from Northern Africa including Morocco, which is rich in minerals. I also understand that the water the ostriches drink there can contain barium.

So, is it possible that the egg shell contains that barium? Many thanks.

893: I am trying to find out what I have found. Can you help me? I recently found another object even bigger than the picture attached. Thank you.
Click here to see what I found:
what I found 1 what I found 2
894: Do giant squids have lungs?
895: How do divers equalize the pressure in great depths?
896: Is it possible for auroral activity to slightly activate a florescent light causing it to flicker on and off ?
897: Who discovers chemicals and how are they discovered?
898: How do biosensors transmit messages to the cell?
899: How many elements are there in the known universe?
900: What happens when you drink too many energy drinks?
901: Why do we need water to survive?
902: During plant metabolism, CO2 concentration levels increase around the plant when it is subjected to periods of darkness and decreases when the plant is in periods of illumination. How does this happen at the level of the structures, molecules and mechanisms involved in this process?
903: How long do glow sticks last?
904: How energy generated by chemical reactions can be converted into light energy in terms of the behavior of electrons? Does a compound that emits red light would require more energy than a compound that emits a violet light?
905: How is blood sugar controlled in a healthy individual? I would like to know the role of enzymes, hydrolysis, condensation and the hormones that control blood sugar via bio-synthetic and catabolic processes.
906: When a metal is burnt with a bright white light, what is that process called?
907: Who finally established that there are things called atoms?
908: Which are the different techniques for preservation of patent print and plastic print? Both are the type of fingerprint.
909: I was wondering if you know where can I buy callus initiation medium and clone induction medium? I'm doing a project dealing with plant cloning. If you know where to get them that would be a big help!
910: Does a candle temperature affect its burning rate?
911: I think that Science has successfully done cloning. I think that Science is doing progress in body preservation after death. Combining body preservation and cloning, can Science recreate and bring back a death body, let say after 4 years of being buried? I mean, can Science work on a skeleton, fixing every part of the body and bringing it back to life?
912: What is enamel?
913: Is fire something alive?
914: Where will an ice cube melt faster, in salt water or in freshwater?
915: What would be used for a wave that has the wavelength of about the size of a molecule of water?
916: How does water absorb heat?
917: Why snow looks white while water is colorless?
918: What are the world’s strongest two elements?
919: What is heat measured with?
920: What are pop rocks made of?
921: What causes the water to bubble?
922: I have a science fair project due sometime in January. The question is: Will chemical insecticide affect plant growth? (affect as in stunt) I Also want to know a few things: -What kind of plant will grow fast in the winter? -How will I know when to start experimenting? (I am going to be collecting data every two days and I am growing 12 plants and I\'m going to water half with insecticide and the other half without) Thank You so very much!
923: How does chlorine affect material over a long period of time? How does chlorine affect peoples’ health?
924: This question has to do with us learning about atoms and elements and the "families" on the Periodic Table in my Geophysics class (and orbitals, or 'shells'). The question is, "Which of the families has 2 extra protons in the outer shell?"
925: Why chilly tastes bitter?
926: What elements are found in the compound methoxycinnamate?
927: I am testing the quality of a fingerprint lifted with different materials used. 1.What conclusions can I expect? 2.What are good materials I can use to test and what are the procedures that follow?3.Is there new technology that helps investigators find the best quality of a fingerprint lifted?4. What do you do on a daily basis for your job?
928: What is tetnus?
929: Does the color of a candle affect the rate of burning?
930: How does the light affect the growth of plants?

I am doing a science project on How smell affects memory and I am interested in finding someone to interview and answer my questions.Here are my questions, and I hope to hear back about someone I can interview. Thanks. Questions:

1. How are the brain and olfactory bulb connected?.
2. How does memory work?.
3. How much of the information one learns is remembered for the average person?
4. Are smells remembered?
5. Can perfumes be linked to memories?
6. How does the brain store memories?
7. Where does the brain store memories?
8. Are there certain smells proven to trigger memories?
9. What are some smells that have effects on the brain?

932: What makes up salt?
933: I am doing an experiment on ice cubes melting in salt water or fresh water. I've done the experiment and it melts faster in fresh water. For my project, I need to explain why this happens and why this experiment is helpful to humans. My mom does not know. I also need the name of the person who answers my question. Thank you so much. I know it is late but this project is due Nov. 30.
934: What jobs did you have previously that led up to your career? I am testing how different surfaces affect the quality of a fingerprint lifted, what conclusions can I expect? Are there key surfaces I should use in my experiment? - What are the different types of fingerprints and is there a specific type of fingerprint that is more visible than others?
935: How can you separate antioxidants from a fruit?
936: If you put alcohol instead of water to a plant, what happens to the plant?
937: Why does a plant need oxygen?
938: Since photosynthesis and cellular respiration are opposites, why don't plants use the waste products of each for the other? For example, why don't plants use the CO2 and H20 from cellular respiration in photosynthesis? Why do they give it off as waste? And same goes for the waste products of photosynthesis used in cellular respiration. All I'm asking is why, after 3.5 billion years of evolution, has this not been utilized?
939: How does evaporation affect crystal growth?
940: How does color affect plant growth?
941: How do single-celled organisms function?
942: Why does a fruit turn brown?
943: What type of ion does hydrogen form?
944: How is that hydrogen and oxygen make a compound?
945: I was asked on a science test:'True or False: Molecules are moving all the time. I wrote false, because I thought molecules stopped moving at absolute zero. I was marked incorrect, and my teacher showed me that the book said molecules keep moving. Am I right? Do molecules stop moving at absolute zero?
946: I am doing a science experiment on how pH affects the amount of algal growth, and I am using cyanobacteria as I would like to relate my experiment back to how pH could affect the amount of algal biofuel yield. I am using a colorimeter to determine the concentration of the algae. I am not sure which wavelength of light I should use to measure the algae. Which wavelength of light should I use to measure cyanobacteria growth?
947: Why is water the only element that is found in 3 states of matter?
948: Why do plants need water?
949: What elements or things besides water can exist in the 3 states, solid,liquid and gas?
950: Why is it that we have two hydrogen bonding with one oxygen and not four?
951: What materials can make ice melt faster?

I am doing a Science experiment at La Colina Jr. High School. My experiment is with levitation. I have built my stand and have successfully levitated a magnet. I have thought up some questions for you.

1) About how strong is diamagnetism at it's strongest (how much would a magnet be repelled by a piece of the strongest diamagnetic material in the world, strongest meaning how strongly diamagnetic)?

2) Is everything diamagnetic at least to some extent (besides magnets)?

3) What is a Superconductor?

4) What is the strongest diamagnetic material besides superconductors?

5) What is the study of materials and what kind of job would that be?

6) What career does Diamagnetism/Levitation relate to?

7) Could you tell me about your career at UCSB? And what does it entail?


My project is what is the fastest way to cool a beverage. The beverages I am using are coke, sprite, cow milk, and goat milk.I am going to put each beverage into 3 coolers. One cooler with ice, another with water and ice, and the last one with water, ice and salt. I have a few questions about my project and about you.

1. What is your career choice?

2. How would I find the starting temperature of the cooler?

3. What do you think will happen?


4. What do you have your crudentials in?

5. How does salt affect the freezing rate?


1) How are microwaves transmitted, and where do the waves come from?

2)How does a microwave oven heat up food?

3)How severe is the radiation from a microwave oven and what is its capable damage?

4)Is it true that if you stand in front of a functioning microwave, then you will get brain cancer?

5)Is there any evidence that the radiation from a microwave oven effected a person\'s brain?

6)What is your current profession and what was your major in college?

955: What is the science behind water freezing?
956: What makes markers spread on paper? And also on wet paper?

Dear Scientist,
Could you answer the following questions for me?

What is your major?

How does salt water affect freezing rate?

How does carbonation affect freezing rate?

How does carbonation, salt, and fresh (filtered) water affect the cooling rate in different environments?


Is it possible to combine Gold, Titanium, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen into a single molecule? I would like to know the shape of the molecule, and the chemical formula. Is there more than one possibility? I would really appreciate your help here. I am trying to make a computer game about space, and this molecule will be the fuel for engines, you can grind it up and make it lubricant for the engines, and it\'s deadly in its liquid state.Thank you very much!

959: What happens when Magnesium burns?
960: Why soda ash react with metal & de-sulphur the metal?
961: 1) Have you ever done an experiment where you test the dissolve time of different pain relievers?
2) What are your learning credentials?
3) For my experiment, I am testing the dissolve time of: acetaminophen gel capsules, acetaminophen coated tablets, and non-coated tablets. What other types of pain relievers would you use for this experiment?
4) What is your prediction of conclusion for this experiment?

962: Why are crystals important to science?
963: What is the density of ethanol? And how many types of methods are there to disolve ethyl alcohol?
964: How are scientists helpful to us?
965: How is gold dust formed?
966: Where does the heat go when a surface coated in multi-wall carbon nanotubes absorbes this heat? If we coated a pool cover in the multi-wall carbon nanotubes, would it be possible to channel the heat into a hot tub using copper wires?
967: Are there any diseases borne in or more importantly on the skins of bananas which could adversely affect human health? What kinds of chemical agents are used in the fumigation of bananas to kill pests or "hitchikers" in transit from the growing fields to our homes?If bananas are treated with chemicals en route from the fields to our homes, can the chemicals 1) leech deep into the skins of the fruit and 2) can\'t they leech into the boxes the bananas are shipped in making the boxes unsafe for re-packing other food products in? Thanks.
968: What are the properties and characteristics of corn syrup?
969: How to identify the two differences between the properties of the material that has metallic bonds and the materials that have covalent bonds?
970: What are the effects of burning Phos-check {fire retardant} sprayed on the wood in a wood burning stove in the home?

What is air pressure and absolute pressure?
What is Gear direction?
Why car tire get flat in a busy road?
Why ships do not sink?
Why do flames fire go up?

972: Which freezes faster, water or salt water?
973: Why do brain cells not undergo Mitosis? If it is because they are missing certain mechanics to do so, would it be possible to insert these mechanics into a brain cell and induce mitosis? If successful do you think this could help with damage from concussions or even elongate human life?
974: How does a nuclear explosion happen?
975: How did weathering and erosion form Marvel cave?
976: How is that water molecules(liquid that comes from two gases, hydrogen and oxygen)can make a reaction with iron at high temperature, and then form rust? And how is that this rust can be recovered by using the same oxygen? Please explain. Thanks

Hello, We had a very unusual reaction. An art student created a clay sculpture that was covered with pennies and fired in a kiln.

The newer zinc pennies reacted and formed long (4 to 6 inch) hollow spiral white tapered tubes, orange on the inside. Very odd looking. I could send photos. Have you heard of this? Why the tubes?

978: Which hormones are necessary for differentiation of white blood cells from hematopoietic stem cells in the red bone marrow?
979: Why hydrogen have only one atomic number?
980: Can we produce condensed water in a rigid small sphere,where H2 and O2 are present at very high pressure provided that some electric sparks are produced in the sphere by some mechanism? If I would break the sphere, would I find water in it?
981: Why do oranges and lemons have citric acid?
982: What is the second stage of the krebs cycle where carbon dioxide is produced?
983: I want to know the electron, proton, valency, period, group and neutron of the first 50 chemical element.
984: What is a good conductor of heat for pipes in the solar panel?
985: How do pigments absorb and reflect different wave lengths of light?
986: In real life force fields, is it possible to create a small pocket dimension where we can set temperature {low}, pressure{high}, so that H2O can be formed from H2 and O2 gases, within few minutes or reaction?
987: Can we check salt water by using litmus paper?
988: What term should be used to describe the metabolism of the Hafnia alvei of the Enterobacteriaceae family?
989: Why is it when you build a sand castle without water it falls and when you include water it stays up?
990: Is it true that fireworks have magnesium in them?
991: Does fresh water freeze faster than salt water and why?
992: Why are there still crystals in the bottom of my Kool Aid?
993: I know that carbon dioxide freezes at a temperature of -57 degrees and forms dry ice, but in Antartica the temperature is -60 degrees . So, does dry ice forms there? If yes, then how and why?
994: How are fireworks made?
995: Do different colors of light affect the growth of plants?
996: How are abalone shells made?
997: When two hydrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms combine, it creates water (H2O). Where does the second oxygen atom go?
998: I've been searching for an eco-friendly Science project to do and I can't find one.. Any ideas?
999: What is oxygen?
1000: What substance is made of 2 atoms of hydrogen and 2 atoms of oxygen?
1001: Why doesn't the water from earth fall into space?
1002: What is Gold used for?
1003: Why is Venus hotter than Mercury if Mercury is closer to the sun?
1004: Do plants produce food when they have no oxygen?
1005: In water, why don't the hydrogen and oxygen separate?
1006: We are learning about flat points on time vs. temp graphs indicating phase transitions. While each transition takes place (ex: freezing) the temperature stays constant, then after it is done, the temperature continues dropping. Once something is solid (ex: iron,) does the temperature keep dropping indefinitely? Is there a phase "colder" than solid? Would there ever be any flat point phase transitions other than plasma- gas, gas - liquid, liquid - solid?
1007: If a smell is made of solid particles floating in the air, if you smell something, does that mean the object being smelled is losing volume and mass?
1008: If air in a tire contracts when it is cold outside (according to your web site), why does a can of soda expand in the freezer? Thank you!
1009: What 3 main things does a plant need for photosynthesis to occur?
1010: When you put water on clothing, why does the color look strong?
1011: What things in a house are conductors?
1012: Are all ionic compounds salts, or vice versa, or is the relationship between the two categories different? If so, how?
1013: Why are trees and plants green in color?
1014: Why is the temperature inside of a car hotter than the temperature outside on a sunny day?
1015: Why does saltwater heat faster than freshwater? Links would be appreciated.

What is the chemical composition of the Iron Gallus Ink used by Leonardo in his codices.

He writes how to compose the ink in:
Codice ARUNDEL 170r
Codice Forster III 39 r.
Many thanks.

1017: Do smaller bones soaked in vinegar become bendy sooner?
1018: If a bus with passengers is moving an amount of CO2 released by the vehicle itself as well as by the passengers, is this amount of CO2 greater or smaller than the CO2 released only by the passengers if they were riding their bikes?
1019: Are there elements yet to be discovered?
1020: How is silver made?
1021: How does the type of surface affect the amount of heat absorbed or radiated?
1022: Which colors absorb the most heat? Why is this? Does a bright color like yellow absorb a lot of heat?
1023: Why can fire spread very quickly?
1024: Can mercury go through solid? How? Can also Mercury go through gas? How?
1025: How fast or slow do coral reefs grow?
1026: How did minerals form in our earth?
1027: Hello. First of all this is not a homework question but my personal science question. In a voltaic pile Zinc and Copper electrodes are immersed in salty water (NaCl,) and are electrically connected. Zinc ions lose electrons to copper and get into solution, as copper hydrogen gets reduced and bubbles up. Why hydrogen ions do not get electrons from the zinc electrode directly, but get them from copper? Please help me with this question, it has been long time and it troubles me.
1028: What is a chemical?
1029: If black color absorbs the most heat, then why is plant life mostly green?

1) In Ultramarin, Lapiz Lazuli, can there be traces found of Baryte(Barium)?

2) In smalt (ground blue glass), can there be traces found of Baryte(Barium)?

3) Why does the paint or color iron gallus ink fade after the years. Because of oxidation of the iron, which would make it brown?

Many thanks

1031: What are phospholipids?
1032: Does magnesium oxide dissociates when it is heated?
1033: Which is the highest percentage of salt (salinity) in sea water?
1034: What is the largest piece of gold ever found?
1035: Why no photosynthesis takes place in blue color light, and why minimum photosynthesis takes place in green color light, and Why the rate of photosynthesis is maximum in red color light?
1036: What are the uses of Electrolysis?
1037: What color is our blood inside of our bodies?
1038: What is a nucleus?
1039: Why do metals want to return to lower energy state? Does it make them more stable or something? If so, why do they want to be stable?
1040: What is the effect of tea on physiological process of gastrointestinal tract?
1041: Old-time kitchen lore suggests that things cook better (evenly and without burning) in heavy cast-iron pots. What desirable characteristics do such pots have?
1042: What irreversible processes occur in a gasoline engine? Why are they irreversible?
1043: How does salt accelerate the rate of corrosion? For example, for an Iron nail wrapped around using Zinc metal strips, how does different concentrations of NaCl (distilled water, 0.25M NaCl & 0.5M NaCl) affect the rate of corrosion? What is the in-depth chemistry behind the theory? Thanks
1044: Why does milk overflow when boiled ?
1045: H2 and O2 combines to give water.This reaction is spontaneous however it is not found to occur in nature, why?
1046: When mixing H2(two hygrogens)and an O(oxygen), scientifically would you get water?
1047: In our class we want to know how long does it take to digest a doughnut? It was asked if it was really 10 days?
1048: Thank you very much for opening this fantastic forum to benefit students from all over the world. My question is if the planet Earth emits heat from radioactive decay, I will also be right to say that it emits all the dangerous radiation as well. If so, why are humans more afraid of a nuclear explosion when we have been exposed to dosage and dosage of nuclear radiation naturally? And we seem to careless about it.
1049: What are the latest discoveries in the field of photosynthesis?
1050: How is ATP produced in a cell?
1051: How are phobias triggered, do childhood experiences affect this, and how does the brain process this information so it becomes a phobia?
1052: What are the materials and the procedures for finding out whether ice melts faster in salt solution or in water?
1053: Can plants grow without photosynthesis?
1054: Some defenders of incandescent bulbs claim that the waste heat generated will lessen their heating bill. If 90% or 90w of an 100w incandescent bulb generates x amount of heat how much heat could a 90w Nichrome heater produce?
1055: What is the source of alpha particles in the Rutherford Scattering experiment?
1056: Is the pressure of H2 and O2 the same when electrolysis takes place?
1057: Can the efficiency of a heat engine exceed that of the Carnot cycle?
1058: What kind of chemicals makes cotton candy?
1059: Does the color of light affect plant growth?

Hi, I have a question related to an already posted topic:"Why is tungsten used for filaments in light bulbs when nichrome's resistivity is so much higher?


I understood, after reading your answers, the importance of the high melting point of the material of the filament. In order to get visible electromagnetic waves (i.e. light), we need the material to be at a certain temperature and it is tungsten that can reach that temperature without melting. However I do\'t understand another thing. The power supply is given by a constant VOLTAGE supply, say 120 V (not constant current). Ohm's Law states V=I*R And Joule's effect states Q=I2R By combining these two equations, we get that Q=V2/R. Then, why we would want to have a material with a high resistivity? If V is fixed, then Q actually DECREASES with the higher R. The former equation, I2.R, might be confusing but the thing is that, as said before, I is not fixed, but V is.

So by increasing R, we are decreasing I and that's why I2.R will decrease. In conclusion, I understand that tungsten is a good material because of many of its properties, as the high melting point. But, why to increase the resistance of the filament by increasing its length and decreasing its cross-section since it seems to me that it should be the other way round? Were am I making the mistake? Sincerely

1061: Why plants use only CO2 for photosynthesis, and why not any other gas with carbon atom?
1062: Why fluoride is essential for tooth? Is any other member of Halogens family helpful in tooth health and protection?
1063: How does a tree get turned into paper?
1064: How did the elements came to existence?
1065: Why do animals need energy from the sun even if they get energy from the food they eat?
1066: What is the process that makes fruits and vegetables to grow?
1067: Why glass breaks while tried to bend whereas an iron rod bends?
1068: What chemical reactions happens in nail polishing?
1069: How is gold taken out of the ground?
1070: How are weak nuclear and electromagnetic forces different?
1071: Why can one volcanic eruption produce more deadly gases than all the emissions of every car that has ever been used. And why is the average temperature of the earth getting colder?
1072: Is fire a living or a non-living organism?
1073: How does moisture affect the rate of corrosion?
1074: Why does carbon dioxide in a solid state sublime?
1075: On a molecular level, why does condensation form on the outside of a cold glass of water whereas bubbles form on the inside of a hot glass?
1076: I cannot find the kind of degrees that an oceanographer needs. Can you help me?
1077: How do acid rain works?
1078: Why does gunpowder explode when lit?
1079: What are things that are alive, but display characteristics of non-living things?
1080: Who first discovered the proton?
1081: Which gases are there on Mars?
1082: Can water beat fire?
1083: How can I know how many moles are in 4.0 grams of Hydrogen gas(H2)? And then how do I convert that into molecules and atoms of H?
1084: Why do baking soda and vinegar react to each other?
1085: Why does cut fruit turn brown when exposed to air ?
1086: Is the core of the Earth solid?
1087: How does nuclear fusion fuels our sun?
1088: Do all atoms have the same number of protons?
1089: Do animals breath out carbon dioxide?
1090: How do you know a cell is alive or not?
1091: Why is it that water is less dense in solid form than in liquid form?
1092: Is it true that the earth's core is made of metals iron and nickel, and that the earth's crust is made of mostly the elements of silicon and oxygen? Why?
1093: How much BPA is released when plastic degrades. Can you please help me out?
1094: Are humans responsible for global warming? How much co2 does a volcano emit?
1095: How much salt water is in the ocean, and how much fresh water is there?
1096: How and why do hydrogen and oxygen combine to form water?
1097: How bad can acetone nail polish remover affect your body, and what will it do?
1098: How "Avogadro constant" was invented and how scientists calculated it for the first time?
1099: How do particles in a fluid exert pressure on a container?
1100: What causes a spark? Has it something to do with the event when a positive and a negative charge meet?
1101: What pops faster, cold water or hot water?
1102: My science fair project is Does the temperature of the ocean water affect how much Bisphenol A is found in the ocean water? I was wondering how do you measure Bisphenol A in the ocean water? Do I have to use a chemical or a machine?
1103: Why is oxygenated water important to plants, and if it is necessary then, what function does it perform in the plant?
1104: Why is that when cells from a multicellular organism falls off it dies? When I look at unicellular and multicellular cells they look some what alike.
1105: At Ancient times, man used to rub stones together and produce fire through spark. How was spark produced? Was it Triboluminescence? Or Was it just due to positive and negative charge meeting?
1106: What is the difference between a spark and Triboluminescence?
1107: Why do we use nuclear energy?
1108: What is the softest metal?
1109: Why do we use nuclear energy? What are some constructive examples of nuclear energy? What are destructive properties of nuclear energy?
1110: I am doing a science fair project over the amounts of BPA found in soda. I was wonder if it is possible to test BPA in soda and how do I measure this? Do I need to use a machine to calculate this and where would I get access to one?
1111: How does Photosynthesis affect other organisms?

I 'm aware when plants are not in the light they respire just as we do. I also know the products of photosynthesis are sugar and oxygen. My questions are:
How do plants get energy when they are in the light if photosynthesis produces no ATP? Do plants always have to respire with the sugar produced from photosynthesis? Or is there some energy made from photosynthesis and if so in what form?

1113: What are enzymes and how are they important to living things?
1114: Batrachotoxins, or frog toxins that are found in the genus phyllobates of poison dart frogs, have been identified in the diet of the frogs rather than being self-synthesized. I was wondering since the discovery that beetles from the family merylidae were known to contain the batrachotoxin ingredients, how did the beetles obtain the necessary parts for batrachotoxin synthesis, since these beetles cannot make the toxin themselves? Has a plant source been identified that makes the alkaloids for beetles to consume, and if so, how do plants make batrachotoxin in the first place? Thank you.
1115: I know that plants take in carbon dioxide and give out oxygen. But do all plants need oxygen? What if all the plants where gone what will happen to the presence of the humans? Will we all die slowly? What will happen to the animals?
1116: I have a question on my big campus (San Diego campus)that says "there is something in the leaves that uses this energy to break apart the hydrogen and oxygen atoms. "This energy" relating to light energy. Can someone help me to know what is the "something"?
1117: Why do green pigments reflect green light?
1118: What is tin foil made out of?
1119: Are stars hot or cold?
1120: What is the difference between chlorophyll A and B?
1121: In a sealed terrarium, how does the CO2 and O2 recycling process take place?
1122: Why do protons have a positive charge, neutrons have a neutral charge, and electrons have a negative charge?
1123: How do photosynthesis and cellular respiration are similar?
1124: How does different surfaces affect the preservation of finger prints?
1125: We were looking at the composition of elements in the universe and saw that it is 75% Hydrogen, 23% Helium, 1% Oxygen, and 1% everything else. Why is there so much Oxygen in the universe compared to the other elements?
1126: What solids go through sublimation?
1127: A cell knows what to do because it is programed to do what it do. But, what or who programed the cell or any other unconsciousness life to know what to do? I mean, how the atoms of the first living thing know how to be arranged to construct this programed "machine"?!
1128: Thank you for your time. I live in Mexicali, Mexico. The temperature here goes from 30F to 70F in Winter, and from 80F to 124F in Summer. I want to install solar cells in my backyard, how does temperature affect the production of electricity?
1129: How do stain removers work? (1)
1130: After we add water to disposable diapers and the polymer absorbs water, what can we do with the gel to extend the discovery/experiment? Can the gel be used as a reactant to produce another product?
1131: Was IRIDIUM ever found as a residue in ALABASTER or AGATE or CALCIUM from VOLTERRA, ITALY?
1132: Why should the ice melt faster in gas, but actually it melts faster in liquid?
1133: How it is possible that for every substance the Avogadro number is constant? I mean, how is it possible that 1 mole of Hydrogen molecule and 1 mole of Oxygen molecule have the same number? Please explain to me.
1134: Does acrylic fabric have good thermal diffusivity?
1135: What exactly is heat?
1136: How does Transpiration work?
1137: How does gold get its color?
1138: How does hand sanitizer kill germs?
1139: I performed an experiment using colors to transfer heat form a light bulb to water. Red heated the water the most and purple the least in the experiment, even though purple should have the highest frequency/energy. Why may that be?
1140: What color is blood without oxygen in our body?
1141: Why does hot water make steam but cold water does not?
1142: A few of my classmates and I are preparing a demonstration lab for our college chemistry class. We want to do the “carbon snake” where nitro aniline and sulfuric acid is heated to 392 degrees Fahrenheit but we can’t find how to properly dispose of the tower that is formed. We know that the gases formed can go out the fume hood but don’t know about the remains. Our teacher won’t let use preform the experiment unless we get answers. Thanks
1143: What is cement made of?
1144: Why do we need nuclear energy?
1145: How do different temperature of water affect the size and color of fabric?
1146: If water is made up of hydrogen and oxygen, two gasses, then how is it a liquid?
1147: DPA was recently removed from sandwich bags. Why? Did they do something to the food inside?
1148: Why do cold objects emit vapor as hot objects do?
1149: Why is there nuclear force? What is the physics behind it? I read somewhere this is due to the repulsion between protons.
1150: Can water float on water?
1151: How do crystals get their shape?
1152: What is the role of heat in a chemical reaction?
1153: Why should a chemical equation be balanced?
1154: Does a candle's temperature affect its burn rate?
1155: What happens to air density in the atmosphere when air is cool? Please explain to me.

After reading your article:"Why is it that water freezes on the surface of a lake but not below it?" here I found this very interesting and gave me one more question which should be interesting to others too, I hope.

Question: If warmer water was to be sent from lower down, where it is warmer, to the surface in the form of agitated turbulence, so the water is moving, would this stop the ice forming, so long as the volume of water was great enough to keep ahead of the cold air?

I'm looking at ways to keep breathing holes open for mammals trapped beneath ice during mid winter freezes after seeing the movie "Big Miracle." I'm sure there must be a better way of keeping the ice from freezing up. Even an outboard motor should work better. So far I have thought of lowering a grid of pipes down low and pumping air through the pipes which are full of small holes. The thought was that the air bubbles would bring warmer water to the surface and therefore keep the ice from freezing over. I still haven't been able to find out if the water is warmer at the bottom or half way up yet. I also thought about vertical pipes suspended in the water, going down deep and ending about 10 feet below the surface to insulate the water on its way up but whales and Orcas are likely to break the pipes and hurt themselves. Maybe soft pipes would work? I'm not in the areas you normally answer questions for, I'm in New Zealand, but if someone has time to give me some advice I would really appreciate it, so will the whales who get trapped and die.

1157: Hi there,

Recently in class I have done a Redox titration to determine the concentration of ascorbic acid within some orange juice. The pH of the solution at the beginning and the end were basically the same and I was wondering why? From what I have learned of titrations curves, the pH should have changed, at least a bit... I used the Potassium Iodate method if that is of any help. Thank you for your help!

1158: Why and how do crystals form?
1159: Do you know how long it takes to grow sugar crystals in different types of water?
1160: Why don't fish move slowly in cold temperatures like reptiles do? Both are cold blooded.
1161: How does conduction flow through a cell?
1162: Hello, It is my understanding that compounds cannot be separated by physical means. Yet when NaCl is put in water, it dissolves. As I understand it, dissolving separates the compound into ions. Is this not a physical separation of the compound? I'm confused. Please help me as usual. Thank you.
1163: In what way are oxygen and carbon similar? Is it their weight or the number of atoms, or density?
1164: What are some causes that are making the ozone layer disappear?
Thank you

1165: Why do plants not take oxygen during the day though they need it for respiration?
1166: What is inside a magnet?
1167: Does ice melt faster in saltwater or in freshwater?
1168: Hello, my name is Will and I am an AP Chemistry student at Milton High School in Massachusetts. For our final project, my partner and I are really interested in the explosive polymerization of 4-nitroaniline reaction that you had on your website click here. We have access to all the chemicals, yet we want to be as safe as possible. Since we are not exactly sure what the reaction produces, would a high school fume hood be sufficient protection? Also, how should we safely dispose of the product?

Thank you very much for your time,
1169: What would happen if we did not have a digestive system?
1170: Why does the sun help us to live?
1171: What will be the state of water if we freeze further negative temperature below the ice state limit? Could it exist as liquid again or stay being solid ice?
1172: Why only silicon chip is used in computers? Does it have any special property?
1173: How does Iodine kill bacteria?
1174: How can energy be generated by nuclear fusion or the opposite of fusion?
1175: Are viruses living, once living, or never living?
1176: Does food coloring affect plants? If it does, how?
1177: Why is diamond harder than coal if they are both made up of carbon?
1178: All life needs some chloride so it would make sense that plants use chloride. The chloride in sweat evaporates with the water. Do plants obtain this chloride from water that has chloride in it due to chloride secretions such as in sweat, or is there a separate chloride cycle?
1179: What are some efficient ways to prevent apples rotting?
1180: Why is Mars a red planet?
1181: Why is an atom electrically neutral?
1182: We all know that plants do respiration at night and give CO2 at night, but in the morning when they have just started photosynthesis and giving oxygen we go on a morning walk and we say that we are taking oxygen in the morning!Is not the concentration of CO2 going to be higher in the morning!!?
1183: Please help me and explain briefly on the burning of a candle, what is the chemical reaction involved?
1184: What is the total charge on any atom?
1185: Where does carbon dioxide come from?
1186: How additives like antifreeze stop car radiators from freezing?
1187: What is a chloroplast in a cell?
1188: If plants absorb sunlight and we eat plants or other organisms who eat plants, does that mean we have a fraction of the energy of the sun in our system?
1189: Is Earth's core as hot as the surface of the sun?
1190: Why water level does not change when salt is added?
1191: How much energy of the phytoplankton is given off when eaten?
1192: How does the type of fabric affect the ability to insulate?
1193: What makes a planet different from a star?
1194: How do rocks form?
1195: What are the uses of crystals?

We find a lot of fossils today and I have heard it is because there were different events that caused animals and dinosaurs to die. Why didn't the fallen bodies of the dead animals just rot? Why did they turn into fossils if they just fell down dead? If all of those dead animals that are fossilized were buried rapidly with water, etc., (which is needed for the fossilization process) what caused that to happen with all of the thousands upon thousands of fossilized creatures? Was it thousands of small disasters with water, etc? I'm just confused on that subject because we find so many different fossils in so many layers.

Why were bones of an iguanadon, mastadon, hadrosaurus, monkey, bison, racoon, Indian jawbone and teeth, all found together, and in the same layer in the Ashly Beds in South Carolina if they all were said to have lived at different time?

1197: Molecules of gas strike with each other. Can they produce spark flame due to collision?
1198: Why do we need salt in the ocean?
1199: In a water molecule, why do the lone pairs take up positions above oxygen? Couldn't they take up positions on both sides of oxygen?
1200: What can we do (in terms of temperature sugar,liquids) to help yeast produce more carbon dioxide?
1201: What liquid could produce more Carbon dioxide with yeast?
1202: What is the best type of sugar to use to make yeast and water produce carbon dioxide? And how much? What is the best temperature for the water to be? How much do I shake the flask for?
1203: How does the sun help the plants grow? How does the sun help humans? How does the sun help the solar energy?
1204: How does the level of light affect the rate of photosynthesis?
1205: Why does the water condense after evaporating?
1206: Why will Tungsten glow brighter than Nichrome though? I don't understand.
1207: What is a symbol for lithium?
1208: Why the earth favors things with lowest energy? Could you please explain to me? Thank you.
1209: How does heat affect the volume of gas in a balloon?
1210: If everything in the universe is made of atoms, why does everything look and fell so different?
1211: How do scientists determine the age of rock layers and fossils?
1212: Is potassium poisonous/hazardous?
1213: Why does baking occur?
1214: How much insulation does a glass cup have? Is it better than a plastic cup? Why or why not?
1215: Hello, Science Line,
Although Nitrogen can combine with chemicals to produce unpleasant byproducts as a result of fuel combustion (nitrogen oxides in smog, etc.), I was wondering if atmospheric nitrogen can actually be harnessed (somewhat like atmospheric oxygen) to produce power in any way? Although nitrogen has a strong tendency for inertness, since it makes up the bulk of air, it is a shame that it cannot be harnessed somehow -- are there any oxidizers/fuels which can be made to react energetically/explosively with nitrogen gas, especially under heat and/or pressure? Thank you very much.

1216: How does water and air act like a heat reservoir?
1217: I know that chloroplasts require proteins coded for by the nucleus to reproduce. However, if chloroplasts were placed in a solution that had those proteins could they reproduce outside of a cell?
1218: Is there any blue blood in our bodies at any time? Or is it all red with different shades?
1219: Why do crystals form in water? What do you do in your lab with others? Me and my dad are interested in what you do.
1220: I am curious on how a toothpaste whitens teeth. I would like to make a science project on which brand of toothpaste is effective on whitening teeth? But what should I use and do create my project? And what is in the toothpaste that makes the teeth whiter?
1221: What materials do they use to get salt?
1222: What type of material keeps liquids hot for longer time?
1223: What powers a battery? What is inside it?
1224: What things do people make out off nuclear energy?
1225: Why does Chlorophyll A and B absorb different colors better?
1226: What type of cells do the examination of the cell's cycle? (Qué tipos de células examinan el ciclo de célula?)
1227: How does the peacock flounder change color?
1228: We did an experiment where we put one iron nail in bottled water and another in aquarium salt water made using bottled water. We left each for 2 weeks then filtered each using filter paper and took weights. We expected more rust in the salt water and that the weight would be greater. However the weight was greater in the bottled water than the salt water. Any ideas about why? My guess is that perhaps the nail was treated in some way not to react as much to saltwater.
1229: I've heard that Fluoride is bad for people and animals; fluoride can kill us. So why is there Fluoride in toothpastes like "Colgate" and "Sensodine"? Why is Chlorine not? Why have Scientists approved Toothpaste with Fluoride in it? Is fluoride good for a person's teeth?
1230: What is more comparable to stomach acid, lemon juice or vinegar?
1231: What is the cell wall made of?
1232: If a tree has no leaves, how will the tree get sunlight?
1233: How Silicon came about on Earth?
1234: Helium, Argon and Neon are all noble gases. They all have identical k values, that is, the specific heat value at constant pressure divided by the specific heat value at constant temperature (Cp/Cv) is the same. Would these gases be expected to behave the same in scientific experiments?Thank you.
1235: What makes ice melt?
1236: What is found on the outside of a nucleus?
1237: Can a plant stay alive without light?
1238: What are diamonds made of?
1239: What causes global warming?
1240: Do plants with non green leaves have chlorophyll and photosynthesis?

I am a year 7 student and I am doing a project on Gamma Radiation and I was wondering if you could please answer a few questions for me? My questions are:

When does gamma radiation occur and is gamma radiation dangerous?

What is the difference between alpha and beta particles?

1242: Hello, I'm doing a project over chemiluminescence and glow sticks and I have some questions about them, so I was wondering if anyone could answer them!
1. What are some alternative uses for chemiluminescence instead of just producing light?
2. In what cases can the chemicals in glow sticks be harmful?
3. What causes some glow sticks to be more bright or long lasting than others?
4. How does chemiluminescence occur in living organisms?
5. Why does chemiluminescence not produce much heat?
Thank you for your time!

1243: How do plants and animals use the food produced during photosynthesis?
1244: How does Ferro fluid Work?
1245: Why can't humans go to Jupiter, and why isn't it safe to go there?
1246: What is the difference between gamma particle and gamma rays? Are thee the same thing or not ? This confuses me.
1247: Why the flowers have different colors?
1248: Hello,I am a science teacher trying to create a new project for the Next Generation standards. I need help choosing some interesting compounds.I want my students to research these compounds. There is a long list of criteria for this project, such as how the compound has properties different from its elements, how the compound is used in nature and synthetic structures, etc. I want compounds that will provide for interesting research. I am looking for at least 12 compounds. I found this list and was hoping you could help me choose the most interesting or suggest others not on the list. Thanks for your help. Here is the list:
Aluminum chloride AlCl₃
Barium iodide BaI₂
Beryllium fluoride BeF₂
Carbon dioxide CO₂
Carbon monoxide CO
Carbon tetrabromide CBr₄
Carbon tetrachloride CCl₄
Cesium chloride CsCl
Cobalt(III) fluoride CoF₃
Diarsenic pentoxide As₂O₅
Dihydrogen monoxide (most call it water!)H₂O
Dinitrogen monoxide N₂O
Dinitrogen tetroxide N₂O₄
Dinitrogen trioxide N₂O₃
Diphosphorus pentoxide P₂O₅
Gallium nitride GaN
Hydrobromic acid HBr
Hydrochloric acid HCl
Hydroiodic acid HI
Iodine trichloride ICl₃
Iron(III) oxide Fe₂O₃
Lead(II) selenide PbSe
Lithium sulfide Li₂S
Nitrogen dioxide NO₂
Nitrogen monoxide NO
Nitrogen triiodide NI₃
Phosphorus pentabromide PBr₅
Phosphorus trichloride PCl₃
Potassium phosphide K₃P
Rubidium oxide Rb₂O
Silicon dioxide SiO₂
Sodium bromide NaBr
Strontium sulfide SrS
Sulfur dioxide SO₂
Sulfur hexafluoride SF₆
Sulfur trioxide SO₃
Tetraphosphorus trisulfide P₄S₃
Tin(IV) bromide SnBr₄
Vanadium(V) oxide V₂O₅
Xenon trioxide XeO₃

1249: What rate do red blood cells die at?

1250: What is difference between ion and radical?
1251: What is life?
1252: Hello! I am teaching 6th-11th grade sciences. I have a B.S. in science, but only took a year or so of microbiology in college. Every year we have students who want to do microbe projects for science fair. We have good success growing microbes in petri dishes. As yet, my best method for measuring microbe growth is to give students a 5mm x 5mm grid which they lay on top of the petri dish and have them estimate how much of these boxes are filled with the microbe that has grown. Then they add up the portions of the boxes or whole boxes filled by the microbes and arrive at an mm squared value. One science fair judge asked about the height of microbe growth. I guess students could arrive at an estimate of height by the same method. I have done online searches which have only yielded dilution methods. We do not have any specialized equipment for observing microbes in dilution, nor do I have stains for the various microbes to show up on a microscope slide. Any websites or suggestions you can give a generalist 6th-12th grade science teacher would be very much appreciated. Thank you!
1253: Will stronger acids remove rust faster than weaker acids?
1254: Hello. I am doing a research project on bioluminescent organisms and have a question. I was wondering if there is a connection between luciferase in bioluminescent organisms and chlorophyll in plants. If so please tell their relationship. Thank You.
1255: Why do crystals grow in water?
1256: Leaves of plants like cabbage are purple in color, then how are they able to carry out photosynthesis?
1257: Water is made of 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom. Hydrogen peroxide is made of 2 hydrogen atoms and 2 oxygen atoms. As water and hydrogen peroxide are made of the same types of atoms, can they be considered similar substances?
1258: Is it correct that if a substance does not hold one of its electrons tightly, then it will conduct electricity because flowing electrons create electrical current?
1259: If two balloons contain the same volume of air from our lungs, and one balloon is heated and the other is cooled, will one rise and the other drop? Why?
1260: How does a moon rock look like?
1261: I am doing a science experiment on magnets and magnetism. I was wondering: What affects magnetism? I was also wondering: What is attracted to magnets? My final question is: What makes objects attract to magnets?
1262: In alpha decay, an atom spits out two protons and two neutrons. However, if it does not lose two electrons as well, then it is no longer an atom, it is an ion. How does this work? In beta decay, an atom spits out an electron and an anti- neutrino from one of the neutrons in the nucleus, while retaining the proton from it, but if this is true, and the atom does not somehow gain two electrons, then there are two protons more than electrons and it is no longer an atom. How does this work? Also, when I was reading the answers to the other questions about the types of decay and how they work, I noticed that there was some mention of an electron cloud. What is it, and how is it scientifically valid to assume that it is really there?
1263: What are sugar crystals made of?
1264: Why does rubbing alcohol evaporate quicker than water?
1265: How can balanced equations be used to calculate the volume of gases formed in chemical reactions?
1266: What is an acid?
1267: How do ATP and ADP work in a cell?
1268: What is sand made of?
1269: What happens when you put too much of the baking soda in food/bakery?
1270: How much vinegar does it take to react with baking soda?
1271: Is electricity and clouds a form of matter and why?
1272: Is there some other planet with an atmosphere that we can breathe?
1273: What are the physical and chemical reactions of gold?
1274: We are in 1st grade. We are doing an experiment. We are growing rye grass and alfalfa in the dark without any sunlight. Our classroom has no idea how it is growing. It is growing faster than the grass in the window. The grass getting sunlight is a darker green, and the one in the dark is a very light green, but it is taller. How come it is growing without sunlight? We are going to keep watering it and keep it in the dark to see what happens. Will it keep growing? Please write back or come visit us in room 8. We have lots of other stuff growing too, like a sweet potato. Thank you! P.S. Daphne helped type.
1275: Hello, I attend 7th grade at Eisenhower Middle School in Albuquerque, New Mexico. I am doing a project in which I have to use bio mimicry (mimicking nature to solve human problems) to solve a food system problem. My group and I would like to solve the problem we have that so much water is in the world, yet very little of it is fresh. We know that there have already been desalination plants invented, but they aren't very efficient. We were thinking about making a desalination plant that is based off the salt glands that can be found in many sea birds. This may be a more efficient way of taking the salt out of water. We have been doing much research over the course of the past week, but many of the articles and videos that we are trying to read are too difficult for us to understand. I was wondering if you could put in simple language the processes used by the birds to desalinate their water. Thank You!
1276: What is vitamin B12 and why is it so important?
1277: How is oxygen released in the air?
1278: How do flowers get their colors?
1279: What are Chemicals made out of and how are they made?
1280: What made Earth's atmosphere? Can it make more atmospheres?
1281: Does temperature change the PH of orange juice over time?
1282: Approximately what percentage of the things around us are made from polymers?
1283: Do antiseptics contain triclosan or triclocarbon? And do they cause resistant-bacteria? Do alcohol-based sanitizers contain these compounds? What are the mechanisms of action for both antiseptics and alcohol based sanitizers as well as antibacterial agents?
1284: I am trying to separate aqueous copper and cobalt ions. I have been told that in a certain oxidation state one of them will be able to precipitate in a certain acid. I am wondering if you have any possible approaches.
1285: An element's properties are defined by the number of protons that it has, which also has the same number of electrons. Therefore, since if an atom loses/gains neutrons it becomes an isotope, which doesn't change its properties. Therefore, my questions are: Does the proton have particles within it, sort of like DNA, that define the properties of an element? Do these particles, if they exist, have a relationship with the electron?
1286: What tests can distinguish an acid from a base ?
1287: Why do plants give off so much carbon dioxide?
1288: Why does neon glow?
1289: What is the difference between "solution" and "suspension"?
1290: Why salt will make water freeze slower than the normal water?
1291: How do plants obtain oxygen for respiration during the night?
1292: I am a 9th grader in Souderton school District in PA. I stumbled upon your website while searching for BPA testing. I am interested in testing BPA content in receipts from several stores around my area for my 9th grade science project. I am also interested in finding out whether BPA leaches more after using hand sanitizers. I am having a hard time figuring out how to test for BPA . Is there a way I can test for BPA without using blood/urine samples ? Is it possible to test for BPA content directly on the thermal papers? Your help is deeply appreciated in this matter.
1293: To prove that light is essential for photosynthesis we use black paper, how could we get correct results? When black paper absorbs more heat, does this fact hinder our result?
1294: How does aquatic, salt water plants like seaweed get the fresh water they need from their environment? It was just hard to wrap my mind around it since salt water aquatic plants somehow manage to stay alive without a source of fresh water. As well as this, I have also been wondering how a salt water fish filters salt water in order for it to be fresh? Thanks!
1295: Given that many modern day containers, utensils, cookwear, clothing,...are coated or composed of types of plastic which are publically recognized as having the ability to transfer\'estrogeni\' chemicals to whatever they come in contact with, is it possible that these 'estrogenic' compounds may be a contributor to decreases in fertility, neurological conditions and obesity in the population as a whole? Could this also be a contributor to a decreased sex-drive in women, given that testosterone is the 'sex-drive hormone'? Thank you for your time.
1296: Since all living organisms produce some kind of waste, wouldn't cancer cells produce a detectable amount of waste? Wouldn't that be an easy way to test for cancer?
1297: If I heat 10ml of water in a soda can on a Bunsen burner until steaming and then I invert the can into ice water, is there any chemical reaction taking place in order to implode?
1298: What makes carbon atoms essential to life?
1299: I am in Grade 9 in Tasmania. I was just wondering if you could tell me how to distinguish water from Acid without tasting it as we are doing chemical reactions in my science class. On Thursday, we have a double science class and one of our requirements is for us to test to see which of the beakers contains water and to prove we need to test it without tasting, and touching it. If you could help me that would be great.
1300: Is chlorine important? Why?
1301: How does soil affect the pH of water?
1302: What triggers the cry of a baby when she/he is born, just after leaving the mother’s womb?
1303: Hi, I'm helping my young neighbor to determine what his "small fist" item is. It looks like a dark rock with a crusting on it - very hard, can't be broken open with a sledge hammer. Machine shop grinding of one edge took an extremely long time, again, very hard. very dense and heavy, very heavy, perhaps heavier than lead. Please give us some advice. What can this material be?
1304: Does an atom live forever?
1305: How can you determine the correct ratio of baking soda and vinegar?
1306: I have an element research project for Chemistry, and my chosen element is Oxygen. Which are the most important characteristics of Oxygen, according to your experience?
1307: How does hydrogen and oxygen turn to water?
1308: Why do chlorophyll makes plants look green if light is not green?
1309: Why does baking soda react to vinegar?
1310: Since stomach has pH of 1, and the intestine has pH of 7, how do stomach and intestine deal with the pH difference?
1311: I have to do the science fair research and bibliography for the 4th grade. My question is: Does the flavor of ice cream affect how fast it melts? Thank you for your help.
1312: How do people determine how old fossils are?
1313: What makes apples brown?
1314: What is conduction?
1315: How is that Rutherford led to discover the nucleus?
1316: How is opal formed?
1317: I'm doing a science fair project on which plastic container leaches more Bisphenol A into the food when heated and I was wondering if there was anyway for me to measure the amount of BPA in the food after it is heated. Thank you for any answers you may have.
1318: I am doing a school project for Science. It's a mineral report and my mineral is calcite. I've been looking on the Internet and I can't find how calcite was formed. My teacher said if I can't find something, I should ask UCSB. My report is due in Tuesday morning so if you can respond tomorrow I can have it done on time. Thanks.
1319: Why is water called a heat reservoir?
1320: How is thermal energy used?
1321: Does the carbon cycle function the same during the night as it does during the day?
1322: What is a measure of energy?
1323: What are the most interesting facts about tungsten? What color is tungsten? Is tungsten at the top ten of the heaviest element? What is the atomic weight of tungsten? What is tungsten's density? Is it harmful? If you can answer at least some of my questions, I will be thankful. If you cannot reach me, sorry, I am a 5th grader who doesn't like to cause a lot of trouble. If you answer only one question, thank you. My project is a really important grade to me, so I need the correct answer. Thank you and have a blessed day. :)
1324: If I use a balance pan what physical property of the object am I measuring?
1325: Evidently when water turns from a liquid to a gas its volume increases 1600 times. This is was causes steam engines to work. If a person has a container where all of the moisture is taken out of it, and then water is injected into the container, when it evaporates, does the water expand 1600 times? If the container were under pressure, would the water remain liquid?
1326: We are under the impression that certain type of food is digested by a base (alkaline). Protein needs an acid to digest. The question is, does ALL food get an acid bath or does the body only dump acid when it's needed?
1327: What is Obsidian?
1328: Why is water clear in a bottle and on Google I asked what is the color of water and it said blue. My question is why is water clear in a cup?
1329: What is the difference between producer, consumer, and decomposer?
1330: I'm trying to find chemical reactions that I can compare to that of vinegar and baking soda. I want to see if I can create a better reaction. Can you provide me with any suggestions to try?
1331: If photo plankton dries out does it still produce oxygen?
1332: Of the four main elements that make up life on earth, are they present on other planets?
1333: We had a can of mandarin oranges that was swollen and leaked brown liquid on to the pantry wall. My mom is using a bleach solution to clean the pantry shelf/wall what else should we do to make sure we don't get sick? Is there any way we can know what kind of bacteria it was for sure?
1334: What accounts for the difference in density between the oceanic and continental crust?
1335: Which material absorbs the most water?
1336: What are the benefits of orange juice?
1337: Why do mitochondria have its own DNA in a simplified version?
1338: How can you cause fission to common molecular structures or is it only possible with plutonium?
1339: If you were to cut up a piece of fruit, which has cells in it, would you be cutting apart molecules then too? How about atoms? And if you cut apart the atoms that make up the organelles of a cell, why don't we hear as big of an explosion as we do when we are splitting atoms up in bombs?
1340: How much salt is needed in the ocean to make brine shrimp grow?
1341: What would the world be like without chlorine?
1342: How is antimatter made?
1343: Why do people die? And why can't we live forever?
1344: What are the important facts about plastics?
1345: Who discovered baking soda and vinegar chemical reaction?
1346: In which type of rock are fossils most likely found?
1347: How does oxygen get in the air?
1348: What is Heat Transfer ?
1349: How does ADP get its phosphate back to become ATP?
1350: Do you need goggles for the baking soda and vinegar experiment?
1351: What is water made out of?
1352: If I was kicking a soccer ball on another planet in our solar system, besides gravity what other factors would impact its flight path? For example, is the drag the same? (Assuming the ball pressure remains constant. ) Where would I find estimates of planetary differences in drag? Thank you for your consideration of my question. Regards.
1353: What happens when you freeze fruit?
1354: Can petrified fossils form when the minerals in water make a copy of the organism?
1355: Have been elements made / discovered since 2000? How many and which are they ? Why do they have substituting names in case they don't exist?
1356: Why do plants need carbon dioxide?

Does hydrogen peroxide have cellular damage to Citrobacter bacteria?

I am a Water Treatment Operator and have thought about using Hydrogen Peroxide as a form of disinfection hoping that the creation of hydroxyl radicals will be what eliminates the bacteria problem I have in a water well. However, I was reading that these types of facultative bacteria also have an enzyme called "catalase" that catalyzes the reaction of hydrogen peroxide to O2 and water.

Will the catalase eventually cease its reactions and allow for the Hydrogen Peroxide to begin its cellular damage to the bacteria?

1358: Why do we need Vitamin D?
1359: How do I show that the reaction of baking soda and vinegar is the sum of its parts? This explanation needs to be easy enough for 5th graders to understand, please.
1360: Do insecticides stunt plant growth?
1361: How does the scarcity and over abundance of WATER influence or affect PHOTOSYNTHESIS?
1362: What is the term that describes a focal point for formation of crystals? For example, the stick or string used to make rock candy, or the pine needles lying on top of my pond.
1363: My project is "The Effects of Cold Preservation on the Vitamin C Levels Present in Bell Peppers". I understand how vitamin C oxidizes and I found that freezing bell peppers degrades the vitamin C in them. I don't understand how freezing effects the oxidation process. Can you help me understand? Thank you
1364: What is in a Bounce sheet that we put in the dryer to reduce the static electricity?
1365: Why do we get heat from lights?
1366: What is a protein?
1367: Why is people's poop brown?
1368: What chemicals do explode?
1369: What is a mineral? What are minerals made up of?
1370: It is often said that we get our energy from food by breaking down the bonds in glucose molecules. How is energy 'stored' in these bonds? And what is the role of ATP in carrying energy? What, on the molecular level makes ATP so special to be called the 'energy currency'? Thank you!
1371: How can we help people from staying away from deadly chemicals?
1372: Why sugar crystals grow in cubic form?
1373: How did Ernest Rutherford discover the proton? What was his experiment?
1374: How would you get air in space?
1375: Why dose baking soda and coke react at the time?
1376: What are all the bad gases to breath and which ones can kill you?
1377: I'm a teacher and I've discussed this question with my department and we haven't come to a consensus. Is it possible for a sedimentary rock to become an igneous without becoming metamorphic first? Since melting is not instantaneous, would it technically become metamorphic before igneous, even if melting happens rapidly?
1378: How close or, far out is science in creating a plan to help advance the repairing of the ozone layer?
1379: Does the number of chromosomes determine the complexity of the organism?
1380: A few years ago, I witnessed a demonstration where a Flask was continuously filled from an Oxygen Bottle (Welding System) at a low flow After it was filled with the Gas a steel spatula was lower down the neck of the flask. This spatula was half filled with what I believe where carbon or graphite granules. The spatula was tapped on the inside wall of the flask and small amounts of carbon would fall to the base of the flask When tapping the side of the glass and when falling to the base of the flask, they flashed and burnt. You could continue to do this until the spatula was empty. I have tried to replicate this but to no avail. Do you know the SECRET or am I missing something Maybe the carbon had an additive? Can you give an explanation so that I can replicate this test? I need it to show our artisans the hazards of working with Oxygen (Concentrated). Hope you can help. Regards
1381: About how many times does DNA have to fold up to fit in a cell?
1382: How does DNA fingerprinting work? How do they do it? Thanks!
1383: What is DNA fingerprinting?
1384: How does DNA fingerprinting work?
1385: Hello! I'm doing a project on DNA fingerprinting for the last project of the trimester. When you studied about DNA fingerprinting, what was your favorite part? Or do you have any other interesting information? :) Thanks :)
1386: Can plants grow without soil?
1387: Why can light pass through glass?
1388: If autotrophs can make their own food, why do they have any nutritional requirements?
1389: How dose a magnet work?
1390: I am trying to find a way to collect rainwater and preserve it's pH so that it can be titrated to find the Molar concentration and then the pH. (No cheating with a pH probe :)!) I have searched and not found a direct answer to be sure that the collect rainwater does not change pH levels. I have no specialized equipment... Any suggestions? Thanks for any help you can offer!
1391: What natural elements float with buoyancy?
1392: How does the study of Geology help scientists understand the function of the earth's composition?
1393: Where and why do plants grow better, in the darkness or in the light?
1394: How does the quantity of sugar affect the time for sugar crystals to form?
1395: If I mix 1 part pure gold with 1,000 parts water will the water turn blood red?
1396: I recently read here that high performance military jets use kerosene for fuel due to it's higher energy density. If these planes can use kerosene, why do 'normal' jet engines use high octane jet fuel? Am I missing something? Thanks!
1397: If I was doing an experiment on crystallization, and I wanted to add an acid to cause the sucrose to break apart, the crystallization wouldn't occur, right? Because it causes there to be different molecules in the solution and they won't bond together, therefore, there would not be any crystallization. I am doing an experiment for class and want to know, if I added an acid, for example lemon juice, what would happen? Would it be a good experiment? Thank you for even taking the time to read my question. Have a great day!
1398: My teacher put carbon dioxide in one balloon and air in another balloon. When he dropped the two balloons from the ceiling, the carbon dioxide balloon always landed first. I thought they should land at the same time. Why is that?
1399: Does oxygen burn?
1400: Dear science line, I am doing the P.Y.P exhibition and my group is working on nuclear power and control. We were wondering why do we have nuclear power and weapons? Sincerely, Aiden.
1401: What is in saltwater to make it take a long time to freeze?
1402: What causes grass when cut to have an odor? What is the ingredient that causes the odor. I am really not allergic to the grass but the odor. Also, does chlorophyll have an odor? Your answer will be of great help to me. Thank you.
1403: What is likely to happen to a water molecule entering the granum in the process photosynthesis?
1404: Can we invent a machine which could launched in that part of the sky where pollution is intense and by that machine we can use pollution as a source of energy to generate electricity?
1405: Does photosynthesis really has to involve water?
1406: What is the different between alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and their cycles?
1407: Can we use nuclear energy in our homes?
1408: I have set an experiment to investigate respiration in germinating seed. The experiment is set as follows: a capillary tube which has the indicator fluid is inserted into a test tube containing soda lime and a germinating seed. What will happen to the indicator fluid in the capillary tube after one hour?
1409: What would life be without oxygen and what do we need oxygen for?
1410: What liquids do electrolytes pass through?
1411: Why is the sun growing?
1412: Suppose that scientists found parts of the DNA from a dinosaur, what information would this discovery provide to the scientists? What information would it not give them?
1413: What is mitochondria?
1414: What is sperm?
1415: How does oxygen help fire to stay burning?
1416: What are ways for our eyes to see better with?
1417: Does the color of the light bulb affect the temperature around it?
1418: What is an acid?
1419: How does thermal conductivity varies in different types of metals: copper, aluminum, steel wires?
1420: I am teaching an upper-level environmental science course, the lecture is on photosynthesis, respiration, and global climate change. A student in the class, in looking at the chemical equations for both processes, is trying to reason things through about the impact that increased levels of CO2 might have on the levels of oxygen in the atmosphere. The student can make an argument that the oxygen levels will decrease, but can also provide a counter argument that it will increase. The student is thoroughly confused and really frustrated. How do you help your student with this?
1421: Suppose a tank of carbon gas in a hospital has a leak. Will the gas be found near the floor or near the ceiling? Why?
1422: When baking soda reacts with vinegar they produce carbon dioxide. How can you identify that gas?
1423: Does everything in the world need the sun to survive?
1424: Why does sand react to lighting?
1425: Will an iPhone charge with a watermelon?
1426: What is the function of the folds within the mitochondria?
1427: What is the vitamin required in order for our bodies to have a good eyesight?
1428: After the Big Bang, they say the Universe expanded (inflation) and cooled. Isn't heat the energy that makes molecules move faster? How can a universe "cool" if it's not made up of atoms? Can energy "cool"? As the universe cooled, did energy convert into more Hydrogen gas or did all the Hydrogen in the Universe get created from the start? When the energy of the Big Bang "cooled", did it coalesce into matter?
1429: What plants need the most in order to survive?
1430: How and why does conductive ink conduct? Is it possible that some day this conductive ink will replace copper, gold or silver on board circuits?
1431: Why does light affect the rate of photosynthesis?
1432: Why are dogs used to detect drugs or illegal substances at airports?
1433: I am doing a research project that has to do with finding how efficient certain substances are at lowering the freezing point of water (freezing point depression) compared to other substances. So far, my research has showed that I can use the formula "ΔTF = KF · b · I" for ideal solutions. If the solution isn't ideal, then the ΔTF is altered from the standard calculation. What solutes can I mix with water that would result in an ideal or near-ideal solution?
1434: I am doing a science fair project on "Which waterproof mascara is most water proof?" What is a polymers? What does it mean hydrophobic? What is the chemical that makes the mascara water proof? I am having some trouble. Can you help me?
1435: Why do all living things die?
1436: Why do animals that live in salt water only survive in salt water and not in fresh water?
1437: Why does nitrogen freeze everything that it touches?
1438: How do pictures go from a camera to a piece of picture paper?
1439: Why do tortoises live so long ?
1440: Why is glass so brittle?
1441: Why is the ocean so salty?
1442: What happens when you mix sodium and bleach?
1443: Can you tell me how water is bonded together and the unique properties that result from those bonds?
1444: Why can't women produce sperm?
1445: Why do things give us the creeps?
1446: Can matter be created or destroyed when a chemical change occurs?
1447: Why are semi metals (conductors) used in making photo electric cells ,transistors and microchips in computers?
1448: Can photosynthesis and respiration create a cycle of energy? Why?
1449: Does the sun help plants grow? IF it does, then how?
1450: How does printer ink dry so fast? What is it's chemical makeup and what part of it causes it to dry so quickly?
1451: Where are the location and electron carriers and terminal electron acceptors within Photosystem II (P680)?
1452: Does temperature impact a balloon?
1453: Can you give me examples for chemical and physical properties and changes?
1454: I wonder if vinegar and baking soda will blow up a balloon without exploding, and turning into a chemical reaction?
1455: Radiation from space hits Earth every day. The radiation particles are moving faster than light and colliding with Earth. How can you slow down these particles? And one last question can chemical energy from chlorophyll in plants be converted into electrical energy? Please answer my question it will be really helpful to get a good response.
1456: What homemade remedy do you believe will work best to cease apples from browning when cut? How do you suggest I test multiple substances to prove if there is a certain one that reduces apple browning more?
1457: What is the reaction when adding HCl to sodium bicarbonate? Then adding in sodium hydroxide creates a precipitation.
1458: How does temperature affect the growth of sugar crystals?
1459: How do brain diseases happen? Diseases like Bipolar Disorder and Major Depression. How do some people get it while others don't? Does it happen with a family line or just random?
1460: Why doesn't dry ice melt?
1461: Can you explain to me how a thermometer works in terms of molecules and conduction?
1462: What is density?
1463: When a LED bulb is touching lemon juice will the bulb glow?
1464: Where does sunlight fade paper first, in books or in magazines?
1465: In which way do air conditioners contribute to harm our environment and to global warming?
1466: Will helium gas, CO2, or nitrogen affect the size of a marshmallow, and how?
1467: What makes lava hot?
1468: What chemicals or materials are in lip gloss?
1469: How does chemosynthesis help organisms?
1470: How and why does nail polish and vegetable oil form slime?
1471: What would be the devastation of the most powerful nuclear bomb dropped on New York City, within 2 miles, within 6 miles, within 10 miles, within 30 miles?
1472: I have enjoyed reading and learning from your UCSB science line web site. I work with Jean-Michel Cousteau’s Ocean Futures Society (OFS) located in Santa Barbara. I teach tropical biology programs through OFS and the subject came up with a student a while back about the advantage of uric acid excretion in birds. Here is the question: since bird embryos must live with their waste in the egg, isn’t a big evolutionary advantage of excreting uric acid a reduction in self pollution of nitrogenous waste in the egg. Since water is limited and there is no way to get rid of ammonia or urea, uric acid is logically the best and only safe way to deal with such waste in the egg.

I’ve looked on line and in some text books and not been able to find an answer to this question. Your help would be greatly appreciated.


1473: Why is pollution bad? And what will happen if we continue life as we already do with the same pollution rates as we do today?
1474: Why does the solution of vinegar and baking soda turn cold?
1475: Why does baking soda stay at the bottom when we were doing the experiment by putting baking soda with vinegar?
1476: What causes reactions in baking soda?
1477: I'm doing a speech on pesticides and how their a major factor in killing off bees. 1)Do the pros outweigh the cons of pesticides? 2)Is there anyway to make pesticides poisonous to a specific bug so it doesn't kill off other insects? 3)Are the bugs the pesticides being used for that disastrously bad on farms? Thank you.
1478: What are some ways that you can prevent conduction from happening? What are some materials that can help insulate things?
1479: When do people use nuclear energy?
1480: My mom had blood drawn from her arm at the doctor's, and it looked black. What does it mean black blood? Thank you for the answer.
1481: How can energy be stored?
1482: How does electricity flow from a Lemon to a Light Bulb?
1483: How do colors absorb light?
1484: Just asking a quick question for my science fair project. I was wondering what the other ingredients in disinfectant sprays do. Ex.(dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride, water, propane, isobutane, sodium nitrate, sodium benzoate, and soyethyl morpholinium ethosulfate. If you could just send a rundown of each of the ingredients, that would be amazing. Thank you. Sincerely,
1485: If marshmallows are exposed to air for a period of time, is it the air that draws out the water molecules in the marshmallow that makes them go stale? What is the chemical reaction to make a marshmallow stale?
1486: Why do sunlight give off oxygen?
1487: Is the colored light the result of an electron moving to or from the ground state?
1488: What ingredients react to baking soda?
1489: How should the rate of photosynthesis change if the amount of light reaching a leaf decrease?
1490: Do plants emit different levels of carbon dioxide at different stages of germination?
1491: Why do people have to take shots and medicine for diabetes?
1492: This is Nick, a freshman at Tellico Plains High School, we are doing a science fair and I am doing a Baking Soda Bomb. Do you have any advice for me?
1493: Why are minerals important?
1494: When oxygen and hydrogen are gases, and they they combine, why do they create liquids, at room temperature?
1495: Is it possible that Earth originally developed prokaryotes as a form of collecting ingredients from its surface and atmosphere in order to re-utilize them for preservation?

I wonder this because how else could inanimate material come alive, and I once read that the Earth is alive itself, leading me to believe that Earth could have been the first producer. I still wonder how the Earth would have come alive itself, but I theorize the electrical forces of atoms and specific molecules pulling or pushing themselves together or apart, as well as the natural movement of heated atoms, along with the already present forces of Earth's spin and movement produced by the big bang could have caused the inanimate Earth to begin "come alive." The original moving up of iron (or whatever element was attracted to another) from inside Earth could have led to a chain of reactions that led to more chains of reactions, and so forth, so that a never-ending push and pull were then created via the original electrical attractions. I realize this is a complex idea and a far-fetched question, but I found your website and thought I'd ask. Thanks either way!

1496: Why can't something live without some type of genetic material?
1497: What happens to the old chlorophyll when the leaves fall?
1498: Why do plants need nutrients?
1499: I teach preschool and we have always done the baking soda vinegar explosion because kids love it and I am wondering if is there anything you can add to stop the reaction. I thought that this could be an exciting addition to the experiment. Thanks, Megan
1500: Why Carnot engines can never exist?
1501: How to things that are so small and so limited in variety, such as quarks, protons, electrons, neutrons, and nucleotides, make up things that are so complicated and completely different, like elements and DNA?
1502: If you could find a substance that repels oxygen and nitrogen to a certain degree, could you make that substance able to float? If you could stick it to stuff, could we have floating cars, amusement parks, and everything else you could imagine?
1503: I am a 7th grade student at New Braunfels Middle School in New Braunfels, Texas. My partner and I are doing an English Language Arts project on the environment. We are required to contact an outside expert on a topic of our choosing. We have chosen Ozone Layer Depletion as our topic. We have come up with the following questions in need for your help:
1) Why is there a hole in the ozone layer over the coldest continent?
2) If we didn't have the ozone to protect us, how would our population suffer?
3) What are the best remedies to stop ozone layer depletion?

1504: My name is Charlotte and I am a biology student in 8th grade. We are doing an Independent Research Project, and my topic question is "What Enzyme causes gelatin to lose its setting properties and how, and what fruits contain this Enzyme in addition to pineapples?" I was wondering if you could provide me with more information on how you found out that the certain Enzyme that causes gelatin to stop working and how it does so. Thank you so much,
1505: Does the pitcher plant give of oxygen?
1506: How does bleaching powder works?
1507: If we would be able to cool Venus down and make it habitable, how would we benefit from it?
1508: How do hibernating animals like bears know when it is time to wake up?
1509: Why does the pool need chlorine and why does chlorine change the water color to blue?
1510: How do leaves use carbon dioxide and give off oxygen? (Not plants, but leaves).
1511: Hello! I am doing a school project on trees. I saw your article on the question "How come plants produce oxygen even though they need oxygen for respiration?" I have a similar question. I am wondering if there is a way to make trees produce more oxygen. I know that they produce oxygen during their photosynthesis by using carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight but I wonder if there is any way to make them produce more by giving them large amounts of those things. Thank you for your consideration of my question.
1512: What is a molecule of uranium made of?
1513: How do I prove that energy from the sun is now energy in animals' food?
1514: Normally our body burns calories to keep us warm. When we feel cold, does our body burn more calories than usual? Do we need to burn more calories during winter just to keep our bodies at our normal temperature? If a person gets an infection and the body temperature rises, do we need to burn more calories in order to increase the temperature?
1515: What things can change into three states of matter other than water?
1516: In plants Can O2 be produced without CO2 consumption?
1517: What would happen to the rate of photosynthesis if the amount of water and carbon dioxide decreased?
1518: Does light have any effect on how much a crystal grows?
1519: What are the differences between the structure and function of plant and animal cell organelles? In other words...What are all the organelles that plant cells have that animal cells do not and what are all the organelles that animal cells have that plant cells do not and what are the organelles that are in common and what are the functions of all these organelles in the cell? Thank you
1520: How do acids affect the rate of corrosion?
1521: When do cells duplicate their DNA?
1522: Where does salt come from?
1523: Why cant their be a cure for hemophilia?
1524: Why do liquids freeze?
1525: What material makes ice melt?
1526: What makes salt crystals form faster or slower?
1527: We would like to know: Are lactating animals considered producers?
1528: Why the symbols and the name of some of the elements are different?
1529: How much CO2 does a cow emit in its lifetime? Is there significant contribution through its waste?
1530: How does pH affect the formation of salt crystals in a solution?
1531: Why do some bases like sodium bicarbonate react with vinegar to produce carbon dioxide while other bases like ammonia barely produced any?
1532: Is there any proof against the theory of evolution?
1533: On genetic engineering and CRISPRS: If a gene is modified in an individual cell how does that translate to all the other billions of genes in an organism? Given that the changes you make in one cell will replicate in new cells, how many cells need to be modified to repair whatever you want fixed, and how long does it take?
1534: I have a quick question about the reaction of magnesium and heat. What type of reaction exactly is produced? I thought at first it would be a combustion reaction, however carbon dioxide is not one of the products.
1535: What color of crayon would melt the fastest in an oven set on 170 degrees or lower? Thank you so much.
1536: Why is silver soft? And how would a model display this? Thanks.
1537: How are genetically modified stem cells to the brain possible? Where have they been tried?
1538: Our AP Chem class has been given an equilibrium problem using the ICE method. We have worked out the answer, but compared to the supplied "correct answer" are coming up doubled...Can you help us understand where we have gone wrong? PROBLEM: Find the K for the reaction: 2 CO(g) + O2(g) <-> 2 CO2(g) if initially there are 5.0 moles of CO, 10.0 moles of O2, and 1.0 mole of CO2 in a 2.0 L container and at equilibrium CO2 has a concentration of 2.5 mol/L. When working the ICE, we determine that x = 1 which when plugged back into the Kc expression gives us (2.5)squared over [(.5)squared times 4]. This gives us a Kc value of 6.25 but our answer key tells us that the answer should be 3.125. We are wondering, isn't the K value independent of the number of liters, and thus our answer should not be divided by 2? Where are we going wrong? Thanks for your chemical knowledge and willingness to share!
1539: How are DNA, chromosomes, and genes related?
1540: How do chemicals explode?
1541: I am working on a research project with two other partners for a competition. Although my question won't be answered by then, I am still curious as to what more advanced researches will find out , if taken my question into consideration. Our project consist of the color black, Vantablack in particular. We'd like to know why the color black is so absorbent? What makes it more absorbent than any other color? what would be good substitutes for Vantablack? Could Vantablack be used to create energy similar to a solar panel given it absorbs 99.965% of light? I hope this questions gives interests to some great scientists out there and could be answered. Thank You!
1542: How does "chemically and electrically neutral" differ?
1543: How are molecules made?
1544: How do planets get their color?
1545: What is a pesticide?
1546: Why are elements neutral before they react?
1547: What physical objects or methods can help me make non-sterile soil, sterile?
1548: Hello I am looking for someone who could you help me I am trying to find out what is the lowest temperature silver will melt ice? And also if any other metal or plastic has a lower melting point than silver to melt ice; thank you.
1549: Which metal is not only dense and heavy like osmium, but is also most resilient? In other words, does osmium's density make it the metal with the strongest atom bonds, or will it crack if struck hard enough, like tungsten for instance?If weight, density, AND impact resilience are the criterion, what metal is strongest?
1550: Could you shrink a whole tank in to a 3 cm key chain but have the tank loose 123,999.5 pounds?
1551: How the discovery of gun powder came about?
1552: What evidence do you scientists give of the states of matter?
1553: We can not see molecules but how do we know that they are present?
1554: Is there any substance which can be found in three states of matter like water?
1555: What is the difference between gases blue and yellow?
1556: How does phosphorylation take place in animals?
1557: Since Ocean Acidification is becoming more of a severe problem, can us people take the CO2 from the H2O and make it more purified instead of leaving it as H2CO3?
1558: Why does steal rust?
1559: Is fire a living?
1560: How does seaweed give us air?
1561: My question to you is, can there ever be a man made substitute for water that give us the same benefits of water? I thought of this question because I once heard that if water did not have exactly what it has right now, we would not be able to rely on it and we would not be able to live. I wanted to know if that was true and if we could use an alternative for every single molecule that water has. In my opinion, it would be awesome if people that did not have access to fresh water could have another option to gain the nutrients and hydration that water provides
1562: What color does a black paper turn into as it heats?
1563: Will pouring water on fabric be safe? How will it affect the fabric? Will the fabric grow when I pour water on it?
1564: Because Ocean Acidification is becoming a world problem, is there any way of separating CO2 from H2O?
1565: Why/how do stars explode?
1566: How many atoms take up a square inch of the world?
1567: In regards to a material being flammable or combustible (i.e. if a higher than normal concentration of oxygen is present, something that is considered a combustible could now be considered flammable). What is the assumed normal oxygen concentration (expressed as a percentage) in the atmosphere?
1568: What gases are more responsible for the greenhouse effect?
1569: Do plants and animals need oxygen for cellular respiration?
1570: Are all non-living things abiotic? We are trying to figure out if abiotic factors are things that are only naturally occurring, or if they can be man-made? For example, if there is plastic (trash/pollution) in an ecosystem, is it considered an abiotic factor because it could have a impact on the living things?
1571: I am a grade six student at Sir William Osler elementary, in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. This school term I will be conducting a scientific experiment for my class science fair. The topic I have selected is regarding the productivity of solar panels under different so-called “filters” of light. Such filters are transparent plastic sheets colored red, yellow, and blue. In my current project, I will be testing the productivity of my solar cells under such circumstances. The experiment will be carried out in 10 to 15 trials in the next three weeks.

I am writing this letter of inquiry in hope that I may have the opportunity to ask you several questions pertaining to my project as I have found it is in your area of expertise.

Is it possible that different silicon compositions could make two-axes oriented arrays more efficient? Possibly any theoretical work yourself may have done?

1572: I am a grade six student at Sir William Osler elementary, in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. This school term I will be conducting a scientific experiment for my class science fair. The topic I have selected is regarding the productivity of solar panels under different so-called “filters” of light. Such filters are transparent plastic sheets colored red, yellow, and blue. In my current project, I will be testing the productivity of my solar cells under such circumstances. The experiment will be carried out in 10 to 15 trials in the next three weeks.

I am writing this letter of inquiry in hope that I may have the opportunity to ask you several questions pertaining to my project as I have found it is in your area of expertise.

Do you see any possible advances being made in the near future regarding different spectrums of light being most effective toward solar panel efficiency? Have you possibly made any advances in the topic yourself?


I am a grade six student at Sir William Osler elementary, in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. This school term I will be conducting a scientific experiment for my class science fair. The topic I have selected is regarding the productivity of solar panels under different so-called “filters” of light. Such filters are transparent plastic sheets colored red, yellow, and blue. In my current project, I will be testing the productivity of my solar cells under such circumstances. The experiment will be carried out in 10 to 15 trials in the next three weeks.

I am writing this letter of inquiry in hope that I may have the opportunity to ask you several questions pertaining to my project as I have found it is in your area of expertise.

It is public knowledge that numerous solar energy companies have been known to purchase power batteries from other energy companies such as hydro, wind, and even coal in periods where their arrays aren’t producing much. What is your stance on the topic? Do you see a solution to this crisis?

1574: Does salt dissolve quicker in room temperature than in cold water?
1575: Why do rocks have different colors?
1576: What is displacement?
1577: Is the only way to make an explosion with the ingredients Baking soda and Vinegar?
1578: Does sunlight provide a plant with energy?
1579: Why you cant put pineapples in jell-o?
1580: What is photo electron spectroscopy?
1581: Are there any such house plants which, if and when kept in my bedroom can release enough oxygen at night to make a difference in the quality of ambient air that I breath ? If there are, could you please tell me the names of such plants?
1582: How do antibiotics work in order to be selective of the right bacteria to be killed in our bodies?
1583: How many coins does it take to make a battery?
1584: Hello, we are learning about cell respiration and mitochondria and are wondering how scientists know enough about what is occurring within the mitochondria to make animations such as the one presented by Bioflix ( watch here ). We have learned about electron microscopes and have a basic understanding of how scientists see individual organelles, but we are skeptical as to how they actually know what the ATP synthase 'turbine' looks like. How on Earth do they know that H protons are what cause it to spin? We have tried Googling this but haven't come up with anything satisfying. Thank you!
1585: What are the pros and cons of using pesticides? Do the pros outweigh the cons? Are there safe and environmentally- friendly pesticides? Is it really better to only farm/ purchase organic food?
1586: I just read answers to some questions on your forum.
I am confused by your statement that ancient rocks were formed at a certain time by comparing lead to uranium ratios. How can this be if the uranium must have been formed in prior supernovae explosions that seeded the nebula from whence the solar system was formed? It seems we are ignoring the time between this previous supernova and the forming of said rock. Much thanks for any thoughts as this has been bugging me for quite some time.
1587: Hi,
We are currently studying atoms and the periodic table. A student asked a question today that I thought was quite perplexing. Since an atom is mostly empty space between its nucleus and electrons, what exactly is that "empty space?" From my amateur point of view it can't be a vacuum, can it? And, there can't be matter of any sort because we're on such a small scale (and atoms make up matter). Thanks for the help. Love the site. Confused by the empty, PJ Creek 8th grade science teacher.

1588: What is in oil that makes nail polish into slime?
1589: I am doing a science fair project for my honors class and I am boiling water in the sun with a plastic bowl, aluminum foil, a small rock, and a small cup. I am planning that the salt water in the plastic bowl and letting it evaporate, which would allow precipitation to fall into the cup. Would the water inside the cup be fresh, allowing me to drink it? Or not?
1590: Which ice cream flavor will melt the fastest and why?
1591: I have nightmares about every 3-4 weeks and whenever I wake up and think about it later I realize the thing in the dream that’s the focus is not very scary, but it is in the dream. I noticed right before I wake up I get some kind of jolt (the jump-scare). Is that adrenaline? What is giving you the jolt that makes that part of the dream so scary?
1592: What is the opposite of condensation?
1593: Hi. Why can only Fe, Co and Ni be magnetic? This question is common and on the web exist many answers about this question. Most of these answers pay attention to unpaired electrons of d shell. I agree to pay attention to unpaired electrons, but I believe there are other aspects that are as important as unpaired electrons. In other words, I think that unpaired electrons alone can't be enough reason for this question. First of all it's necessary to remember that the magnet is a ferromagnetism material. Other aspects: Cr and Mn have unpaired electrons more than Fe. So why can 't Cr and Mn be magnetic like Fe. We know Cr is anti-fero-magnetic. In addition we know Mo isn't anti-fero-magnetic like Cr. It is paramagnetic while both of them have a number of unpaired electrons. So in addition to unpaired electrons there are others factors such that they are effective in creating magnetism. What factors are effective in creating magnetic properties? And how?
1594: When was lithium made geologically speaking?
1595: Why is it not possible to use google translate for the lain words of elements of the periodic table?
1596: Since Ocean acidification is becoming a bigger problem, is there any way to take CO2 molecules from H20?
1597: Some rocks are harder than others. What makes them this way?
1598: Is water wet?
1599: How are chemicals made? Can you give me examples?
1600: What change occurred to the surface of the volcanoes in order for plants to able to plant root?
1601: How do you know about the water cycle?
1602: Do candles burn longer when they are in hot or cold air?
1603: What happens to oxygen at -183 degrees Celsius?
1604: Can two water molecules be used to make two oxygen and two hydrogen molecules?
1605: How is the value of an emerald determined?
1606: How do the Earth's continental and oceanic crust compare in density?
1607: I have several questions. 1.-How do infrared photons (e.g. from a heat lamp) make molecules move? 2.- How do photons make water molecules leave the liquid state (i.e. why does water boil?)
1608: Does atoms, neutrons, protons, nucleus have anything to do with the chemical reaction of vinegar and baking soda, and if so, why?
1609: What is the science behind the reaction of baking soda and vinegar?
1610: What is the nature of wool from the materials point of view? Wool can be itchy for some people, and synthetic materials are not, why is this?
1611: Hi, I’m a high school student and I’m doing a science project. My question is: How Different pH levels of water affects the growth of plants?
1612: Why doesn’t marine life die from ammonia poisoning from dead organisms?
1613: How do plants grow from sunlight?
1614: Given samples of gold, pyrite and chalcopyrite how would you distinguish them and what properties could you use to identity them?Thank you for any help you can send my way. I appreciate the work you do.
1615: What is the ozone layer made of?
1616: Would their be anyway for fire to be in space and put it inside a gas planet like Jupiter? And would the components Jupiter is made of explode if fire did catch the planet? What would be the result? Please answer my question. Thank You.
1617: What is a ionic compound and why is it called so?
1618: Hello, a student of mine brought up a great question. Why is grass under snow still green, but grass under a rock yellow? I was able to answer the part about the rock, but wasn't able to give a complete answer about the snow. Thanks!
1619: Suppose you have an Avogadro's number of nitrogen atoms. How many grams does this represent?
1620: Upon learning about chloroplasts producing glucose, then breaking it down in their own mitochondria: "I know plants don't have blood, but if you fed them a diet of sugary water, could you give them plant diabetes? What do they do if they have too much glucose?"
1621: Which are the different systems involved in maintaining homeostasis?
1622: Why do you think liquefied food stays in the intestines for such a long time?
1623: How long does it take for 100 mL of water to evaporate under a lamp? What is the evaporation speed for water?
1624: How do low pH levels end up killing bacteria?
1625: I am doing a science fair project and I am trying to see how will different types of soda affect how far a soda car will go. Can you help me find out what carbon dioxide does to soda? Your friend,
1626: Would you be so kind as to help my son and I with his school project in making bubbles and using mouthwash in them? We decided to use mouthwash because him and his friends always try to catch them with their mouths so we thought why not try mouthwash. He turned that into his teacher who thought it was a good idea for the project and now we are stuck with it. We thought it would be easy since mouthwash (so we thought) was soapy. We found out different. Can you please tell us how to add mouthwash to the bubbles so they are thicker maybe and they still makes them into bubbles? We saw on the TV show “Little Big Shot” with Steve Harvey, a kid had bubbles that he did all kinds of tricks with and the things he was doing it looked like the bubbles were thicker or something. Is it possible to make bubbles thicker so they do not break as fast and to have mouthwash in them? Professor, any help you can give us will be appreciated.
1627: If I were to take a harvest-able form of luciferin (algae or plankton), would it be possible to encapsulate the chemical and use it as a light source by introducing oxygen at my will?
1628: How are minerals made? Where can they be found?
1629: How are the rocks an minerals made?
1630: Can plants use CO2 released during respiration for photosynthesis?
1631: What is the relationship between nuclear energy and electrical energy?
1632: How does water molecules float up if the reason why they float up is because of heated molecules?
1633: Why is a person big and fat?
1634: What is the effect of salt on the temperature of water?
1635: How do the plants get the items needed to make food?
1636: Colors are explained to be what the object did not absorb (red backpack seen red because it absorbed green and blue and sent red reflecting ...red is in the air, blue and green in the item). Why can I change molecules around (add water i.e.) of the item that contains green and blue and still get the red dye color that supposedly did not exist in the backpack that are still in the air? Should not I get blue or green?
1637: My name is David and I live in North Florida. I could use some help with information to help me with a project I have going. I am trying to construct a VERY efficient solar oven. The oven will mostly be comprised of three metal boxes of different sizes, one inside another, inside another. I intend to put them together in such a way so that the heat from the outermost box will be reflected toward the next box and the heat from that box will be reflected again toward the inmost box. I think this will concentrate the heat. The boxes will not directly touch each other. I plan to paint each box flat black on the outside and put reflective aluminum foil on the surface of the inside of each box. The question I have is this; since the inside of the boxes will be in the dark when the oven door is closed, will the heat still be reflected in such a way as to concentrate it toward the center, or does this type of reflective action have anything to do with heat created by light only? Does a reflective surface reflect heat even when there is no light involved? I would greatly appreciate any advice from someone who knows about thermodynamics. Thank you so much. Sincerely, David in Florida.
1638: What in an easier way does it mean photosynthesis? And how does water help?
1639: What would happen if you heated a metal way past its melting point?
1640: How does the transfer of electrons in the Kastle-Meyer Blood Detection Test exactly work?
1641: How can you determine the age of sea glass?
1642: Why is the relative atomic mass of sodium 23amu?
1643: Which melts slowest: ice cream, ice milk, or sherbet?
1644: What does a plant do with the CO2 that is produced as a product of cellular respiration?
1645: The temperature of liquid nitrogen is 86K. What is this temperature in deg. C?
1646: If you receive a blood transfusion or an organ transplant does your body change due to the DNA in the blood and tissue? Will it ever be the same as before?
1647: Which are common ingredients best used for cleaning and why?
1648: If glucose was added to the jello, what effect would bromelain have on glucose?
1649: What is in nail polish remover that makes it remove nail polish? What is the chemical reaction between the two items?
1650: Why and how is broken glass and irregular object?
1651: We all know that atoms are spherical in shape. So, even if they are packed together there must be some space lying between them. So this space needs to be vacuum. And since vacuum contains dark energy, can we find all the things we need to know about vacuum by just looking between the atoms rather than going into the space?
1652: What ingredients are in bread? and what ingredients are in hand sanitizer?
1653: What does ribonucleic acid do, and how does it affect your body?
1654: What would be the chemical reaction which provides the food for most organisms on Earth?
1655: How does UV-C light kill bacteria?
1656: How does sugar give people pimples and zits?
1657: Why is everyone so different? How come some people allergic to stuff while others aren’t? Is it that some peoples DNA and molecules react to foods and/or any kind of product differently than other peoples' DNA?
1658: How does temperature affect the time the apple will take to be rotten?
1659: Is diamond an element, a compound or a mixture?
1660: Where does the Oxygen found in CO2 go during photosynthesis if the oxygen we breath in comes from H2O?
1661: How is sweetener manufactured?
1662: What are atoms made of?
1663: Can any element be in the plasma state?
1664: How can the change of one Proton, or Electron in a single atom, change the physical properties of it? How to these charges stay together, without floating away from the nucleus?
1665: Hello, I’m a fifth grader at IV Elementary and I was wondering what decomposition is all about. Is decomposition important for the ecosystem, and how/why does it work? I’ve heard that nitrogen has something to do with it, and I’m wondering why that’s important. Thank you!
1666: What happens when you let sugar dissolve in kool-aid?
1667: In what ways do atoms or molecules move?
1668: What would happen if a nucleus only consisted of protons ? Would it produce charge? Or will it split the nucleus or stored things (in which the protons are stored)?
1669: I don't understand: 1.) people claim that exposure to oxygen kills bacteria, fungi & viruses. Why is that if bacteria, fungi & viruses are living & all living organisms require oxygen?
1670: What happens when a hot molecule reaches a cold one?
1671: Why does temperature make energy?
1672: Plants produce carbon dioxide as a product of cellular respiration but they also release oxygen, how is this possible?
1673: How much thermal energy does the copper absorb?
1674: How long can a pizza last?
1675: Is fire alive or not?
1676: Which subatomic particle is the boss of the atom?
1677: What happens if we drink too much salt water?
1678: Como crecen los nenúfares? Como se alimentan los nenúfares? Que sitios hay sobre los cactos para los niños?
How do Water Lily grow up? How do they feed themselves? I am a first grader and I need to know where can I learn about cactus?

1679: Is the sulfur in SO4 in a charged state?
1680: Why does lemon juice prevent an apple from turning brown?
1681: I am trying to understand if plants and animals use the water that is released in the process of aerobic respiration? I am teaching a class and I want to better understand what happens to the “waste” water.
1682: How does a Canada Dry and apple battery work? (You basically just have a plate and pour Canada Dry on it and then put an apple on the plate, (I know part of it is electrolytes). Can you explain?
1683: How does the type of container affect ice cream melting time?
1684: During photosynthesis water molecules are stripped of hydrogen and oxygen forming molecular oxygen. My students want to know if a tiny atom like Hydrogen needs a special structure to move through thylakoid membrane, how does an oxygen molecule, a much larger structure, move through the thylakoid membrane?
1685: Will an ice cube melt faster in purified water, salty water or sugar water?
1686: How much sugar must you eat to have a sugar shock?
1687: Does light and dark affect growing crystals?
1688: Is odor a chemical property?
1689: Is water wet?
1690: What are the various Genetic Engineering techniques currently used in science?
1691: If you collect the steam from a pot of boiling water in a container then place the container in the fridge, what would you observe on opening the container two hours later? Why would this be so?
1692: Is baking soda and vinegar mixed together an endothermic or an exothermic reaction?
1693: Does the sun heat salt water and freshwater at the same rate?
1694: Why would borax gain weight from before adding the super glue and why would the baking soda lose weight after the super glue is added?
1695: What happens when a metal burns? Please explain in a simple manner so I can understand. Thank you! :]
1696: Why the 70 percent alcohol which kills microbes by dissolving lipid cell membranes and protein denaturation DOES NOT AFFECT HUMAN CELLS ?
1697: In a 12 hour daylight, 12 hour nighttime light cycle, what percent of the daily total carbon fixation actually occurs at night, in the dark? Is the NADPH and ATP produced in the light reactions rapidly used after dark up so the Calvin cycle basically grinds to a halt?
1698: How does an antacid react with an acid?
1699: Hello my son has a science fair projects and he is very interested about crystal, we want to make crystal form borax my question is:\ How does temperature affect the growth rate of crystals.I'll appreciate it if you can explain us how its work. Thank you!
1700: When lemon juice concentrate and vinegar are separately mixed with baking soda the reaction between lemon juice and baking soda is larger and lasts longer? Why is this?
1701: Does yeast combined with hydrogen peroxide create a bigger volcanic eruption than vinegar combined with baking soda? If so, why?
1702: How many joules are in fish?
1703: Which is more important to life on Earth, the chloroplast or the mitochondrion? I know we need photosynthesis for production of oxygen and energized electrons stored as glucose, but I also know that the first organisms were heterotrophs. Thank you.
1704: How do the particles of a liquid exert pressure on a container?
1705: Which frozen desert melts the slowest ice cream, frozen yogurt, or sorbet?
1706: What kind of salt is being used in the floating egg experiment? (Table/Iodized/Sea salt?)
1707: What do you think, would happen if all the atoms didn't need to gain or losing electrons, and were happy just the way they are in their neutral form?
1708: What happens to the iron that is removed from the heme during hemoglobin recycling?
1709: Where can you find gold?
1710: From answers here , How much of the chemical ingredients go into the lip gloss?
1711: Reaction quotient is defined using stoichiometry coefficients as exponents. Reaction rate equations use exponents (reaction orders) that are determined experimentally and are not necessarily the same as stoichiometry coefficients. At equilibrium, forward and reverse reaction rates are equal. Why is the reaction coefficient not defined like the reaction rate, i.e. using experimentally determined exponents instead of the stoichiometry coefficients?
1712: Why is slime always stretchy and sticky? What is a polymer? I saw that word in my slime research and want to know more.
1713: Why is it so hard to make cupcakes without eggs and milk?
1714: Why does salt water melt faster then fresh water?
1715: What animal has the weakest stomach acid?
1716: Let's say I have water which is A and B is a shirt. If neither A or B is wet then how does B get wet?
1717: Can the gas formed inside our bodies be absorbed or does it has to be released always?
1718: How many protons are there in the nucleus of a potassium atom?
1719: I think you are wrong about the densest metal/substance here. A while ago I read about a substance that had been developed and it weighed over 13 pounds per cubic inch. What is that substance?
1720: Can a solar panel on a barge in the Ocean create sufficient energy to convert filtered Sea water to the gas states of Oxygen and Hydrogen? If so, could the gases be transported via pipes to the desert and then converted back to water? California needs water and has an unlimited supply of Sea Water and sunlight. Is this feasible?
1721: I understand that the movement of sodium ions drives the transcellular transport of water. Why water follows sodium?
1722: What substances are termed by cholesterol?
1723: What is the opposite of condensation?
1724: How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in oxygen?
1725: If I mix sugar into some water, which is the solvent and which is the solute?
1726: What is the study of matter?
1727: What can live without sunlight?
1728: When water has been purified with ozone, are the resulting gases toxic? Is it safe to breath them?
1729: I had a discussion at a dinner party last evening and stated that hot water freezes faster than cold. My friends thought that was absolutely incorrect. Will it?
Also, I stated that molecules grow when heated, but have since changed my mind to say that the movement of molecules is affected by heat which means a hot molecule will move faster and affect its surroundings which takes up more space...indicating the heated molecule got larger. Theoretically, is the latter of the two statements above correct? Thanking you in advance.

1730: What is photosynthesis? And how is it done. What comes out of it and how is that made?
1731: How does nitrogen work?
1732: Hello! I am trying to wrap my head around about the difference between Gibbs free energy and enthalpy so that I can teach it correctly. This is the mental hurdle that I can't get over: If Gibbs Free energy is supposed to account for only free energy available for work, shouldn't the value for the delta G of something be greater (more positive) than that of enthalpy, thus indicating that it is less likely to happen? I understand that this isn't the case, so I just need help with learning how to think in the correct way. Thanks! Mr. G (a science teacher).
1733: What happens when you water plants with sugar?
1734: What is gold's molecular structure and how long does it take earth to make it?
1735: How does the shape of the foil affect density?
1736: Why do plants need sunlight?
1737: We will be doing the chicken bone in vinegar activity this next week. I would really like to make it more of an experiment than just a demonstration. Is there a way to definitively prove that calcium has come from the bone? Would a p-H test do so? Frustrating seeing all the write ups with so little true science proving that it was in fact calcium loss. Would love your thoughts.
1738: How many neutrons does Potassium have?
1739: You state that Gold, which is (Au) 196.97, #79 on the periodic table, is 1209 pounds per cubic foot. However, Lead is 207.2, #82 on the periodic table, is only 706 pounds per cubic foot. Why isn't Lead heavier per cubic foot than Gold since it's a heavier element?
1740: What would happen if you inhaled an atom of anti-oxygen? (Meaning the antimatter equivalent of an oxygen atom).
1741: If an element looses an electron, after loosing it, where does that electron goes?
1742: What are the differences between steam and water vapor, and what is the best term to use to describe the white cloud of water droplets above a boiling kettle?
1743: What are the differences between heat and temperature?
1744: How are very strong magnets made?
1745: Why is CO poisoning most likely to occur in homes that are well sealed during cold winter months?
1746: Can Wildfires be put out with liquid nitrogen? I read an article on your website that said that fires can be put out with liquid nitrogen but can forest fires or any larger fires also be put out with nitrogen?
1747: Are atoms always neutral?
1748: Is the earth core a solid or something other then that? Is the mantle the layer that crates magnetic fields?
1749: The first law of thermodynamics tells us that matter cannot be created or destroyed. It cannot come from nothing and it cannot disappear. Do nuclear reactions, which do satisfy the 1st law, have the same number of each type of atom entering and leaving the reactions?
1750: Rust is made up of what compound?
1751: For every pound of beef how much greenhouse gas is produced/released?
1752: Why is hydrogen explosive?
1753: Are there any elements that we have not discovered yet and aren’t on the periodic table of elements?
1754: How many number of coils of DNA stand in a single chromosome?
1755: How do you find the mole ratio in a stoichiometry problem?
1756: In school, we did a paper chromatography lab using different sharpie colors. I chose a pink sharpie color and while everyone else's pigments separated, my color just moved up and left a colorless space in between the line that was first drawn and where the solvent(Isopropyl alcohol) traveled. Why is this? Did I do something wrong?
1757: Which liquid does ice melt the fastest in?
1758: Do fish get thirsty?
1759: If all oxygen was removed would a plant be able to survive and why?
1760: Why turbine blades are typically made out of single crystals?
1761: How is nail polish made? What ingredients are used and what chemical reactions occur when making it? Chemically what is happening?
1762: How does salt dissolve?
1763: Is Indium a good conductor?
1764: Does the study of crystals include copper sulfate crystals? Are copper sulfate crystals salt crystals rather than protein crystals and therefore not as useful?
1765: Why does food change color when you leave it out for a certain amount of time?
1766: How does the chemical composition of a rock affect its density?
1767: Is it possible to attract oxygen molecules or to displace them effectively?
1768: Why does a candle burn?
1769: Do crystals grow faster in the dark or in the light?
1770: How does the amount of oxygen given off during photosynthesis compare to oxygen used during cellular respiration?
1771: How are atomic nucleus and a cell nucleus same?
1772: Is Kool-Aid a solid or liquid?
1773: Hi! My name is Ruby and I'm a student doing a science fair project about ice cream's melting point. My goal is to create an ice cream that has a higher melting point which will then melt less. I've been doing some research and it turns out that other people have also looked into this. I've found a lot of recipes for hot ice cream but I can't get in contact with their authors and so I was wondering if you could answer the questions I had for them. Does hot ice cream have a melting point higher than average ice cream? (Which, according to a study done by the University of California, is -3 ̊ C). Also I was wondering if you can make hot ice cream with an alternate recipe than the ones proposed? Here are the links to the two recipes that I found: here.
Thank you for your help,
1774: Could you explain about electron distribution, why electrons in the first filled shell have to move after to the next shell? Concerning the electron configuration “k” shell, I understand that it has s-sub orbitals. A “l” shell has s, p, sub orbitals, “m” shell has s,p,d sub orbitals. Br(35) 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 4p^5... Here after 3p^6 we move to 3d sub orbital (electron distribution rule) but we moved to 4s orbital, why? Could you explain clearly?
1775: I was searching for a question and found a related one posted in 2010! It is found: here. My question is why do only the cations affect the flame color? Also, which electrons get excited and jump to higher energy levels? Do all the electrons get affected in the configuration, or only the valence electrons? Thank you so much for your time. I have been using the flame test lab for several years now as an example of Bohr's model of the electrons. It is such a fun lab, but I am not sure about the depth of understanding students are able to take away from it.
1776: Through what process does hydrogen nuclei form a helium nucleus?
1777: What do the nucleus in atoms contain?
1778: How many moles would 6.022•1022 molecules of water represent?
1779: How do organisms process energy from the Sun? How do organisms process their food and water to help in producing optimal energy levels for their bodies and bodily functions to run at an optimal level? What is needed in the human body for it to run optimally? Which Vitamins and Minerals are involved?
1780: How many protons,electrons and neutrons are in hydrogen?
1781: What I was wondering was how does air have space?
1782: At what temperature does iron turn into a gas?
1783: Cory thinks that plants release carbon dioxide in the air, but Nellie thinks plants release oxygen. Who is correct? Why?
1784: What is carbonite?
1785: Why do apples turn brown after you cut them and leave them out for a while. Why does putting citrus on the slices make them not get brown?
1786: What temp does it take to melt a quart rock?
1787: What exactly happens when rocks hit each other and create a spark?
1788: Can you explain to me what a material's scientist does?
1789: What is the total charge or strength of all the protons in the nucleus of an atom?
1790: Why does it take so long to develop a vaccine?
1791: Does Photosynthesis directly or indirectly affect the needs of an animal?
1792: Which air molecules are denser, cold air molecules or warm air molecules?
1793: What is fire? Which state of matter is fire? Are fire and combustion the same?
1794: While conducting a bouncy egg experiment (for school) I noticed the egg bubbled as the shell dissolved. What is the chemistry behind this experiment?
1795: Can magnesium generate heat or energy in a useful enough way to assist it its own manufacturing? Or to aid in the manufacturing of something else made out of it, like a cast magnesium metal product? Can it be used to produce the lighting? Can it be used to generate electricity? Thanks very, very much. Best wishes.
1796: DNA polymerase found in E. Coli cells synthesizes DNA around 1000 base pairs per second. How long will it take one DNA polymerase to synthesize one strand of the E. Coli genome?
1797: How is that when we cut a fruit from a tree and it is not mature yet, the fruit can ripe by itself without the tree?
1798: Why does amber can be found in beaches? Where else can it be found?
1799: How is the gunpowder likely different before and after being set on fire?
1800: Are minerals from Earth elements or compounds? Why are they called minerals?
1801: Continuation of Are minerals from Earth elements or compounds? Why are they called minerals?
1802: Is it possible to return the gunpowder back to its original form (before it was set on fire)? How?
1803: I found useful information about plant sense from your blog as, How do plants sense a change in the environment? You have explained, "Plants can sense weather changes and temperatures" ( here ). Please explain how to identify the plant's sensing process and which kind of method and techniques are used to identify them?
1804: If the amount of water produced during cellular respiration is low, what does this mean?
1805: When plants make glucose, where does the hydrogen come from?
1806: When meet, chicken or fish are frozen, what happens at the molecular level? Is it the same for vegetables and bread? Do crystals form during the process?
1807: Some grocery bags in the supermarket are biodegradable. What is the material they are made of?
1808: Hi, I’m wondering if you could kindly help me with a problem I have for a project I’m working on. Is there a way to increase the reaction of vinegar and baking soda? I have found using half citric acid and half baking soda increases the carbon dioxide produced but surely there’s a way to have a stronger, more instant reaction? Would it help to use a stronger acid and a different powder? Any help would be really appreciated.
1809: What chemicals/ingredients are in a Chemtrail?
1810: What is an mRNA Covid-19 vaccine and how is it different from other vaccines?
1811: How good or bad is that the Covid19 virus is mutating?
1812: Hi - I am doing a science fair project and my hypothesis is that Hydroponic tomatoes retain more active Vitamin C than other types when cooked. I read this article and that helped, however I have a follow up question. Is there research on how much Vitamin C is in Hydroponic Vs regular tomatoes? My current tests show that it is - I am wondering if the hydroponic nutrient solutions are being modified to produce more nutritious tomatoes.
1813: How do scientists know how old rocks are?
1814: What happens in our brain when a person is depressed?
1815: What can people do to make our planet cleaner?
1816: Which are the recent useful materials that you scientists have discovered at UCSB?
1817: So I have an environmental investigation project and my investigation is the decomposition differences between organic and inorganic foods. I have done research but I still do not know what to do as the experiment. My hypothesis is basically that inorganic foods will have a greater life span. Could you help me?
1818: What is the chemical formula for hair dye?
1819: What are catalysts and inhibitors?
1820: I saw a TV show where a college student was taking spiders' silk and tested it and was making sponge out of them. Is it possible to do that? I got the idea that I can put it to use.
1821: What is the science behind electroplating? Can I do it at home and how?
1822: How do antiviral drugs work? How do they interact with the virus?
1823: Is it possible to use an inert gas in the tires of an amphibious airplane so that they become less buoyant?
1824: What is a similarity between oxygen and carbon dioxide?
1825: I am interested in baking bread with black tea, long fermentation and very little yeast. I wonder what would be the effect of using black tea on fermenting dough. Does black tea change the normal physical-chemical process?
1826: What are scientists doing in order to create biodegradable plastics?
1827: Is it possible to see the orbitals of any atom?
1828: Is it possible to start manufacturing all vaccines only mRNA vaccines instead of the traditional ones using virus?
1829: I was curious of what information can be drawn from DNA. Isn't it true individuals can damage your DNA by abuse or neglect? Is it true your DNA shows information regarding other people? How can you enhance your DNA to make it stronger? Is it possible to repair DNA? How is DNA drawn? Does DNA change throughout the years? Can you give me more information on what exactly can be shown through DNA testing? I know I have a lot of questions but I am interested in learning more. If possible please explain.
1830: I know that there are several vaccines for Covid19 so far, from different labs and countries. Are all of them mRNA or DNA vaccines? Are any of them using the attenuated virus like the conventional vaccines?
1831: How can scientists work with viruses if they are so small? Can you see them when you work with them? How can you work with DNA and put it inside the virus?
1832: Hi, I'm a student at Oakhill Christian School. I was wondering why the acid-base reaction between vinegar and baking soda even happens in the first place and how electronegativity affects that.
1833: What are polymers? Why are they called like that?
1834: How do volume and mass change the results of a baking soda and vinegar rocket? How does the ratio between the reactants affect the gas pressure? How do valence electrons work in this reaction? How do the double replacement of Na+ and H- work?
1835: If you put salt on ice or in water what will happen?
1836: How do plants make chlorophyll?
1837: Can lightning make this big piece of glass if harnessed with rods along a shore or even influence a piece this big. Or is it man made?

On your site there is discussion about the red paper used on fireworks. Here.

My question is about all those bits of paper and whether they have black powder residue. I live on a lake and a lot of people allow the paper bits to fall in the lake and I wonder if this could harm the water and the fish. I know it's pretty minuscule, but I'm curious.

1839: Why is HCl acid released from a gastric gland in the stomach? And why are not other acids like HNO3 also released?
1840: How does sodium carbonate (baking soda) react to oxidation or combining with oxygen?
1841: What elements can exist in 3 states?
1842: How much radiation do we receive from the soil on Earth? How harmful is it for our bodies?
1843: What are the fundamental reasons why DNA replication on the lagging strand cannot be polymerized in 3' to 5' direction?
1844: What is the meaning of the number (percentage) in sunscreen bottles? Does the number have something to do with the hours it protects the skin? Does a 50% protection means 50% protection of the UV rays reaching the skin, or does it mean 5 hours or protection during the day? Please explain. If we are using sunscreen almost everyday, we should know more about it. Thank you.
1845: Which dissolves better in water, salt or baking soda?
1846: Heat is a form of energy and Energy is conserved. In chemistry or even in power plants, we say heat generated/produced due to combustion. Similarly, we say electricity is produced. These lines are even written in good textbooks as well. Confusion: Then, why do we say heat generated?
1847: Thermal energy and heat are two different terms. (As we call, heat is a form of energy, and energy in transit; so, heat is a thermal energy that is moving due to temperature difference.) Confusion: Why we call *Heat Transfer* , as heat only comes into existence while there is transfer? Sometimes, we also say 'Total Heat Content' while defining enthalpy. Aren't these misleading?
1848: Which frozen dessert melts the slowest: ice cream, frozen yogurt, or sorbet?
1849: Do we need the sun?
1850: Question about Ocusoft Hypochlor and other dilute hypochlorous acid solutions used as lid scrubs. I understand how bleach works and how bacteria are killed by these products and how the product is converted to water eventually. What I don't understand is why this is non-irritating to the eyes? Wouldn't these products damage sensitive human cells and create irritation? What protects human conjunctive cells or corneal epithelial cells so this is so mild? Or is it just a matter of scale and if you had a more concentrated solution or more frequent application, it would be irritating? But if that is the case why wouldn't this be true for bacteria as well? You end up killing a small percentage of them but not the majority of them like this product seems to do?
1851: Is water wet?
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