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2611 questions in the Category: physics.

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1: What did James Chadwick do to "conclusively" confirm the existence of neutrons?
2: I have a question about the placement of the degree symbol. At the moment we learn how to calculate the specific heat. I was just wondering how our book writes C. Sometimes the little point is in front of the C, like this C and sometimes they write it after the C . Is there a difference between the two types of writing, or is it just because of the different type?
3: If time is a dimension, wouldn't there be more dimensions within time. For example: we, in a three dimensional universe, can walk forwards, backwards, side to side, and we can jump up and lie down. Theoretically, if time travel is possible, or if we could travel to "parallel dimensions" (if they exist), would that add more dimensions to time?
4: Why some insects can run across the surface of water?
5: Why are bubbles seen in the bulk of water when boiling?
6: What are quantum computers, how do they work?
7: Please tell me if there is an opposite to sublimation in the states of matter.
8: Can a gas be more dense than liquid anywhere in the universe?
9: What is the difference between one of those lasers they use to scan food at the supermarket and a laser that can burn through metal?
10: What is the difference between nuclear energy and electricity?
11: There was an experiment the replicated atmosphere of young earth. Electricity was used to simulate lighting. I have heard that the problem with this experiment is that the atmosphere they created in the experiment is not the same as what scientists believe young earth's atmosphere was really like. Is this true?
12: How big is the biggest and strongest magnet in the world?
13: How can an airplane go so fast while it's in the air?
14: What forces are inside the magnet that make them stick together or not at all?
15: What is the difference between a big magnet and a small magnet and how do you separate objects after they are stuck to a strong magnet?
16: Why are rainbows bent? Is it because the water reflects?
17: Why does Venus rotate west to east instead of east to west.
18: Why does lightning occur? Why does lightning have branches? Does lightning only form in storms? Does every strike of lightning hit the ground?
19: We did an activity where we layered warm, red- colored water on top and cold, blue-colored water to make a thermocline. After a while our two liquids began to mix due to kinetic energy of the warmer molecules. When a question on the lab asked how long it would take for the water to completely mix, I wondered if the moving surface currents in the ocean sped up the cooling evaporation process and cause the thermoclines in the ocean to mix faster as well. Does moving water evaporate faster than still water?
20: We have built a "hoot tube" or a Rijke Tube, which resonates at 70Hz (measured by microphone) due to convection currents. We want to know what is the forcing function of this system. Does the forcing function have to match the resonant frequency of the tube? If so, what is it that's oscillating 70 times per second?
21: Why is the sky blue? Why are different flowers of different colors?
22: I heard Mercury and water are the only substances to go through all 3 phases of matter. Is that true, and if not what are the other substances?
23: Why do wood, cork, and ice always float?
24: I'm doing a science project on ethylene gas, and I need to find a way to test for levels of ethylene gas. My question is if you could sugggest a place in town where I could to do this or even if I could do this at one of the labs at UCSB? Thank you for your time!!
25: Can you give more information on how you can set a one dollar bill on fire but it does not burn if you soak it first in a alcohol solution.
26: If a person in a machine traveling faster than the speed of sound cannot hear the noise of a sonic boom, what might a person "see" or not see if they could (hypothetically) pass the "light speed" barrier? What would we, on the ground, see?
27: I am confused about antimatter. We have learned that matter takes up space and has a mass. If each matter has an antimatter how can things exist?
28: What is oscillating reaction? One example is the Belousov-Zhabotinsky- reaction? How does it work?
29: Why is snow "white" but ice cubes are colorless? Both are frozen water?
30: Do molecules have color?
31: I would like to know if it may be possible for a life form to live solely on electricity.
32: What are the main ingredients used to make sunscreen? What chemical reactions are there? How do these ingredients work chemically to help protect the skin from UV rays? Can you please help me find some good sites relating to sunscreen...
33: Why is nitrogen the dominant gas in our atmosphere? What happened to the other gases from the early atmosphere?
34: Why do some planets have rings? Why do none of the inner planets have any?
35: Have you ever heard of military experiments involving cesium and volatile weapons?
36: Hello- My partner and I are doing a science project on Hydroplaning. We're having trouble findind a way to test different tire designs, because our project is on the best tire design to lessen hydroplaning. So our question is How can we test different tire designs on hydroplaning?
37: What is the nature of friction, both static and kinetic? And what exactly is the normal force? Is the equation f = u N, where f = friction, u = coefficient of friction, and N= normal force always valid? Is it an approximation, or empirically derived?
38: Can a magnet be made into a shere that has a core with one chare and a surface with the opposite charge. For example, a negative core and a positive surface? If so, how is it done?
39: Why are there different colors in the night sky after a rocket?
40: How fast do gas particles move?
41: Does light affect crystal growth? If so, How?
42: Why does it hail ?
43: In the alpha decay of Radon-222, what happens to the electrons? An alpha particle is a helium nucleus with the positive charge of two,but the equation in our text book doesn't account for the electrons...
44: The following questions are for my science fair interview. When you respond, please include your name so I can give credit, thanks!
1.Does the density of a solution affect the buoyancy of an object?
2. Is there a definite way that an object will be guaranteed to float? If so, what is it?
3. Does the shape of the object affect its ability to float?
4. Does the object's material affect its ability to float?
5. What factors will improve an object's ability to float?

45: How do black holes prevent light from passing through itself?
46: Can you freeze air? And if you can, will it freeze in layers, one layer for each type of molecule? (e.g. oxygen, carbon dioxide etc.)
47: Why can't light go around corners? And why can sound?
48: In science, we studied the Coriolis Effect. Do other planets have a similar global wind system(s) as we do?
49: What is the closest to absolute zero that has ever been reached?. What would happen to a substance if it were cooled to absolute zero?
50: How can a black hole change time??
51: What is the reason that the temperature of a substance does not change during a change in phase? In other words, what causes the "flat part" in a boiling or freezing curve?
52: Exactly what is the speed of sound?
53: What is a Neutron Bomb?
54: What ball bearings make a skateboard go faster or slower?
55: I was wondering if it was possible for radio waves to travel successfully through liquids, and if they can, will the liquid hinder their travel or aid it? Also, someone once told me that electricity would travel even better through a super saturated solution of salt and water than with just plain water. I wanted to know if this is true and would a SSS help a radio-wave travel faster or better through liquid? Thank you.
56: How does electricity work?
57: What shape is the surface of water in a container? This is a question about the meniscus. I think it curves up at the sides. Is that right?
58: Is it possible to shoot a gun in space?
59: I know that liquids will form little bubbles that float around. Do these bubbles form into any kind of pattern or shape if let alone?
60: What is the difference between an Atomic Bomb and a Nuclear Bomb
61: How do people store nuclear atoms?
62: I am learning about photosynthesis in biology; right now my teacher says the the color we see is just a reflection, so how is it possible for iridescent colors to reflect?
63: How far can you see on the horizon if it is a clear day, there are no mountains in the way, there isn't much smog, it's basically clear, and you have 20/20 vision?
64: I am also doing a science project in school. After talking with my teacher, I decided on working with paintball barrels. My project question is 'Does the porting (number of holes) in a paintball barrel effect its performance?' Our teacher wants us to have a mentor, and I was wondering if you had any scientists or students interested. Suggestions are appreciated.
65: My question is basically asking "what is sound"? More specifically why do different sounds give different emotion, and does this cause a vary in heart rate? For instance: lets say that you are driving in a car and a car horn spontaneously honks, which in turn makes you mad and quickening one blood flow.
66: Does anyone know about bridges? I am doing a science fair project on bridges and what type of wooden bridge is better and I am making a modules of 3 different types of bridges and testing how much weight each bridge can take
67: How does the geothermal energy system work?
68: Where can we find information on electromagnetic horns/charges?
69: What causes the jet stream?
70: What exactly are tachyons? If they can travel faster than light, how much faster can they go?
71: How do heat pads work? What substance do they contain? Why do they go solid when you press the metal disc inside? I think that the heat is given out as the substance changes state (liquid to solid which I know is exothermic).
72: Hi! I was wondering if you could help me with a question I was given in my science lesson: How much Radioactivity have I been exposed to in one year while living in the Wantage (South Oxford) area?
73: How does a mass dampener work?
74: How do we know that light can travel through a vacuum?
75: What is the temperature in space?
76: What is a galaxy?
77: How old is the Universe?
78: Why does the rising moon look so big?
79: What is the degrees in Fahrenheit of liquid nitrogen?
80: How does an L.E.D.(Light Emitting Diode)work? Why does light appear?
81: Why is the sun's corona hotter than the surface of the sun
82: How do I get electricity started with just a wire, battery, and a light bulb. I need it for a project I have to do. I always thought wire doesn't have enough power to light a light bulb.
83: If you were somehow let lose in space, without a spacesuit, how long would you survive?
84: What do scientists use to measure thermal energy?
85: If the theory of the Multiverse is correct, can one change to a single universe effect the outcome and future of another? If there is more than one universe, are they linked together or are they totally isolated from one another?
86: What exactly is quick sand and why is it called quick sand?
87: What is an atom?
88: When lightning strikes over the ocean how far away do you have to be to not be affected by the electrical current?
89: Why do springs keep the same shape when you bend them, while other metals stay bent?
90: There is a ride at the fair called the gravitron, its spins around really fast until you stick to the wall from the force. If you were to throw something up in the air while it was spinning, what would it do? Also, there is this ride called superman at six flags, it shoots you straight into the air and then you fall straight back down, is it true that if you throw a rock in the air while your falling that it will float in front of you?
91: Can you please list different ways that nuclear power plants are being safe. What items are there and what are researchers researching about Nuclear Energy Safety?
92: The question is about oil or petroleum. Does this come from animals or also from plants. Why is petroleum a liquid and coal solid? Is it that coal is older and pressed down longer?
93: Can you explain E= MC2 ?
94: Lets just say you are in a car that is traveling at the speed of light....if you turn on your head lights, will anything happen?
95: I'm doing a report about laser and my teacher said that someone at UCSB did an invention about a laser that is called blue laser. I was just wondering if you could tell me were to find information about that laser and if you have some pictures about that invention, you can probably send me one of those pictures so I could do a poster on that laser you just invented. That will be a good poster to be of blue laser for me.
96: Why do Boom Box speakers give out sound when they are across the room?
97: How old is the universe?
98: How do you kayak? we can't find anything on that subject. How do you teach beginners?
99: If you take good crystal glasses and move your finger around the edges, why do they make sound. Also, if you fill them with water, why does the sound vary?
100: What is electricity?
101: How is electricity made?
102: How does electricity get to us?
103: If you go down the slide really fast and you wait for a few minutes and if you touch a pole will you get shocked?
104: How does the electricity come from the sky?
105: How does electricity work with your hair?
106: How did electricity start?
107: what happens if a flashlight lands in water? If you put your hand in it what will happen?
108: When I turn off the TV , does it give me a shock?
109: Are a conductor and a neutron the opposite?
110: How come some balloons stick to the wall?
111: Amongst the AP science teachers this year there has been an epiphany: nobody knows exactly what fire is. Obviously, it's an oxidation reaction requiring oxygen, heat, and fuel. However, there is still indecision about what exactly defines the edge of the flame itself. Is the flame superheated air that simply releases photons according to how much energy each molecule has? If that is the case, would the flame's boundary extend as one views the flame at increasing wavelengths?
112: I'm doing a science project on electroplating and I need a good solution to bond copper onto steel. I have tried the vinegar solutions, but they are too weak and only create a thick film that rubs off: I need something stronger.

113: Why is it that water freezes on the surface of a lake but not below it?
114: Whys it the equator hotter than the north and south poles
115: In science we learned that mass is the amount of matter in a body no matter where we are, and weight has to do with gravity. But if I am only thinking about living on Earth, is mass and weight here not the same? Do I "weigh" 49 kg or do I "mass" 49 kg? What is my bathroom scale telling me, my weight or my mass?
116: Why does one basketball bounce higher than the other even though they are both pumped up? What makes the little rubber balls bounce so much higher than a basketball; what is it made out of?
117: I don't understand how should I represent a single sinusoidal form like AC voltage (or) current into sum of two sinusoidal forms.. like r[cos(x) + j sin(x)]. I am not able to visualize it properly. I understand binomial expansion of e to the power jx, sin x, and cos x. I understand the rectangular representation of complex number and involvement of sin and cos there. But how to represent a sinusoidal wave as a complex number? Any other field uses complex number to represent a physical quantity?
118: Is it possible to fly to the moon in one day?
119: Why is my weight different at the equator than it is at either pole?
120: I am doing a science project in my class and I need a mentor. My experiment is to find out if the timbre (tone quality) has any effect on the efficiency of resonance. I want to test it by finding the natural frequency of a glass and reproducing it with several different instruments with different combinations of overtones. If anyone could give me a hand, it would be greatly appreciated and its really not that much of a commitment. Thank you!
121: If the outer core is melted metal it would have to be hot enough for the metal to melt of course. If the inner core is also made of the same materials as the outer core, then why does the inner core not melt as well? If the inner core is completely surrounded by melted metal than it should be breaking down as well shouldn't it? What causes the inner core to stay solid?
122: Why do the solar flares interact with cell phones and other electronic devices?
123: In the beginning of the week we had very low tide. I think I never saw it so low. Was this unusual?
124: Can you explain why a soda cools faster in an ice- bath than a refrigerator?
125: Does pressure have any effect on Volcanic eruptions?
126: Why can't I feel the spinning of the earth?
127: What does 0.1 cm3 of water weigh in grams?
128: Within the light spectrum there is a range visible to us. Electricity in the form of lightning is visible. Is there a visible form of gravity?
129: When you fill a balloon with hydrogen and let it float up, and you then put a match on it, it will explode. Why is that so?
130: Has a planet or star gone into a black hole?
131: If the sun blows up would we all die, and if yes, how long will it take?
132: How do scientists find out the gravity on other planets if they've never been on that planet?
133: Has the volcano on Mars ever erupted ?
134: When will Betelgeuse die? How will we know when it's going to die?
135: How do you measure humidity in the air? Also how does humidity effect people's hair?
136: How can you find out how warm the water is without a thermometer?
137: We are studying states of matter. We have a question about glass. We have discrepant information from the Internet about whether, at room temperature, it is a liquid with a very high viscosity or a solid. Could you please answer our question: At room temperature, is glass a solid or a liquid? Thank you very much!
138: What are the main differences between stars and planets?
139: What is a reed switch? And how does it work?
140: When I was in Germany I watched the sunset and the sun went down really slowly. Then I came back to Goleta and I watched the sunset and the sun went down really fast. Why is that?
141: I have heard some talk about a tenth planet, supposedly called "X". What I have heard is that this planet orbits (When thinking of our Solar System on an XY Axis) On the Y axis as opposed to the other planets which rotate on the X axis. I have also heard that this planet could have caused the annihilation of the dinosaurs. Is this something true or just a myth?
142: Can diamonds appear in graphite?
143: How do ships float?
144: Why did my five gallon water bottle freeze before my eyes when we brought it inside to stop it from freezing. It formed star like ice crystals that spread to the bottom in less than a minute! The bottles had spent the night outside during a deep freeze for this area. Two froze outside and two froze in the house. How did that happen?
145: How long does it take for a magnet to lose its power?
146: Why does the sun get sunspots?
147: What objects do solar flares damage?
148: Is light matter?
If it is, what form/state of matter is it?
If it is not, why not?

149: I did a science fair project using glass squares cut the same size and thickness. I fractured the glass by dropping the same weight at the same spot. Why didn't it break the same way?
150: Does cold air increase or decrease tire air pressure?
151: Why is the ozone layer disappearing only in Antarctica ?
152: How strong is crumpled paper??
153: How do I tell if a mixture is separated?
154: Why is the sky and ocean blue, and the grass green?
155: Why do liquids have surface tension in a beaker?
156: Why is it that you can see yourself in a mirror with every accurate little detail?
157: Why can't solid particles move around as much as any other substance?
158: Why does water boil from heat?
159: I wanted to know, how did they figure out when they use nuclear fission on a uranium-235 nucleus it would make a lot of energy and heat to produce a nuclear bomb without the scientists getting hurt when it was first discovered?
160: Let's say you have a copper plate. The copper plate is at 30 degrees celsius. That's 86 degrees fahrenheit. Why is it that air at 86 degrees fahrenheit doesn't feel as hot to your skin as copper at 86 degrees fahrenheit?
Another aspect of my question: Heat is the average kinetic energy of a substance, average translational energy I believe, ie the motion of the particles, in a gas the particles have kinetic energy, and move about chaotically, and collectively this energy is the substance's heat energy/internal energy. In air, the particles are free to move as described above. In the copper, the total heat energy of the particle is described by the average energy of the particles, which i suppose are vibrating, not moving about translationally.
So let's say you have your copper plate at 86 degrees fahrenheit, and you have a certain volume of air at say 80. The metal plate will warm the air, transferring heat, until the air reaches 86. The whole system will probably settle at a common temperature of like 83 or whatever, and in reality it would eventually just reach a lower equilibrium as more and more heat dissipated. But I don't know if I am correct in this.
It seems like the copper plate at 86 degrees is much hotter than the air at 86 degrees, and the plate will continue to dump heat into the air. Maybe I'm wrong.
What about water? What if you have an 86 degree copper plate in contact with water at say 84 degrees. It just seems to me like the plate feels much hotter than the water, yet it would seem thermal equilibrium would tell us that the copper plate will only heat the water two more degrees, and then no more heat transfer will occur. Is this correct? Thank you very much for your help.

161: If you increase the speed of a 2.0-kg air puck by 3.0 m/s in 4.0 s, what force do you exert on it?
162: Hello there.
Two of my seniors in the AP Physics class were studying standing waves and they fashioned a Ruben's tube, which is a perforated pipe filled with gas, mounted at one end with a speaker driven by a function generator. The speaker sets the gas into motion and they see small flames in a standing wave pattern from the holes in the pipe. The question relates to the fact that they have had a few small fires that burn their speakers, and of course, are concerned about safety.

163: Why does hot air rise and cold air stays at the bottom? Is it because they have different densities?
164: Why is it that dry ice is colder than regular ice? What different "elements" make it colder?
165: Will we ever be able to travel back in time?
166: I did a project on glass fracture. I have wrote to you before and I was told about conchoidal fracture (the way glass fractures). You described it as circular and/or spiral shaped. I personally have never seen glass break this way. The results in my tests do not show this type of breakage, either. Do you know why? Can you give me some answers?
167: If the wheel is farther off the axel or truck, will that make the skateboard go faster?
168: When using thin layer chromatography is it possible to separate out enantiomers?
169: Is it possible to bring a substance to "absolute zero" on the Kelvin scale? If so, how would it be done?
170: How is it that when you have a bubble and you blow it up with oxygen and then light it with fire the bubble kind of explodes, into a ball?
171: What is involved with actually splitting an atom, since I heard that was invovled with nuclear bombs?
172: I went to Paris a few months ago, and we went over Greenland and I spotted the aurora, and I was wondering what exactly causes this light to happen?
173: What type of laser is in a Cd player, and what makes a laser?
174: Why are there two different families of planets, Jovian and Terrestrial?
175: If there is no oxygen in space, how are there explotions with fire?
176: Why is water clear?
177: Why is lava red?
178: Why is the speed of light so much faster than the speed of sound?
179: Why do we need electricity?
180: Hello. I'm a student in DPHS. I have a question about black holes. Could you answer it, please? My question is: I've learned that there are many black holes in our galaxy and they are moving. What will be happened, if two black holes collide against each other? Thanks for your favor.
181: Why do asteroids concentrate between Mars and Jupiter?
182: Quantum effects are normally important only on atomic scales or smaller. Gravity is the dominant force for very massive bodies. Under what conditions will quantum effects become important for gravity?
183: Hey, I'm having a debate with a kid in school about what would happen to your body if it was floating out in space without protection of a space suit. Would you implode?
184: Is there anthing on this earth that a magnetic field can't go through?
185: Can air bubbles burst when inside water?
186: I'm doing my science fair project comparing aluminum and wooden bats. I want to see which one will hit the ball farther. Any ideas on how to set up a really good experiment? How about some information about how the bats are made to make the difference, if there is one, in how far the ball travels?
187: I am an 8th grade science teacher and I have the following question: How do we measure true mass on Earth? I teach that a balance measures mass, but I find that a spring scale gives the same answer. If, on Earth, a 100 g object weights approximately 1 N, it's mass should be 100 g on a balance, but not a spring scale. Yet I get 100 g on the spring scale as well. I have not found an answer to my quandary so perhaps I am not asking the correct question. Thanks for your help.
188: Dear Science Line,
It seems like I sink in the swimming pool if I make a canon ball shape out of my body. It also seems like I float better if I spread out with out stretched arms and legs. My thinking is this: Because Density is Mass/ volume, if you make a cannon ball shape out your body you are not decreasing your volume. Right? I suspect that there is a buoyancy change relative to my now different surface area and that density is not the issue. Mr. Mann thinks it has to do with my volume changing due to my inflated lungs, thus affecting my density. Question: So...... Why do I sink if I make a cannon ball shape out of my body? Who is right Mr. Mann or me? Major boasting rights at stake here so we would appreciate your attention to this as soon as possible.

189: Why when you bring a balloon into a cold atmosphere the balloon size decreases and when you put the balloon in a warmer atmosphere the size of the balloon goes back to its regular size?
190: Explain, using scientific terms, why overloading a ship might cause it to sink.
191: Does cold water freeze faster than hot water? How can you tell?
192: How High does a Voice Pitch Have to Be to Break A Crystal Glass?
193: What is enthalpy?
194: What is entropy?
195: What is Spontaneity and Gibb's free energy?
196: What are electrochemical cells, and what is electrolysis and how does it work?
197: Do aluminum bats have a "sweet spot"? What makes the "sweet spot" on a wooden bat? How can you tell when you find it?
198: Consider if it is possible to store information in a linear system?
199: Do you think it will be possible to create a "box" that could screen external gravitational fields?
200: Why do we have earthquakes? What makes the different motions for example ( a rolling motion or fast jolting movement)? I have heard earthquakes are trying to move the plates but why are they trying to move the plates?
201: Please tell me name of some metals or alloys which behave as superconductors at room temperature or above.
202: Why do we get burned so fast if we don't put on sunscreen? I know it has to do with the rays but is it something in our skin too?
203: How do we have the ability to hear sounds such as music or people talking? What goes on in our ears that this is possible?
204: What are the possible ways we can detect radioactivity in a room? I know that radiation affects the brain but really how does it affect us over all as a human?
205: Are red socks an element, compound or mixture? Using buoyant force, how to determine the "weight capacity" of a boat? Process when frost forms on your windshield in the morning?
206: If you are on a skate board does it matter if your weight is shifted more to the front than the back?
207: I read the answer to a question concerning warping of space-time. i.e the curvature of space-time is due to the effects of massive objects and their consequence, gravity. ok I have read about experiments concerning high powered lasers that are reflected around a space to infinity and the area within the space has shown a slight warpage or bending in its local space-time. Are the lasers causing a build up of mass in this area or are they providing "traction" on space-time and causing a rotation to occur?
208: What causes the parallel lines of light and shadow on the ceiling above my bedroom window, in the morning when the curtains are still closed?
The lines extend beyond the ends of the window, and are very numerous and of varying in width and grayness. Covering any area of the window merely reduces the intensity overall.

209: Is a marshmallow a solid or a liquid?
210: Hey, I was recently talking with a friend about alternative fuel sources (maily for automobiles) and primarily nitrogen. I am not 100% sure how the nitrogen that is used for nitrogen powered cars is obtained, but my friend thought that it is usually just taken from the atmosphere and purified. This is what brought about my question, as we then got into a discussion as to what would happen to the atmosphere if nitrogen powered cars became very popular, and the nitrogen was just taken from the atmosphere. My friend pointed out that if this became the case, that since nitrogen makes up a considerable amount of our atmosphere, something would have to replace it's void if we were to take a percent of it out of the air. He then presented his two opinions on what would happen: 1. Oxygen, or some other gas, would make up a larger percent of our atmosphere to replace the void of the disappearing nitrogen, and in the case of oxygen, we could suffer from oxygen intoxication if the percent of it in our atmosphere became to great. His other opinion was that, if nothing was able to replace the nitrogen, our atmosphere would more or less implode. So my question is: what would happen? Because after we discussed it a little further, we realized that the second opinion might not be right, given the fact that space is void of all matter, and therefore could not make the earth's atmosphere implode. Thanks.
211: Mixing hot and cold water causes a refraction, distorts the water clarity and creates a wavy appearance. Do you know the explanation of this and what these waves are called?
212: What would happen if you took the air out of a marshmallow and then suck the air back in the marshmallow?
213: I live on an island. My house is on a hill. When I look out it appears that the ocean is higher then the island that I live on. I know that this can't be true. And it only looks that way from my home in a hill. Why?
214: I am doing a science project for school and am about 90% sure that I would like it to be in the field of light dispersion (of rainbows). I have done some research on it, but I am indecisive about what the variable should be, that would create the more advanced and better project. I could change the size of the drops, take a digital picture of it, and measure the changes of the angle (between the incoming ray and refracted ray) on the computer. Or, the variable could be liquid, and I could observe how different indices of refraction affect the same angle as above. A third choice I have is to change the drop size, but I do not know how to do this precisely. A last project I am debating over could be to see how any one of the above variables affects the brilliance of rainbows. I am open to any suggestions or new ideas. Thank you!
215: If a giant squid has a soft body, how can it survive in such deep water pressure, when even the best submarines can't got as deep that deep?
216: I have an important question for my school project: Can I put some plastic bits into the pulp when I recycle paper? Or is there some way of combining paper and plastic together? Thank you very much.
217: I am doing a science project and am in dire need of a mentor. I was recommended to contact you for help by Mr. Olin Bausback, my teacher. My science project question is: Does the gas inside a light bulb affect the brightness of the bulb? If I wasn't able to aquire a light meter I would change the question from brightness to heat, but I am planning on brightness. If you could find a mentor for me it would extremely appreciated. Thank You very much for your time.
218: Why does the colour of flower petals change in pH?
219: Is it true that plastic wrap lets air through while aluminum foil does not?
220: Why does aluminum foil not get hot when it is in a hot oven?
221: Do rainbows also have ultraviolet bands and infra red bands and we just dont see them?
222: In regards to the Bohr model, how does the change in pH affect the color of flower petals, I read the article on a website but do not really understand it. Why does the color red use less energy than blue?
223: Why is it that when you are under water breathing out of an oxygen tank or scuba gear, and you breath the oxygen, the carbon dioxide comes out and goes into a bubble and floats to the top?
224: I'm trying to understand how I could determine the molecular weight of a liquid from its vapor density? I missed this lecture in class and the book doesn't seem to be helping much, can you please help?
225: Suppose one person was in an elevator that was traveling diagonally at a constant speed. How much force would be exerted on the passenger, and what would his weight be? How would this differ from the same passenger, traveling at the same speed on a vertical elevator?
226: Dear scientists, Our names are Carlos, Cole and Anjel. We are from Guadalupe, CA. We've been workingon solar ovens, and have got ours up to 165 F injust a few minutes (melted chocolate for smores). Now my partners and I want to know how solar batteries work. Thanks from Carlos, Cole, and Anjel.
227: Hi, I am Juan and my friends are Luis and Hugo I am from Guadalupe j.r. high. We would just like to ask you the sun could bake food in the solar oven? We know it works because we tried it. What we dont understand is why the heat stays in one part of the oven. We use foil, and put it on a 3 side box that we could fold up. thank you for all your your work and maybe i will tell you another question thank you.
228: What are some comparisons of weight and mass on the moon?
229: How do you make a newton meter at home?
230: I work in a grocery store and they just installed barcode scanners. The problem is that the scanner is fronting us, the cashiers, directly at the level of our reproductive organs. Is there a risk or danger to be "scanned" all day around such a sensitive area? Thank you.
231: How hot is the sun?
232: For my 8th grade science fair project I am going to run mice through mazes. To make it a little more interesting I am going to put a pulsing sound at the end to see if the mice can find it any faster than without a sound. So I was wondering if you had any research on the way mice hear?
233: 1. Microwaves have a longer wavelength than visible light, so doesn't that mean it has a lower energy than visible light does? if that's the case my students ask me why we can't pop a bag of popcorn in a kitchen appliance that bombards things with waves of visible light.
2. There is a name for every phase change and a different name for each phase change in the opposite direction (i.e., vaporization and its opposite, condensation) - What do you call it when something changes from gas to plasma? Is there a name at all? Is there a name for the reverse process too?

234: I wonder if there are any interesting, real- life, small-scale applications that any of you might know of, in which gas is used as an insulator (other than the planet earth itself).
235: If only 1% of a 100W light bulb's energy is emitted in the form of visible light, whats the other 99%? Some of it is heat, I assume - but to say all of the 99% is heat seems excessive... does the tungsten (or whatever element is used as filament these days) emit some other form of electromagnetic energy as well?
236: I am doing a science fair project on black holes; would you have any suggestions on an experiment that I could do?
237: Some stars create black holes. If and when the sun dies like all stars, will it create a black hole as well? And will it suck the solar system into it?
238: What is the cause of the sonic boom?
239: How does Earth keep its orbit around the Sun and not come closer to the Sun?
240: At what rate does gravity pull objects down to Earth?
241: I was wondering if radio waves can travel through a black hole. I know it sucks in light, but does it suck in everything.
242: Tides are acted upon by the gravitational pull from the sun and moon. Since our body is 70% water, could a full moon effect the body in different ways like motion sickness.
243: Can you explain and tell me what the theory is called when a ball apears to be rolling up hill
244: When a star explodes or dies, it is called a super nova. When this happens it is said to come together really tight and explode creating a black hole. Can the same thing have happened with the big bang? Is it possible for there to be really really big stars or clusters that could or caused it?
245: Why is the interior of the Earth hot?
246: Does time really exist? For instance if we suppose there is nothing in this world (pure nothingness). If event as such can occur, we don't have any parameter to consider something as time. What I understand and confuses me is that time is also dependent on existence. Also Einstein said that time is relative, in that case, anything that is relative like time exists or it is just an illusion for a relative time?
247: Hello, I've read it takes 1/7 of a second for light to travel around the world. I would like to know how the scientists came to this conclusion.
248: How does gravity hold a person down?
249: When you heat a marshmallow why does it expand?
250: How does wind erosion affect the plant and animal life in the Ventura/Santa Barbara area?
251: I would like to know what is the force of a plane hitting another plane in the air?
252: If sun spots are the result of cooler areas of the photosphere (?) why do they result in a higher average temperature on Earth? That is, why do sunspots increase the Earth's insulation? Seems paradoxical.
253: I would like to know if air resistance will decrease as an object's speed decreases and is less for a smaller surface.
254: Do plants put oxygen into the air? Does Chlorophyll give plants their green color?
255: How did scientists come up with the acceleration do to gravity is 9.8 m/s2?
256: What exactly is a blackhole and how does it affect the earth?
257: Hi, following recent publicity of the Huygens Titan probe success, I have read reports of large deposits of organic (carbon-containing) compounds such as methane, ethane and acetylene. Surely these compounds are present only if life is abundant? I was under the impression that hydro-carbons were a direct result of organic life, i.e. Oil and Coal etc: My Question is how are these compounds formed if life is not present.
258: Hi, just a hypothetical question. If a Rocket was to take off from the earth and reach the speed of light instantaneously (I know it can't in reality), and it had a camera facing back towards the earth. Would there be any motion shown on the receiver, or would it appear the Rocket was standing still? Regards,
259: How long would it take for us to know if the sun's light had been extinguished?
260: How does radioactivity work?
261: How does the sun heat the earth?
262: Is there a gas that will give off substantial amounts of UV radiation at varying temperatures?
263: A student informed me that her driver's ed instructor told his class that they should drive slowly in a cross wind because doing so increases the mass of the car. Well, that's patently untrue, but what would be the reason? Friction isn't affected by speed...or is it? Does one need to invoke centripetal force?
264: Can heat be created or destroyed or only transferred and why?
265: If you were to play every sound frequency audible to the human ear, all at the same time, what would it sound like? What note/chord would a person hear?
266: Which freezes faster hot or cold water?
267: Why doesn't a rocket ship blow up when traveling through the thermosphere?
268: Do clouds move by themsleves or do people on earth see clouds moving because the earth is spinning?
269: When I empty the dishwasher the plastic cups always have lots of water drops on them. The glass cups are dry. Why don't the plastic cups dry like the glass ones so I do not have to use a towel?
270: What affects the barometric air pressure? Does the time of day or the temperature have an affect on the air pressure?
271: Why does warm soda have more carbonation?
272: Can microwave wavelengths be harmful to people?
273: Hi! I just had a quick question on the topic of optics. I did an experiment where I shone a flashlight's beam through several sized holes at an object. I noticed that the larger the light source, the smaller the object's umbra was and the larger the penumbra was. Why was that? And for a smaller source of light, the object's umbra was larger and the penumbra was smaller. Why was that? Thanks!
274: Hypothetically - the sun vanishes. With the sun's gravitational force now gone, HOW LONG would it take before we are free of our elliptical path around the sun? Would it be instantaneous? Or like light, which I think takes about 8 minutes to get to us from a distance of 1 AU, would there be a small span of time during which we are still chained to our elliptical orbit by "latent gravity" from a sun that is no longer there before we fly off into the cosmos?
275: I was wondering what the diffrence was between speed and velocity, what would be a example of each? Thanks.
276: My science class has conducted an Electrode and Electrolyte lab. The lab is to observe trends in voltage using electrodes and varying concentrations of electrolytes. First attach a black or red wire to either a tin, copper, or steel electrodes. Then you have to put two of them in two separate holes in a board and then dip them in hydrochloric acid or a sulfuric acid which are the electrolytes.
When we had finished collecting the data my teacher had a hypothesis that the more concentrated chemicals would have a higher voltage. We both wanted to know the reason on why the chemicals with more concentration had a less voltage?

277: I am doing a report on Color Blindness and have to find someone who is doing research on the disease. If somebody could answer a few questions that would be great. 1.What research are you currently doing for the disease?
2.Has the reasearch been helpful in finding a possible cure or gaining a better understanding of the disease?
3. How is the research being funded?
4. Are there any future prospects for finding a cure for Color Blindness?
Thank you very much for your time.

278: What are the four tides we have each day?
279: How do we use wind energy?
280: I am in the process of working on my science fair project about water pressure and density. I have five questions that I could not find in any books from the public library and on the internet.
Question 1. What is the pressure at the greatest depth of the Santa Barbara Chanel.
Question 2. How does temperature make the density of ocean water change.
Question 3. What is the greatest density salt water can be ( I was wondering because I know that waters greatest density is 1 at 4 degrees).
Question 4. Does a large amount of rain water change the density in a small body of water (such as a pond).
Question 5. What keeps Anti Freeze Coolant from freezing, what substance and how that substance works to keep it from freezing?

281: How come when you turn an egg sideways, you can't squeeze it? If it is right sid up it will break, but if you turn it sideways it won't.
282: I was wondering is a large amount of rainfall affects the density of a small body of water? For example if it rains a lot in a pond will the density change or stay the same?
283: If the ocean is 75 F it feels like you are in a warm bathtub but if you are in a swimming pool and it is the same temperature it is so cold it is hard to train in. I have tried as a swimmer in college and high school. My guess is that it has something to do with the difference in density between the two, but I still can't rationalize the difference very well.
284: How does tempature affect air pressure?
285: Hi, I have a question about sound energy, I could not find the answers in text book or online.
What energy transformations involve sound energy?
How is sound energy used?
What is the history of how sound energy has been used or developed?
How does the use of sound energy impact our world?

286: On average, how long does it take a drop of rain to get from a cloud to the Earth?
287: How does the fizz apear in my glass? Why does it rise to the top?
288: What is a space explosion?
289: We know that there is air pressure on top of us all the time. But is the same amount of pressure on us inside a building as outside?
290: Can minor galactic merger where a sattelite is a few percent the mass of the disk galaxy produce ultrahigh energy cosmic rays if galaxy collisions can produce them?
291: What does math have to do with an Air Quality Engineer?
292: Is cosmic radiation also radioactive? Does the color of the space suit matter? Why is it always white?
293: How do you make a newton meter out of house hold items?
294: Are there particles that are so small that they are not affected by gravity?
295: What effect would it have on the Solar system if the Sun was extinguished?
296: If a magnet is moved in and out of a copper coil, a current is generated in the coil. This is due to Faraday's Law. The faster the rate of change of magnetic field the higher the current.
If I replace the copper coil with a superconductor Type-2 coil, would the current be HIGHER if the rate of change of magnetic field was faster?
Does the rate of changing magnetic field changes the current, or the current remains the same in a superconductor-Type 2?

297: How do ocean currents contribute to the change in climate?
298: We would like to know if oxygen is lighter or heavier than air.
We want to know how both nitrogen and oxygen seems to be the same weight as air.
When air is called thinner at altitude and there is less oxygen, is there also les nitrogen, and what causes the thinning?

299: What exactly is energy? I know it gives an object the ability to do work, but what exactly is it? What does it consist of?
300: What role does the ocean play in precipitation?
301: I designed an experiment investigating the effects of temperature on viscosity of honey. My experiment doesnt seem to work and I need help to modify it. My method is:
Method: 1) Put 5 ml of honey into 4 separate beakers.
2) Make sure the temperature of honey in all four beakers is different by using hot water bath to get it to a higher temperature and ice bath to lower the temperature.
3) Label each beaker 1, 2, 3 and 4 and measure the temperature of honey in all the beakers.
4) Dip a paper clip in the beaker for five seconds and place it on separate evaporating basin.
5) Use a magnet to pull the paper clip right above the evaporating basin.
6) Using a stop watch, record how long it takes the paper clip to drop onto the evaporating basin.
7) Do the same with beaker 2, 3 and 4.
8) Repeat steps 4, 5 and 6 three times to get an average.
I think methods numbers 5 and 6 have problems. The paper clip does get attached to the magnet but it doesnt drop back.
1.- Will you please suggest something?
2.- I was wondering if I should use a magnet of low magnetic strength or if I should use a heavier metal?
3.- Can you please help me and reply as soon as possible?

302: What would happen if we slowly let out air in space?
303: How is it that a magnetic material attaches to a metal?
304: How can you see your bone in an x- ray? How does it show up?
305: How does the universe keep getting bigger?
306: I have been reading a lot of books on how the universe started and if it is expanding or not. I would like to know if scientists know if the universe will keep on expanding forever or not. I would also like to know how scientists know if the universe will keep on expanding forever or not (if they do know). Thanks a lot.
307: There are new stars or planets being explored in our galaxy. We have discovered new galaxies, planets and solar systems. Why have we not discovered any form of life other than our own existence?
308: We recently saw an exhibit at the Singapore Science Centre where there were two tracks (one curved, one straight). When you let a marble go on each (same size), the marble on the curved track reached the end first. Is this due to acceleration (because the curved track is longer?). Please tell me the relevant laws of motion that this relates to. Many thanks :-)
309: How do you see the colors of the rainbow?
310: Einstein theory of slowing time states that when you aproach the speed of light time starts to slow down. I was wondering what the speed of light is relative to? Our universe could be moving. Our galaxy could be moving. And the crest of the earth rotates at close to 800 miles per hour. Does Einstein mean the light that is around you?
311: One of my students and his father asked: Would a bomb explode in space? Since space is a vacuum, I was not sure what would happen.
312: Things move slower in the time dimension as they move faster in space dimensions. So, does light move in time at all since it is moving at the speed of light?
313: I'm working on putting together a science fair project and then asking someone in your chemistry department to be my mentor. I would like to though, before I do that, know a little bit about the oxidation of things, especially in fireworks, and I'd like to see if you would have any suggestions on how an experiment testing the stability and oxidation rates of oxidizers used in fireworks could be done.
314: Why does the leaf set on fire when you hold a magnifying glass to it?
315: Why does electricity run through water so easily? For example, if you drop a hairdryer that is on in the bath and you are in the bath, you will get electrocuted.
316: Why does lightening hit water more than other things?
317: Is the tip of the flame hotter or colder than the base or origin of the flame? So basically, which one is hotter on a gas stove?
318: How do fluids affect meteorology?
319: My class was doing a "Properties of Water" lab yesterday and one of activities we did was to place salt in oil to see what it would (or would not) do. Well, I left the oil and salt in the test tube overnight, and today when I came in there appeared to be a layer of water in between the oil and the salt. Very perplexing. My class and I hypothesized over where this water could have come from, and if it even was water. We asked the chemistry teacher (I teach biology) and he didn't know, either. It was just regular corn oil and table salt. Thanks for your help!
320: I recently received laser surgery on my groin. The surgeon said that he would WELD muscle back onto the bone that had become detached, using lasers and make it easier for it to heal. How did this happen?
321: Why do some things reflect your image (like metall or dark window glass) and other things do not (like wood, concrete, paper)?
322: Why do atoms need neutrons? And also I like to know why there are isotopes and why do some atoms have many isotopes and others only one or two? Thanks
323: We did an experiment and we had an ice cube in salt water and in tap water. The ice cube in salt water needed longer to melt than the one in tap water. Why?
324: I am afraid of flying. How is it so safe when there are so many working parts. I always believe that the more complicated a machine is, the more likely it is to fail. Can you explain why airplanes don't crash more regularly?
325: I will be attending the Discovery Channel Young Scientist Challenge in Washington, DC from October 14-20 as one of 40 students chosen nationally to compete for over $100,000 in prizes. In preparation for a number of science challenges that I will be participating in, one of the skills that I need to possess is to be able to separate polymers of differing densities. Despite researching online, in books, with teachers, I have been unable to find a specific method to be able to do so. Again, my question is regarding separating polymers of differing densities.
326: What causes fog and what types of fog do exist? (I like to know more about fog banks especially - like problems they cause, reasons for formation, how to dissipate it).
327: Why are bubbles round?
328: What causes the waves in the ocean?
329: I would like to do an experiment on global warming and I am going to take various gases like ch4 and co2 and leave them in the sun and see what gases heat up the most and contribute most to global warming. Can you give me your input, opinion, ideas?
330: I understand why and how objects reflect, but why does it show perfect images of the surroundings? An example- "the ocean surface shows the clouds above." Why is that?
331: What is the ozone layer made of?
332: Does space go on forever? If yes, does that mean that there are billions and billions of galaxies?
333: Why when you fill up a balloon with helium does the balloon eventually lose the gas?
334: What makes ice to melt faster?
335: What causes the force of gravity?
336: Do wormholes really exist?
337: How does a caudal keel enable some species of fish and sharks to swim fast?
338: Why does low pressure make marshmallows expand?
339: Are all bubbles round?
340: What caused the planes in the Bermuda triangle to go down?
341: Can sound break glass? At what frequency can sound break glass?
342: Why do guitar strings break when tightened?
343: What affect does the earth's tilt have on the seasons?
344: How was the Universe created?
345: Right now in physics we are learning about projectiles. So far we have learned that the angle which creates the longest projectile is 45 degrees. But with my golf experience I know that my driver (12.5 degrees) goes the furthest, then my 3 wood (21 degrees) and so on until I get down to my sand wedge (56 degrees) and my lob wedge (60 degrees), which go the shortest. With or without air resistance, how come the 45 degree angle doesn't hold true in golfing? What is the difference?
346: Why does static electricity make peoples hair stand up?
347: What are the instruments that meteorologists use on site in order to predict and track hurricanes?
348: How weather can be predicted?
349: How many tornadoes do we have a year?
350: Why do we have hurricanes?
351: Why does space have thin air?
352: Why the sun does not burn itself up?
353: How do tornadoes start?
354: What is the Earth's atmosphere made of?
355: How many hurricanes do we have a year?
356: How do you measure the moon from the distance?
357: I am doing a report for my eighth grade class about what would happen if the earth was a cube. I chose this hypothetical question because I thought it was an interesting idea. Anyway I didn't get much information on the subject and I am wanting to know more. Can you please fill me in on what WOULD happen if the earth was cubical?
358: What does the equations E = m c2 mean? I am pretty sure it has something to do with the light's speeds but I am not sure. Thank you.
359: Hello, Why is it that a person is supposed to accelerate half way around a turn when driving? Does it have anything to do with Physics and therefore make a cleaner, less abrupt turn? Or is it just to keep up with traffic?
360: I'm doing a science project about electricity (actually, it's energy in general, but I prefer to do something on electricity), and I'd like to know if something like the following would be possible. I have three ideas, one that I'll test as soon as I get the supplies, another simple one that's a super back up plan, and this other thing that I'll try to do if it's even possible on earth. It's basically an attempt in transferring an electrical charge from one end of a wire to another. The hitch is that the wire has at least a free inch of space between two wires. So, to attempt to allow any amount of the charge to reach the end, I'm using a series of magnets. Another way would be to send a huge charge through a thick wire and form a weak magnetic field around the area of which the charge would be making a 'free fall' through.
361: Can you explain what changing the gear ratio on your car will do? My sister's boyfriend just ordered new gears and he says that it is going to be a lot faster. How does it make it faster?

I was also wondering what a ground cable does. Everything has one but I've never known what it was really for.

362: What conditions cause the sky to change colors?
363: How does the earth stay up? Why is the earth round?
364: What would it happen if the Earth's core was damaged?
365: How is electricity made?
366: What is the difference between a hurricane and a tornado?
367: When will the Sun blow up? Will the planets blow up, too?
368: How far does the Universe expand?
369: Is it possible to travel through time?
370: What is the difference between fusion and cold fusion?
371: If you were traveling at the speed of Earth and heading in the opposite direction of Earth's rotation, what would happen to time?
372: Is teleportation possible yet? I have heard of tests on it, but I want to know more about.
373: Where does the blue sky end?
374: Where do atoms come from?
375: If a man was hanging from a live cable on an electricity pylon without earthing himself he should suffer no harm. My question is in two parts. a: If the man simultaneously touched another cable of the same voltage and polarity, would he suffer an electric shock. b: If the man simultaneously touched another cable of a different voltage but the same polarity, would he suffer an electric shock. Thank you in advance, Regards, Chris Knox.
376: I heard that there are 60 billion droplets in a cup of water, enough to cover a small town in a fog. Is there a formula to determine how much space (in cubic feet) it takes to accomodate the evaporation or steam in, say, a pint of water? (I'm curious how the vaporized water (from earth?) in the "Big Bang" didn't extinguish the hot gases....) Thanks.
377: What makes the sky blue?
378: What happens to a human being when subjected to space with no oxygen or protective suit? I have seen many explanations but I would like to know the exact reaction. Many Thanks.
379: What is the actual mass of a proton, a electron and a neutron
380: What are the names of ten or more sub-atomic particles (quakes)
381: What would happen if something twice the size of a black hole goes to the center of it?
382: My dad and I tried to build a steam piston. We used bicycle tube valves to let air into each end of a plastic tube. Each end has another bicycle tube valve to let air out. Inside the tube there is a piston that was supposed to move back and forth. It didn't move. We think the valves don't let enough air into the two inch cylinder. We started to fool around with the tube and put a plastic golfball in. We connected a bicycle pump to one end and left the other end open. When we pumped air into the cylinder, the ball did not shoot out as we expected. It shot back quickly against the end where the air was coming into the cylinder. Why didn't our piston work, and why does the ball come back and not away from the air? This is fun science. Thanks for your help.
383: I am doing a science project and I have a question: If you serve the volleyball with certain air pumped into it, which ball goes further, the one completely filled up with air, or the one with less air? I was wondering if you could give me any help/ info on this. Thank you for you time.
384: How is the way to measure volleyball pressure, and what units?
385: If you put water in the sun, why does it evaporate?
386: How fast is the Earth's rotation in Santa Barbara?
387: Are light and sound forms of matter?
388: How do star trails affect the Earth's rotation?
389: What materials can be charged with static electricity?
390: How does color affect crystal growth?
391: How hot is electricity?
392: I am interested in doing a science project that involves measuring the elements in a substance by the substane's light emission lines. My teacher does not want us to test water do you have a suggestion about which substances might make a good experiment. Do you know the equipment needed, like a spectroscopy, and is there some one that would allow a student to use one. I am also looking for a mentor. Any advice is welcomed Asap. Thank You.
393: I noticed last summer, that when I left some water balloons in a bucket of water overnight, they shrunk down to nothing by the next day. Why does this happen? My mom thinks it might be because the latex balloon is porous. Also, the pressure of the water inside the balloon is more than the pressure of the water in the bucket, so the water wants to get out of the balloon. Is she right? Thank you. I couldn't find the answer on the internet anywhere.
394: I would like to do a science fair project with my class on capturing wind for a source of energy. We take weekly hikes to Elings Park and have even flown kites. Do you have any suggestions for working models of wind mills that we can install along the hillside where we often watch paragliders/sailors? Do you have a formula we could use to determine wind velocity? Do you have/know of a chart for converting wind velocity into wind power/energy? Thank you.
395: What causes airplain trails and why do they stay put?
396: How does Pluto support three moons?
397: How does a sonar work?
398: I was just wondering if you could show me how to build a mouse trap car that can go really fast. I have to build one in 9th grade and I just wanted to see if I could build one now. Please e- mail me as soon as possible.
399: Dear Scienceline, I am doing an experiment for school involving wave energy, the problem is, I can't figure out a way to compare the crest, trough, wavelength, and frequency of a wave to show how much wave energy there is. I also don't completely understand what wave energy is. Please help me.
400: How do we get our voices?
401: 1.Do steamboats go fast in colder waters or hotter? 2.Is heat the energy of moving molecules and atoms or just one of those? 3.Is it true that The British physicist James Joule in the 1840's proved that heat was a form of energy? 4.How does heat work on steamboats? 5.Does heat make things move? and if so, will it go faster in lower temperatures or hotter?
402: How does a storm form?
403: How can one calculate the amount of vaccum generated by a pump at different Mean Sea Level positions ( different locations) like in Mumbai and Delhi?
1. What will be the vaccum generated at 700 Mean Sea Level and at 600 Mean Sea Level?

404: Hey, my name is Kimberly and I am right in the middle of the Science Fair. I am required to have an interview with someone who is an expert or knows about my research topic. I was wondering if I could ask someone a few questions about my topic, like an interview.

My question is: Can I make a pH indicator by using vegetables?
Now that you know my question, here are some questions for anyone who can answer them.
Q. Is there anyway to test if a solution is a salt?
Q. Many plant materials, such as red cabbage, contain compounds that are indicators. What compounds does Red Cabbage contain?
Q. So far, I know of 7 acids (sulfuric, Nitric, Hydrochloric, Citric, ascorbic, carbonic, and phosphoric). How many acids [estimated] are out there?
Q. Which acid is the most deadly and where is it found?
Q. What is the definition of corrosive?
Q. If bases can harm skin, and if your hands being to feel slippery you should immediately rinse your hands with large amounts of water because you might have some sort of base on your hands, then why aren't we harmed when washing our hands with soap?
Q. What are some other plant materials that can be used as indicators or have some compounds that are indicators?

405: Why doesn't a balloon pop when you put a sticker on it?
406: I was wondering if you could explain to me about pressure. I am doing an experiment about wave energy. My experiment involves dropping a rock into water and measuring its wave energy, so I was wondering how the pressure affects and how much wave energy is produced. I am writing my abstract, and am not sure how to incorporate pressure into it. I am also asking, could you please explain to me in simple terms, what wave energy really is and how you find it? I am also doing an experiment on wave energy but the problem is that I don't quite understand it. Could you please explain to me in simple terms, what wave energy really is and how do you find it?
407: How come birds don't get electrocuted when they sit on the telephone wires?
408: What explodes soda when you shake it up?
409: What would happen to a bare human body in space? would it explode, implode or stay the same?
410: What is gravity (more specific than the force that keeps you on the ground, etc.)? What is electricity?
411: Why is there no gravity in space?
412: I know that in parallel circuits, the battery, or other power source is supposed to provide the necessary amount of voltage to each resistor in the circuit. I also know that unplugging or turning on or any other action done to one resistor in a parallel circuit will not affect the other resistors. That said, I was wondering why when I plug in my hairdryer, the light in my room dims. Isn't this a violation of the laws relating to parallel circuits?
413: How often does the earth change its magnetic north?
414: My teacher says it is not possible to physically touch molecules, but isn't that what friction is? Moving molecules quickly so it makes heat?
415: Does Earth’s magnetism affect the weather?
416: What will happen if you put a marshmallow in the sun?
417: How much does it cost to get solar power (not in your home, get it in a power plant or whatever)? How would you find a rate if yo were going to sell it to people?
418: We have learned that both ocean waves and currents are caused by winds on the ocean's surface. We know waves carry energy, although the actual water molecules stay in place. However, currents carry water, unlike waves. How are the "winds' different that cause these different situations?
419: While studying magnetism in physics class this week we learned that when a connecting wire has current flowing through it it has a magnetic force field. We also learned that when two magnetic fields cross each others paths there will be a force which creates motion. I was wondering how a house could be wired without having attraction or repulsion between the electrical wiring.
420: Do different types of algae absorb different light? After doing my experiment with a spectrophotometer and extracts of red, green and brown algae I found out that yes, they do absorb different amounts of each light. I would just like to have more information about how and why this happens. Please, I need this information as soon as possible. Thank you.
421: What are the two parts of a comet?
422: I'm doing a science project in which a put a charge through a tub of sea water. The anode is titanium mesh and the cathode is steel mesh. I am measuring the growth of solids (mainly calcium carbonate and magnesium) on the cathodic steel mesh structure. Everything that is happening so far I've expected except that there is brown and red foam forming on the surface of the water and there is red settlement of the floor. I would greatly appreciate any feed back into what's happening chemically to make this happen.
P.S. Someone suggested that it may be galvanic corrosion. This may be feasible because the steel is galvanized (I'm assuming that that's what's on the steel to stop it from rusting).

423: How do particles in a fluid exert pressure on a container?
424: Thanks for responding to my question, I have a few more if you'd be so kind as to answer them. First, the titanium anode didn't corrode at all, it was the steel cathode. But by being the cathode, wouldn't it have cathodic protection from corrosion? Also, we just studied electrochemistry in my chemistry class. From this knowledge, I am assuming that the positive calcium and magnesium ions in the water are being reduced by electrons supplied by the electric current, but what makes them electroplate on the steel structure and not the walls of the tub as well? And where do the carbonate ions come from? I didn't know that they were present in sea water. Each subject received the same voltage, but a different amount of current (6v:300mAmp, 400mAmp, 700mAmp), would the total kilowatt hours be the same for all of them? And why would the current make a difference?
425: I would like to demonstrate to my students the effect of electromagnetic shielding by a Faraday cage. I tried two arrangements of cages. One was an inverted metal utensil holder having holes about 1 cm in diameter, which I placed on top of aluminum foil to get metal on all sides. The other arrangement was simply an aluminum pie plate inverted on top of another plate. With both arrangements, I put a cell phone in the "cage" and called the number. I was surprised that the phone still received the signal. Can you please explain possible reasons why my arrangements did not effectively shield the cell phone from the signal? Thank you!
426: What would happen if you gently released a cubic foot of luke warm water into outer space? What would happen to the water? Would it stay together or separate into thousands of tiny particles? What if you did it to air?
427: We will be looking at newton's 3 laws around Halloween. For the 2nd, f = m x a, I would like to construct a giant spider web and give some force facts about spider silk and webs. How strong is spider silk? How strong is a spider's web? How much force can silk withstand? How much force can the whole web withstand?If you have any more ideas for the holidays, please send them! Thanks, Joan.
428: What shape do you think a neutron star that does not rotate around its axis can have?
429: What is a quantity completely described by its magnitude.
430: Do bubbles implode or explode, and wich one has more density: dry ice or regular ice?
431: Why is a steam burn more damaging than a burn with boiling water of the same temperature?
432: What would happen if you put water in outerspace?
433: I need a device that will give me alternating current at ~24V, 1-5 Amps, and hertz in the thousands. What is this device called and where can I buy it, or how can I build it? Is there a version that the user can modulate the hertz? How/where can I build/buy it?
434: Is it possible to travel faster than the speed of light?
435: I have observed that beer tends to foam more in a chilled mug, than in one that is room temperature. I have thought that this is related to the Ideal Gas Law. The temperature in the air inside of the mug has a lower temperature. This causes the pressure to be lower as well. Lower atmospheric pressure allows more carbon dioxide to become liberated from the beer, thus more foam. Is this correct reasoning, or just another faulty application of the hallowed Ideal Gas Law?
436: Do you have an application for gold nano- particles?
437: There are 3 things that go from solid to gas without going through a liquid stage: Dry ice and moth balls. Can you tell me the third?
438: Why is it that its mostly military aircraft that leave a vapor trail? I never see a commercial jet leaving a trail.
439: Does the amount of stretch of a rubber band affect the distance a rubber band will travel?
440: Hi, I would like to conduct a science fair experiment and measure the amount of energy produced by electrolytes in sports and other drinks when they cross a semipermeable membrane. I wondering if I could get some advise as to how to set up this experiment. Thank you.
441: Can you explain what atoms are? I don't get it.
442: If you took an element out of air, would it still be considered air?
443: According to Newton's Third law for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. On earth, if the air in a balloon is released the the force becomes unbalanced. The action is the air being released -going down- and the reaction is the ballon going up. Will Newton's third law still hold truth even if this experiment was done on the moon?
444: If flies see many small images, how do they know what direction the danger is coming from (and what direction to fly away in)?
445: Why do objects have mass?
446: Does heat affect heat or sunlight absorption? Can the outside coloring of an object affect the temperature inside?
447: How is this storm tracked? What can be the effects of the storm?
448: What would liquid nitogen do in space ?
449: Why do the wavelengths of different colors absorb different amounts of heat?
450: I am doing a science fair project and I need some background information. My project is on a smoke ring canon. It is a homemade one. It has a soup can with the top and bottom cut out. On one side there is cardboard in it with a 1" hole. On the other side it has a baloon cut in half strectched across the end. When you put incense in it, gather some smoke and take the incence out and you tap the baloon side and a smoke ring goes out of the 1" hole.What are some things I can look up for background research?
451: What will happen to a glass container with a vacuum inside of it if it is dropped?
452: I am building a project on what absorbs most heat. Do you think the heat will stay in a shoe box at 100 degrees Fahrenheit?
453: Why is the air let out of a tire valve stem so cold it will leave frost on the valve stem, plus why does the air used to operate air tools make them ice cold to the touch? Thank You
454: My science fair question is: Which material keeps the water at its original tempurature the longest? I dont know what type of expert I should get for my required mentor, any ideas?
455: When you tilt a bottle of water over, why does it come out slowly, bit by bit.
456: How does lightning and thunder form?
457: We were learning about electric cars, and the need to charge them up. I think that if you have a coil and a magnet, you can create an electric field. Is there any way you can put a coil around the axel of the wheels of an electric car, put a magnet by it, and charge the car that way?
458: I heard somewhere that scientists have found evidence to suggest that particles seem to disappear randomly and others seem to appear randomly. If this is true, what kind of particles are disappearing and appearing, and where are they going and coming from? Is it to out there to suggest that if whole particles can disappear and appear why a small organism couldnt appear or disappear?
459: Why does a pop can implode if you boil some water in it and then flip it upside down quickly into ice water or really cold water?
460: Please explain to me how you could use a physical property to test the purity of a silver coin without damaging the coin?
461: What are the differences in the process of fission and fusion?
462: What is a lattice?
463: We created a vacuum and placed a balloon in there and the balloon continued to expand until it exploded. Why did it expand? Is it due to the lack of pressure in the chamber?
464: Which colors absorb the most heat? Why is this? Does a bright color like yellow absorb a lot of heat?
465: How does heat affect molecules?
466: Does radiation cause mutations
467: What happens if you take all the air out of a space?
468: I'm doing a Sciene fair project on the northern lights. Do you know if there are any expiriments that a 6th grader can do relating to Aurora Borealis?
469: I'm doing a science fair project on magnetic reversals and their effects on animals . Is there a simple experiment that I can do to represent that?
470: How do ocean swells form?
471: How does hail, sleet and snow form?
472: What are sonic waves? How are soonic waves created?
473: 1.What makes the wind? 2.How do we make wind into energy? 3.What is good and bad about Wind Energy?
474: Does temperature affect the received solar energy? Does it matter if it is hot or cold as long as there is the same amount of sun energy?
475: Why isn't Pluto a planet anymore?
476: What does a compass do at the North Pole?
477: Does the temperature of water affect its ability to fight fire?
478: If the glaciers are melting, the rivers flow to the sea, and rain is freshwater, are the oceans getting less salty over time or is there some sort of process that changes the fresh water to salt water?
479: Why does a marshmallow expand when there is no pressure
480: 1. Why don't hurricanes form in the north Atlantic? 2. In the northern hemisphere, do hurricanes move clockwise or counter clockwise? 3. What two celestial object cause the tides on the moon?
481: Let's say that a particle with no charge/neutral charge such as a neutron makes contact and is affected by one of any of the fundamental forces (gravity, electromagnetic, weak, strong) Will the contact between the particle and force be able to change it's charge from a particle with no charge to a particle that has a charge such as a protons or electron? If so, what forces would do that to what particles?
482: How does a prism reflect light into the colors of the rainbow? I know it uses refraction, but how is it actually refracting the light through the prism and seperating the colors from the white light?
483: I have heard that it is impossible for a human being to survive breaking that speed of light. Is this true? For example, a man on a spaceship going at the speed of light.

Is there a speed/time relation? In other words, if I were were moving at half the speed of light, how much time (or "negative" time when moving into the past by traveling faster than light)would pass on Earth?

Can you put that into a graph or formula?

Example graph:
1/2 C per minute = ? (time on earth)
Full C per minute = ? (time on earth)
+ 1/2 C per minute = ? (time on earth - or "negative" time)
Example formula:
1/2 C per minute = 100 years on Earth
So, Full C per minute = 200 years on Earth

485: I have heard that if you travel at the speed of light you have infinite mass, but what if you have an infinite gravitational field around you to keep you intact?

I have read that the theory of relativity is based on two postulates,
1- that the speed of light in a vacuum is constant and not dependent on the source or the observer and
2- that the mathamatical forms of the laws of physics are invariant in all inertial systems.

But the speed of light is not a constant, for example, at time zero it was 10 billion times faster than it is today (the speed of light is decreasing/decaying) and that the laws of physics do not work in black holes, how how can it be correct?

487: I have read that nothing can move at or faster than the speed of light, based on the theory of relativity. Yet I have also read that there is no physical law preventing anything from exceeding the speed of light, for example, scientist have accelerated light pulses up to 300 times their regular velocity, so I could move faster than light? Is Einstein wrong, but even if he is, would his theory's effects of light travel still take place (infinite mass, etc)? Which is true, can they both be true?
488: Can quantum erasers be used for erasing the past, for example, could they be used in a time machine to undo what you just did to how it was before and "leave without a trace"?
489: What is a faraday cage? How can I build one?
490: I have tried to unify vacuum Buoyancy and antigravity, maybe from sources like dark energy, (basically, that dark "stuff" is just a vacuum that causes antigravity - like the lift in vacuum buoyancy) is my theory supported by any facts that you know of, if not, what disproves it?
491: Lets say that an object was in the way of a beam of light that was moving torward the object, would it be okay to say that instead of the light moving at the speed of light, the object is moving at the speed of light torward the light? If so, would it cause any time dilation or time travel effects?
492: I have heard that if you travel faster than the speed of light you will travel into the past, but what if you slow light down to, lets say, 38mph, and you move at 40mph, is time and light "intertwined", so will the same principle apply when you slow light down? will you travel into the past?
493: If a photon were to be contained and left alone with no other interference like magnetic fields, radiation, etc. Would it decay? If it would, why? (Dont photons move at the speed of light?)
494: If photons are energy or have energy, how can they? Isn't that impossible because they have no mass? E=mc2
495: What is a tachyons rest-mass, at what speed does it move, and with what energy?
496: What is a photons rest-mass, at what speed does it move, and with what energy?
497: How do you calculate rest mass for mass/massless particles? How do you calculate energy compsumtion for a mass particles as it is accelerated faster and faster up to the speed of light, or faster? For massless particles? For tachyon-type particles?
498: Since light is very efficient at "twisting" space and time if a suitable spacecraft were to travel into a very concentrated light beam would it experience any time dilation effects?
499: Since light is very effective at "twisting" space and time if a suitable spacecraft were to have a very concentrated, spinning, sphere of light around it, would it be able to "twist" space to travel at or faster than light, kind of like Alcubierre warp drive?
500: Is there a formula to determine how big of a "dip" the spacetime fabric will curve due to gravity given the mass/density of an object such as the earth or the sun? If so, what is it? Could it be used to determine the "flexibility" of the spacetime fabric and/or how fast it moves?
501: Can gravitational waves be "ridden" on? Can gravitational waves cause time dilation?
502: Would it be possible to enter the atmoshphere safely without the use of a heat shield? How could that be done?

I hope you are doing very well today. I really appreciate you taking the time to answer my questions, you have helped me a great deal on my research. I have always hoped that I would find someone like you and the others at ScienceLine to answer my questions, your answers have been very satisfactory. Again, I thank you for taking the time to help me.

Thank you very much!

What is the energy/speed formula? In other words, given the mass of an object, how can you calculate how much energy you would need to accelerate it to a certian speed?

Why is it impossible to get the square root of a negative, or divide by zero, etc... Why do you get an imaginary number? Shouldn't it work out the same way it does for possitive numbers?

504: If a particle with rest-mass were to, in theory, travel at the speed of light ,would its mass actually be infinite, or just very, very, very, large, just like it would supposedly take an infinite amount of energy to accelerate the particle to the speed of light in the first place? How can you calculate this?
505: How does the sum of the charges on the positive ions compare to the sum of the charges on the negative ions in ionic compounds?
506: Is it possible to make a gravitational well by concentrating the gravitational waves emitted by an object spinning in a circular orbit at a single point, if the object moves fast enought?
507: If a person had enought helium balloons to make a magnet weightless, to counteract the force of gravity, then could you see it interact with the earths magnetic field?
508: Lets just say that someone built a time machine, would he (or she) be able to time travel back to a time before the time machine was invented?
509: Is it possible to glide on the earth's magnetic field, or to have it support a spacecraft? If so, how?
510: If a person were to stay inside a hollow, high- mass object, will time pass slower for him? Will he experience any gravitational pressure while in the object?
511: Light, like gravity, is very efficient at bending the spacetime fabric. How powerful of a beam, or sphere of light would you need to have to bend the spacetime fabric into a 1g well? Actually, what I am really trying to say is: Is there a formula to figure out such a problem like the one above?
512: Since light is electromagnetic radiation, would it be possible to send magnetic charges on a beam of light, or some other way using light?
513: Since black holes make an infinitly deep gravitational well, is it okay to say that it isn't a "well" to some extent, but instead a "hole" in the spacetime fabric?
514: Will a faraday cage make you invisible to radar? if not, what will?
515: I have heard of some experiments on antigravity being done with high-mass spinning rings, and that it supposedly reduces the weight of an object above it when in action, is there any science to support these claims?
516: I have heard of a particle that scientists have a hard time studing because it takes a lot of energy to separate from each other, yet very little to bring them together, what are these particles called, how, or why, do they work in this way?
517: Why cant information be sent faster than light? Couldn't you just increase a photon's speed by using some sort of electrical or magnetic fields, and send the information that way?
518: By how much is a ray of light bent and slowed down when it passes by the earth at certian angles and distances?
519: How does a levitron work, how can I build one? Would it be possible to build a levitron large enought to be supported by the earths magnetic field? Would it have to be transported there or could it lift off from ground level if it had enought power to overcome the force of gravity with the electromagnetic force?
520: Are directional magnetic fields, like directional sound-speakers, possible?
521: This summer there seems to be more rocks up against the cliffs at the beach and less sand. Also the tides seem to be higher, rarely on the minus side and usually plus 3 - 6 feet. Is this usual?
522: I know how long it takes for light to reach us but how long does it take for heat to reach earth from the sun?
523: Lets say that I know how much time dilation will occur at a certian speed, using that, how will I be able to calculate the amount of gravity needed to cause the same amount of time dilation?
524: How would it be possible to produce the strong nuclear force?
525: Does everything really "freeze" when time stops?
526: Could you explain a black hole's singularity? What would be the circumstances in which a person could create one artificially, probably using artificial gravity - so we dont have a super large gravitational well?
527: Lets say that a person was spinning around and around in a circle, as a consequence the centripetal force applied gives him/her the effect of gravity and weight, but could that person counteract that effect by being in a hollow hight-mass sphere, will those effects be balanced out in the center of the hight-mass sphere, does it depend on the size, ect... of the sphere?
528: Why do Hexane extracted lipids from diatoms look yellow-brown (like a light beer)?
529: When you put a balloon filled with water over a flame such as a candle, why doesn't the balloon pop or burst?
530: Since material objects (basically energy) create a gravitational "force" and that gravitational force can be detected, then would it be possible to gain that energy (of the material objects) from gravity? (To create another, exact gravitational field).
531: Could you use an existing gravitational field (for example: The Earth's) against itself? (For example, changing the direction of the field, ect...) If so, how?
532: How does quantum entanglement work? What does it do? How could it be used or "generated" (produced)?
533: Is there a formula or equation or proccess to figure out the thrust, lifting capacity, etc... of a rocket by burning hydrogen and oxygen given certian values/variables, ect...? If so, What is it?
534: When you are in a gravitational field, for example, on the surface of the earth, gravity pushes down on the surface and the surface pushes back - equally and in the opposite direction, so why is gravity not balanced out to cause no gravity at the surface?
535: If you are using a plant for phytoextraction of metal in the soil, how would you seperate and measure the amount of metal in the soil and in the plant?
536: A person carrying a heavy bag normally finds the impact of the weight differently if he carries it in different ways. For example if he carries it by the handle or by a strap on the shoulder or putting the whole bag on top of his shoulder. Why is this so (as the weight of the bag is the same in all the cases)?
537: Is there any energy/force formula? In other words, what is the formula to find the energy produced by the gravitational attraction of two objects? What are some ways that energy could be used or stored?

Hi! Thanks for answering my questions.

Lets say two weights are on a board, and their weight is balanced by a log, under the board at the center between the weights. Naturally, if one side of the board is unbalanced it will slowly fall to the ground, making the other weight rise up higher into the air, what are some ways that someone could do that same experiment "wirelessly", in other words, without the board but simply having that energy exchange between the weights be "wireless"?

539: How do you create synthetic elements?
540: Thanks for answering my questions! How would it be possible to transfer energy wirelessly? Energy such as kinetic energy or gravitational energy? Any information would be helpful, I really hope you can tell me how or where I can get information to be able to transfer those types of energies, or in what types of situations that could be done.
541: Since quarks are much smaller than atoms, and parts of an atom consist of quarks ,why is an atom still the main building block of matter?
542: Why is chromatography useful in the separation of photosynthetic pigments?
543: If you put a mento mint in diet coke, would it really blow up?
544: Why does a transistor radio wrap in foil get quiet?
545: I understand that when a sun begins to die and starts to expand to red giant or supernova the protons have too much great forces acting upon on them that they touch too many protons that they are repelling so much, yet they barely can even push because another atoms are squeezing the protons. Basically the proton needs to escape to somewhere. But how do they escape the sun and where do they go to?
546: How do you illustrate a metallic bond? I understand covalent and ionic bonding, but can't visualize metallic bonding. Thank you
547: How does the air temperature affect the size of a balloon?
548: We learned that we can find gases in water. Can we ever find plasmas under water?
549: Is a strand of hair stronger than a strand of steel the same size?
550: What type of bridge is built the most? Which design is the strongest? How are they tested? What materials are the strongest? How much planning goes into the design? How often are bridges checked? How are different bridge designs selected?
551: If you attempted to create a soap bubble, by blowing air into soapy water, would it form if you did this inside a vacuum? What would happen?
552: Currently our class is learning about centripetal force. In a recent lab, a model airplane was attached to a spring scale and the plane was set into a circular motion. Once this was done the weight of the plane appeared to increase, however it was just that more force (centripetal force) was acting on the plane. Here is where the question arises. The plane appeared to have weighed more, but when a person sends an object into circular motion (for example swinging a hammer in a circular motion and then throwing it) the object appears to the thrower to be lighter. Why when the object "weighs more", does it feel lighter when being thrown?
553: How long does it take a rocket ship to get to the moon, and how fast will the rocket be going?
554: How many days does it take to go from Earth to Jupiter?
555: How did the asteroid belt form?
556: How can the sun stay togther if its made out of gases?
557: Why are you not crushed by atmospheric pressure?
558: If light reflects off an object and that is the color that we see, how does a projector (like an LCD projector) send light to a screen to bounce back to our eyes?

Hello! Thanks for helping me before with my questions, I am wondering about the possibilities of time travel, and my teachers can't help me. So, here it is:

If, theoretically, some one was able to travel faster than the speed of light, thus, theoretically, traveling back in time, would it be possible to get those effects or results gravitationally? In other words, instead of reaching a certain speed to reverse time, the person stays in a very large gravity field to do that time dilation. So, if you had a large enough gravity field could it actually reverse time, doing the same thing as if you were traveling faster than C? If not, why? If so, why/how? Is there a formula to calculate that? Could it be done using an artificial gravitational field?

560: I have heard that the speed of light is absolute. But, what about if you are (theoretically) traveling at the speed of light, will light be going the speed of light faster than that? Why is the speed of light absolute, how does it work out?
561: Why is it more difficult to steer a bike when your hands are close together on the handle bars?
562: I would like to know the name and more about the law that says that "energy can never be created or destroyed, just transformed from one form to another".
563: How can light pass through transparent solids like glass and clear plastic?
564: How do all the electrons absorb the light and then release the the light in the same direction? Is that a characteristic of the materials?

Thanks so much,

565: We understand that the temperature of the thermoshere gets as high as 1700 degrees celsius, but if you were outside in the thermosphere it would feel cold... or you would freeze. Is this true? Why is this?

Hi! Thank you for helping me with my previous questions, I was wondering if you guys could give me some insight on the following.

We all know that electrons create tighter bonds between, or in, substances. Electrons are found in electricity, as a matter of fact, electricity, or an electric current, is basically a stream of electrons. So when talking about something like ionic or metallic bonds, if you were to pass an electric current throught a substance, most likely a metal like copper or metal foil or of some other sort, would that significantly increase the materials strenght? I have heard that metallic bonds do contribute to somethings strenght and many other things. If not, why? If so, could the phenomenon be controlled, for example, increasing or decreasing the additional strenght of the material by increasing or decreasing the electric current passing throught it? How could I produce this phenomenon in a safe experiment, how should it be designed? How significant would the increase in strength be given the metal, could I calculate that? Would I get the same results as passing electricity throught a material if I simply charged it with a given amount of electricity/electrons? What metal or other material would be the best to use? Is there someother was I could increase a materials strength besides this way?

567: How come whenever I go round and round in a circle it looks like I am going very, very fast, when really I am going very slowly? It is so strange. I very much want to know! So, if you have an answer please send it to me. Until my next question, good bye!
568: Does the speed at which an object is moving affect its gravity?
569: What are the effects of the nuclear forces on space-time? In other words, I know that enough gravity effects time dilation, and probably a strong enough electromagnetic field would do the same, but what about the stronger forces, gravity is the weakest of all of the forces, but what would a stronger force (the nuclear forces) do? Would you need "less" amount of nuclear force to do the same time dilation as an electromagnetic field would do? How could I calculate that?
570: I want to apoligize for being so late to respond to your message, but I would like to thank the kind scientist for the answers he provided for my previous questions, and all of your help too. Thank you. I also need some insight on the following, I suppose I have to ask a question because this is where I am supposed to do it: I know there is a formula out there used for speed or time dilation or something like that, it has been reffered to when people say 'when you go faster than the speed of light, time passes backwards' I was wondering if you guys knew of such a formula, it would be helpful. Thanks again for those previous answers.
571: I have heard that (theoretically) one could travel into the past by moving faster than the speed of light. Again, I do know that to our current knowledge moving faster than light is impossible, but for the sake of the example lets say that it is possible. So anyway, if you were to travel faster than the speed of light, wouldnt time "move" backwards for YOU? If so, then how would you be "traveling" into the past, in general?
572: If someone got sucked into a black hole what would happen to them? Would they fall and fall or would they hit something? If they hit something what would they hit?
573: How does the sun move around the planet?
574: Why the same poles attract in magnets?
575: Why is the Earth more like a Sphere than like a Cube?
576: We are studying electricity in Physics right now and I was wondering how a three-way light bulb works. Does it require more electricity for the birghter level of lighting? Are there more cells involved or is it just the way the bulb is made?
577: I have some bismuth metal, but it doesnt seem to repel from magnetic fields. So I was wondering if I need a stronger magnetic field or more bismuth, how can I calculate the diamagnetic force caused by bismuth? Any information would be a big help.

I have a very bright 8th grade student who asked me something I can't answer.

If one were to put some sort of mechanism underneath a big rock that converted the pressure of the rock against the earth into electricity, then how is that not some sort of perpetual energy source? The gravitational potential energy is not changing if the rock is not moving; yet the pressure it exerts must be a kind of energy that can be theoretically converted into electricity, no? The gravitational energy does not "wear out" in this situation... so isn't that a perpetual energy source?

I'm just not sure how to answer his question. He and I both think we understand the basic concepts of gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy. Any guidance you can give us on answering his question would be most appreciated. thank you!

579: My class was reading a story on the sun and they told us an exact temperature of the sun. How did they get the temperature of the sun if it is to hot to even get near it?
580: I was wondering why images look magnified when you look at them through water?

Hi! I hope everything has been going well. I need some help on the following:
I want to calculate the amount of force on a NdfeB magnet. The amount of force on each particle (or atom) in the magnet is 0.000000000065024 newtons. to calculate the atoms in the magnet I did: grams/10.811 (10.811 is the atomic number of boron) which equals 37.85958746. Next, I multiplyed that by avagadros number: 37.85958746 times (6.02214 times 10 to the 23 power)and I got 2.27995736 times 10 to the 26 power. when I multiply the number of atoms by the force on each atom I get about: 1.482656617 times 10 to the 16 power newtons. That is A LOT of newtons! I dont understand why I am getting so much for just a magnet. I dont know what I may be doing wrong. I hope you can help. Thanks.

Hello, I have some more information regarding my force problem: The dimensions of the magnet that I am using are: 1.5" by 3" by 3/4" This is how I got 6.5024E-11 N of force per atom: I used this formula: F=qv times B f= force q= test particle of charge, q at rest that point (proton, I believe) v= velocity of particle sin= angle of particle or B, in other words B = 12700 guass times (10to the power of -4 tesla divided by 1 guass) = 12.7 tesla, B= 12.7 tesla q= (proton) 1.60 times 10 to the power of -19 coulombs v= 3.2 times 10 to the power of 7 m/s angle= 90 degrees, or 1.57 radians The following are my calculations: F= [(1.60 time 10 to the - 19 power coulombs) times (3.2 times 10 to the 7 power m/s)] times 12.7 tesla = 1.60 times 10 to the -19 power coulombs times 32000000m/s times 12.7 tesla = 5.12 times 10 to the -12 power times 12.7 tesla = 6.5024 times 10 to the -11 power N = 0.000000000065024 newtons (on one particle).

582: Does a car with a full tank of gas get lower gas mileage due to its added mass than one with say, a quarter tank of gas?
Could you explain this to me in terms of Newton's 2nd Law and the work-energy theory. Thank you!

583: How come soy sauce doesnt freeze?
584: I heard that in quantum physics there is something like 11 dimensions. How would you know if something is coming from a different dimension or something like that? What would be an example of something going through or coming from those different "degrees of freedom?"
585: I think I heard once that Einstein once came up with a formula that showed how much gravity would be created if you had a certian amount of electromagnetic force. Obviously it would be very, very small. I think it had to do with some sort of anomalies when scientists were testing an "anti gravity" device. I could be wrong, but if that formula exists, what is it? I would like to know.
586: I'm sorry if I confused you about the calculations with the force on the magnet. It turns out that they are inccorect. They are not compatable with the second question I asked you, about the formula to calculating the diamagnetic force created by bismuth. So, if you can direct me to any information or if you have a formula that I can use to calculate the diamagnetic force created by bismuth it would be a big help. I was wondering if I could modify a formula for calculating magnetic force and use that for bismuth, but you guys know more than I do, I would really appreciate the help. So, I guess my question is to put it simply, What is the formula for calculating the diamagnetic force created by bismuth? (at certian points in space taking into acount the magnet and its certian properties, the bismuths properties, etc...)
587: Thanks for your help so far, but when calculating the diamagnetic force created by bismuth, it would be much easier (at least for me) to use a formula, or a couple of basic formulas to calculate the diamagnetic force. So if you guys have a formula that I could plug in all the variables into TO CALCULATE THE DIAMAGNETIC FORCE CREATED BY BISMUTH that would be a big help. Thanks for your help so far.
588: Is possible to rid metallic bonds of atoms, in any metal, permanently or for any duration of time? And is it possible to reverse the spin of electrons, and if so, how?
589: Why is it hotter at the equator than at the poles?
590: Hi! How can I calculate the magnetic force on an object, such as bismuth? Is that force on the entire object or on just one particle?
591: Hi! Thanks again for the textbook. I have been doing a project refering to diamagnetism. I need to demonstrate diamagnetism in a experiment. I want to levitate, or be able to move, a sample of bismuth. I need information on how I can do that, on how I can calculate mathematically to lift a sample of bismuth. I could really use your help. Thanks.
592: You said that "the mathamatics is not simple" in calculating the diamagnetic force of bismuth. For me, even if the math is not simple, I would prefer that I recieve (If it is possible) the math fundamental to the experiment that I am doing so I can do the math. It would be much easier for me. Thanks.

Hi! I have a question regarding calculating the diamagnetic force:
You guys said "to calculate the diamagnetic force, use the magnetic susceptibility of bismuth to calculate the induced counter- magnetic field in the bismuth... the magnetization of bismuth will cause it to have a magnetic dipole that is opposite to that of the induced magnet." So, by my understanding you guys are saying that the magnetization of bismuth (which I can calculate by multiplying the magnetic susceptibility of bismuth by the strenght of the applied magnetic field) will cause the induced counter-magnetic field in bismuth? In other words: THE MAGNETIZATION OF BISMUTH WILL CAUSE THE INDUCED COUNTER-MAGNETIC FIELD IN BISMUTH? I CAN CALCULATE THE INDUCED COUNTER-MAGNETIC FIELD IN BISMUTH BY CALCULATING THE MAGNETIZATION OF BISMUTH? THE MAGNETIZATION OF BISMUTH WILL GIVE YOU THE INDUCED COUNTER- MAGNETIC FIELD IN BISMUTH, WHICH WILL GIVE YOU THE DIAMAGNETIC FORCE?

Again, you guys said "to calculate the diamagnetic force, use the magnetic susceptibility of bismuth to calculate the induced counter-magnetic field in the bismuth" DO I USE THE FORMULA TO CALCULATE THE MAGNETIZATION OF BISMUTH TO CALCULATE THIS TOO? Again, to calculate the magnetization of bismuth:I can calculate by multiplying the magnetic susceptibility of bismuth by the strenght of the applied magnetic field

594: Hi! I have been using the following website to calculate the magnetic strenght of a magnet from a distance:
I would appreciate your opinion on the accuracy of those calculations. If you guys have other (possibly more accurate) formulas that I could use instead of that website, I would love to use them. I just want to make sure that the results from that website that I am basing my experiment on are accurate enought. Thanks.

595: How gravity pulls exists? and How the concept of movement create magnetic pulls?
596: Hi! I have a question involving one of Tesla's inventions: Tesla's oscillator, otherwise know as Tesla's earthquake machine. I was wondering if it could really work, and if it does, if it would be possible to protect yourself from its effects.
597: Hi! I have been hearing a lot about a cool alloy: shape memory alloy. I know it can go back to its original shape when exposed to a certian temperature, but I was wondering, are there any alloys that do the same when exposed to a magnetic, or electro-magnetic field? By the way, how can one make shape memory alloy? Thanks for your help.
598: Hi! I have heard of this really cool "liquid metal" at liquidmetal.com, are there any publicly avaliable products of liquid metal?
599: Hi! I need help regarding calculating the diamagnetic force:
If I am correct, (correct me if I'm wrong) then lets use the following example of a calculation of the magnetization of bismuth that will cause an induced magnetic dipole that is opposite of the applied field.
(magnetization = magnetic susceptibility * applied magnetic field strenght)
M = (-1.66 * 10^-4) * 1 tesla
M = -0.00166
(correct me if my math is wrong)
- How do I know or calculate the size of the sample of bismuth?
- How do I know when I have enough force to levitate or move the sample of bismuth?
- What am I supposed to measure
"M = -0.00166" in,
What units do I use?
How do I figure out the diamagnetic force (in Newtons) from "M = -0.00166" (to answer question two)

600: Hi! I need some clarification on some information you sent me before:
M = -.000166 * H
and by defenition,
B = mu_0 * (H+M)
= mu_0 * (H - .000166 * H)
= mu_0 * 0.999834 * H
- What do all of the variables stand for?
- What purpose does the calculation serve, what do I calculate using the above?
- Is it the size of the bismuth sample... how do you calculate that?

601: Hi! Have the strong and weak nuclear forces been unified with the electromagnetic force? How could that be theoretically done? Is there some sort of formula or equation for this unification as well?
602: Hi! If you go to www.hyperphysics.phy- astr.gsu.edu/hbase/HFrame.html and click on condensed matter, then go to diamagnetism and check out the Table of magnetic susceptibilities, it states that Bismuth's magnetic susceptibility is -16.6, is that correct, is that equal to -1.66*10-4? Which should I use?
603: Hi! Thanks for the answers. To answer your question (What is the density of bismuth?) The density of bismuth is about 9.80 g/cm3. Is that how I can figure out the answers to some of the questions I asked? (How do I calculate the size of the sample of bismuth, etc..?) I NEED TO KNOW HOW TO DO THAT! Also, when I am able to figure that out, about how strong of a magnet do you think I will need to propel, or levitate, the bismuth?

Also, because you said that the magnetization of bismuth is measured in Teslas, then how do I calculate the force (Newtons) on the bismuth from those calculations? I NEED TO KNOW HOW TO DO THAT! Thanks again for that information.

604: Hi! How could I calculate the amount of bismuth needed, and the magnetic field needed (of the levitated object) to levitate the magnetic material above the bismuth? (This seems easier than levitating bismuth over a magnet)
605: Hi! I'm having some trouble with the formula to find the force between the Bismuth and the magnet:
F = mu_0/2*M*A*H and figuring out the size and mass of the bismuth. Could you show me how it's done, so I can use that as a model for further calculations? The unit conversions and numbers are a little confusing and I want to make sure I'm doing it right. Thanks.

606: Hi! Thanks for the information. Previously, you said that to calculate the force betweeen the bismuth and the magnet, use the following formula: F=mu_0/2*M*A*H but then you gave me a different formula: F=magnetic field*magnetic susceptibility*surface area of magnet Which do I use?
607: Is there a limit on how low a frequency of RF can be generated by interstellar processes? What is the lowest frequency ever detected in space? This question bears on an interesting effect I worked out about gravitational lenses. Thanks.
608: Hello, I am a student in AP Environmental science at Agoura High school. I have been reading through the text book over the summer. I thought that rainfall was supposed to be higher on the ocean side of a mountain range but am finding that rainfall is higher in Agoura Hills than in Malibu which is just over the mountains from us. Why do we have more rain than Malibu?
609: Hi! Thank you so much for the information to calculate diamagnetic force! How do you convert from tesla to amps/meter?
610: Hi! When getting a sample of bismuth, apart from the samples dimensions, about how much bismuth should I use, should I use relatively little, or will I get better results using more bismuth? About how strong, and what kind of magnet should I be looking for for this experiment, where could I get those kinds of magnets that you would approve of?
611: Hi! I know that you said that the mass of the bismuth doesn't really matter, but could I calculate - before any experimentation - the weight limit for a sample of bismuth based on the magnet's strength? How do I calculate that? Thanks so much for your help.
612: Are you sure that the formula for diamagnetic force (B2/z=mu_0*p*g/x) is correct? I just want to be 100% sure so I can accurately calculate the force for the experiment, I don't want to do the experiment and find out that it was incorrect. Maybe I'm thinking this because you said you simplified it a little bit, and it seems like something is missing. If it is possible, I would like to know the unsimplifed version also, even if it is more complex. Then I could decide if it is within my knowledge to do, and I could also compare results from the simpler version of the formula. Thanks for your help, you've helped me a lot.
613: We have liquid nitrogen slowly boiling away in a foam bowl. We put a penny into the liquid nitrogen. We see some vigorous bubbling around the penny. After awhile, the bubbling suddenly crescendos to a big burst, with sound and some splattering, before quickly settling down to quiet bubbling with small bubbles. What's this burst all about? I would have thought intuitively that as the penny cooled down and reached some equilibrium temperature the bubbling would settle down in a smooth way. Thanks!
614: IMPORTANT Hi! You said the following formula was used for diamagnetic levitation: B2/Z=mu_0*P*G/X. But what specifically? I need to find the diamagnetic force created. And even if I find the values of B2 and Z, how do I use them to calculate the diamagnetic force? Thank you so much!
615: IMPORTANT Hi! In the formula B2/Z=mu_0*P*G/X, B, the magnetic field (in teslas) is squared. In a real experiment, would I use the value of just B, calculate by (B=the square root of Z*mu_0*P*G/X) or B2, as it is represented originally in the formula? Thank you so much!
616: IMPORTANT Hi! What is the difference between B, the magnetic field (in teslas) and H, the magnetic field strength (in Amps per meter) how do I tell the difference in a formula and when specifying the value of B or H in the result of a calculation - what do I put down, B or H and for what, how do I know? Thank you so much!
617: What happens beyond an event horizon?
618: Hi, Anthony. I hope you are having a good day. I would just like to thank you so much for the help that you have given me in answering and providing crucial information for my experiment. I cant thank you enought for what you have done. Once again, and honestly, thank you so much! - Fineas When I did the initial calculations for B^2/z=mu_0*p*G/x I found that the answer of mu_0*p*G/x was negative, but any answer of B^2/z will be positive. How do I solve this problem, the formula doesnt seem to work out?
619: How does something implode?
620: Why do balloons expand when you put soap in them and then in the microwave?
621: What happen to the balloon when it goes higher up in the air? Does its size increase or decrease?
622: Hi! I have been having trouble getting a formula to calculate torque for a spinning cone. Really, it is a spinning cone (it is spinning to create centrifigal force) with the cone part "cut off" it doesnt have the bottom point part, but instead has a flat bottom. So it is like a cylender with angled sides. Think of only the top half of a cone. I also need to know how to calculate work for the same situation. The shape is a cone, or what is explained above. Thanks so much for your help!
623: Hi! I have a question regarding the magnetic levitation formula. I calculated than the answer for (mu_0*p*g/x)in the formula b2/z=mu_0*p*g/x. It is 726.49 T2/m. I was wondering, that means that b2/z also has to equal 726.49 T2/m. Does that insure that the bismuth will levitate? In other words, if I calculate that (b2/z) is less than 726.49 T2/m, then the bismuth will not levitate? It has to be perfectly 726.49 T2/m... or more? Thanks for your help.
624: I need to find the volume of a stone but it is too large to fit into a beaker, and I have enough water to fill the beaker. How can I find the volume of a stone?
625: If you take water in to space and open the container it is in will the water stay together and float?
626: Hi! I'm still having some trouble with my torque problem. My cone-like object that I described before is rotating on its central axis at a constant speed. How do I calculate the torque and work for this situation. Also, does the mass and height matter, before, you didnt seem to use that in your formulas? Thanks for your help.
627: I was wondering if there was any way to split toxic, polluting chemicals into their constituent parts of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, and then maybe combine the hydrogen and oxygen to make water for the water crisis and use the explosion from that to power homes or machinery. I think it's a stretch of the imagination, but is there any way for it to be possible now or in the future?
628: Why do electrons flow so freely in water, is it possible to make wires/circuits with thin rubber tubes containing water, would those tube pass electrons faster?
629: Will electricity act any different in space?
630: Why doesn't Elmer glue stick to its bottle?

Is fire considered a gas or soild?

And how does Oxygen fuel fire?

Does it change the chemical reaction or is it the force of the oxygen that spreads the burning substance?

- Thanks!

632: I was wondering why CH4 and NF3 are "stronger greenhouse gasses" than CO2. My guess is that there are more bonds and it takes much more energy to break those bonds so they trap more infrared energy. The limit would be when the bonds break? thanks and hello
633: What exactly are white holes, and how are they formed?
634: Why is it that when you are driving in a convertible in the rain you do not get wet?
635: Hi! I know that Faraday cages are good at blocking electromagnetic radiation and such, but can they also block magnetic fields? Thanks for your help.
636: Where can I find age appropiate research on the effects of sand, pennies, and paperclips on water.

I was watching Modern Marvels and they were talking about things that used extremely high temperatures. On the show they showed something called a plasma converter. What it does is it uses very dense plasma at 30,000 degrees F to basically melt waste into its constituent atomic elements. It said that no matter how hazardous the waste is, it still gets broken down. They also said that it uses more energy, and that the byproducts are hydrogen and other gases that can be used to produce energy for the converter and the extra energy used for other things. It also creates an obsidian-like stone that has potential for a road base. I would like to know:

a. Is this being used around the world and to what extent?
b. What is being done to make this a more common use for energy and getting rid of waste?
c. What are the cons to something like this? Do they outweigh the pros?

638: What are electrons made of?
639: If our body is al atoms that vibrate, would cellphones, laptops and other electronics change our natural vibrations?
640: If sound waves generate energy, is there any way to capture that energy (in places like airports, noisy cities, subways, etc) and use it as an alternate energy source?
641: Our Physics class has recently been studying friction. We learned that the force of friction is dependant solely on the Coefficient of Friction and the Normal Force of the object, not on surface area. My question to you is this: if you have two small pieces of Velcro stuck together and two large pieces of Velcro stuck together, would it be harder to pull apart the larger pieces than it would the smaller pieces or would the force of friction be the same for both because it is independent of surface area?
642: I am trying to find the material that would best absorb a vehicle's impact with a cement barrier. To do this I am using a hot wheels car that does not have a crumple zone, therefore my results are being the opposite of what they should be. Is there some way to explain a foam barrier is more absorbant than a cement barrier, even though the hotwheels car travels back farther after htting the foam barrier than the cement barrier? This would not happen in real life because of the crumple zone. Thank you
643: In physics, when you are pulling an object along with a spring scale, and you are trying to find the static friction, Does the static friction result on how hard you are pulling the object? Is it that the harder you pull the greater the static friction/ the less you pull the less amount of static friction?
644: What exactly is plasma?
645: Since water conducts electricity, if a persons entire body is soaking wet would that then make being struck by lightning make it more life threatening?
646: Is plasma really the fourth state of matter?
647: Theoretically speaking, if you were to travel to or near the core of the Earth, would you be heavier because the radius would decrease between you and the core; therefore, decreasing the radius in the formula Fg=Gm1m2/r2 and increasing the Fg?
648: Does the ozone layer affect the gravitational field strength? If so, how?
649: What is the mechanical advantage of a 6-m long ramp that extends from a ground-level sidewalk to a 2-m high porch?
650: Hi! I hope you are having a happy new year!
How can I calculate how much force (in newtons) a 1/2 in and 1 in thick steel (preferably stainless steel) can take?
Thanks for your help!

651: How are rainbows created? How is rain created?
652: What happens to a marshmallow when the marshmallow is microwaved?
653: Why do electrons only spin two different ways? What prevents them from spinning in other directions?
654: Hi! I have a question involving some mechanical background. I was wondering where I could get a sort of "circular railing" mechanism. To go into more detail, there would be a rotating cylinder inside of a stationary outer circular part, with some sort of railing mechanism that would allow the cylinder to rotate inside of the circular part. The dimension would be decently large, the rotating cylinder would probably have a diameter of about 12-15 inches. Any info on some sort of "circular railing" mechanisms would be helpful, even something I could make myself. Thanks for your help.
655: What are the possible outcomes of the atom accelerator in France?
656: What would happen if you froze a marshmallow and then tried to burn it?
657: What would happen if you threw a human out into space without a space suit?
658: What effect can a microwave have on DNA? (The myth that sitting on a microwave can change your DNA.
659: Recently, I was at Cedar Point Park in Sandusky, Ohio. While there, I watched the ride "Top Thrill Dragster", in which a train gets launched at 120 mph towards a 42-story hill. Many times as I watched, the train did not get all the way to the top. When this happened, the train was brought back down and reloaded, with the heaviest people in the front and the lightest people in the back. Why did they do this?
660: When riding a roller coaster at Cedar Point I noticed that some rides warn you that the roller coaster is not always able to make it all the way up the first hill and if it does not it will slowly come back down. I was wondering why this happens sometimes and most of the time the roller coaster runs smoothly. Thank You,
661: How fast do nerves send signals to and from the brain?
662: Does invisible ink have a chemical reaction? How does invisible ink work?
663: How do trick candles work?
664: Hi! I have a pretty interesting question to ask: Force has units of mass and acceleration (N). Acceleration, like that we experience on earth, can cause time dilation. So does that mean that when a force is applied to an object, it experiences time dilation?
665: Why does a can implode when it's heated and turned into water with ice?
666: I am doing a science fair project and my question is: "Do non-video game players have faster reactions than video game players? I was wondering if there is any way at all to improve your reaction time. If you have any information that you think will help me please answer to my question. Thank you!
667: What is the chemical reaction that makes pop rocks pop?
668: What is dark matter and how does it react to common materials?
669: Imagine a toothpick on top of water. It is floating on the water but it is also supported by the surface tension of water. Which supports it first?
670: What is a Galvonometer?

I am a middle school teacher. Today I did a lesson in which students determined what their weight would be on the other planets in our solar system. We used a formula I found on the internet in another teacher's lesson Plan; the formula is:

Mass (weight on earth) x gravity (different for each planet) = weight on that planet.
The gravity chart I used looked like this:
Earth: 1
Our Moon 0.17
Venus .90
Mars 0.38
Mercury 0.38
Jupiter 2.36
Saturn 0.92
Uranus 0.89
Neptune 1.13
Pluto 0.07.

My students quickly filled in the chart and discovered how heavy they would be on Jupiter, how light they'd be on our Moon, and Pluto, and Mars and Mercury. Since they finished so quickly I asked them to find their Planetary Average Weight. We decided to throw out the Moon (not a planet) and Pluto (not a real planet anymore.) We found that every single student had an average planetary weight that was within one pound of their weight on Earth! I was in awe of this "co-incidence." I tried more weights, and the result was always the same: 8 planets, total weight on each, divided by eight ALWAYS equals Earth weight. So here are my questions:

What makes this true every time?
Is the fact that this is true the reason that Earth is just right for life?
Does our home planet have that magic gravity amount that is exactly the solar system average?
Do the planets acting together add up to the perfect gravity environment for Earth? Or does this formula have other implications?
I am very interested to know your response. Thank you very much.

672: What does R.A.D.A.R. stands for?
673: Why doesn't vodka freeze?

Maybe you could answer this question that has bothered me since I was at school.
If I stood on some scales situated on the exact North or South pole, would I weigh the same or less than if I were standing on the equator? Bearing in mind that centrifugal force would be acting on me on the equator but that the mass of planet beneath my feet would be more, which I believe means that the gravity here would be stronger!

675: How does spin affect the trajectory of a kicked soccerball?
676: Why is it that alcohol can not freeze?
677: How does the zink and copper conduct electricity?
678: Is every single snowflake different?
679: What geometrical shapes create structures that are both strong and light?
680: Why is it that metals/metal objects are prohibited from being used in the microwave?
681: Hypothetically speaking, if you were in a car going at the speed of light, what would happen if you turned your headlights on.
682: Can a candle burn in zero gravity?
683: How does the same thermos keep coffee hot, but milk cold?
684: How can information travel through copper and glass cables without any of the information being damaged, and still all end up at its destination as an exact replica of the original copy.
685: How do Pop Rocks work?
686: Hi! Thanks for your help so far. I have heard of a good way to connect two rotating parts, using a "press fit". I heard that there is a formula to calculate the deviation between the diameters of the two parts being connected, but have so far havent found it on my own. Do you know the formula? Thanks for your help!
687: Why does R22 Freon get cold when it expands?
688: Why when you drop a mentos into a coke bottle it fizzes and creates a fountain?
689: I went to Lotusland in a School field trip and I saw a magnetic rock. It had several paper clips stuck to it. What makes the rock to be magnetic? Can you explain to me also how their atoms behave?
690: What are some (elementary) mixtures I can do in the classrom with my students?
691: How does LCD work in television sets?
692: Which contains more oxygen, hot water or cold water? THANK YOU.
693: Does the center of a golf ball determine how long it will bounce?
694: Why does helium alter one's voice?
695: If absolute zero is the term for when all molecular movement stops, what is the term (if there is one) for when molecules move at the absolute fastest they can?
696: Is there a difference when using an ionic blow dryer compared to a normal one? Also is there a difference when using a ceramic flat iron verses a regular one?
697: Would I weigh less at the bottom of a mind shaft than on the surface?
698: How do fluorescent lamps make so much light without a lot of heat?
699: When coffee dries, why does it all go to the edge?
700: If absolute zero is the coldest possible temperature, what is the hottest possible temperature?
701: Why does a wet spot look darker?
702: I wanted to know at what point or phase we are in during the Suns 11 year cycle of minimum and maximum solar activity? And if we are at a maximum or minimum does it have any affect on the Earths climate? And lastly if we are at a maximum of solar activity could this be affecting our global temperatures and thus increase global warming?
703: How do electrons and orbitals overlap to form molecular orbitals (consisting of sigma and pi bonds).
704: How are people able to harness the energy generated from waterwheels and turn it into electricity?
705: Why does pure water not conduct electricity?
706: Is there any element that could react with guitar strings that would change the tone of the strings, but maintain functionality?
707: Why doesn't alcohol freeze?
708: Why is the sky blue?
709: In the crushing can experiment, what is it that makes the can crush? Why is it when the can is heated, than droped into the water, it is crushed?
710: Why does the sky look blue?
711: Why is salt put on icy sidewalks?
712: At what depth does an object that is normally buoyant actually sink? Can this happen?
713: Hi.

What is the pressure at the center of a planet? For example, the pressure at 3 foot depth measured from the earth's surface under rock would be approximately 2.5 pounds per square inch.

It is commonly accepted that the gravity at the planet center is zero, equal mass pulling on either side cancels out in the middle. If an object at the center has no weight, then it cannot push on an adjacent object, so there should be no pressure exerted.

I believe the pressure distribution curve looks like half a cycle of a sine wave, the part above the horizontal line on the graph, with the depth being the horizontal axis and the left side being the surface, peaking somewhere around 1/2 or 2/3 the radius, dropping to zero at the center.

Most accounts claim high pressures and temperatures at the planet center, with the pressure causing the high temperature. I theorize the temperatures are high not because of pressure, but because the planets still have not cooled off after being created.

I am not looking for a numerical answer, just an explanation of how the pressure can be anything but zero in a zero gravity field. An assumption I have made is the planet is basically a pile of gravel held together by it's own gravity, not a prestressed structure similar in construction to a prestressed concrete beam, where there would be stress in the middle regardless of gravity. Most accounts claim planets form from the aggregation of material so assume no pre-stressing elements in the construction of a planet.


714: If a balloon was put into a vacuum chamber, would the balloon explode? Would there be a different result if the balloon were filled to capacity rather than being filled just a little? Would the size of the chamber make a difference in relation to the size of the balloon? Also, what might be the outcome be if the balloon were made into an animal, etc. with two or more pieces to it?
Thank you for your time.

715: Hi! I have a question concerning the properties of centrifugal acceleration and force: Lets say I have a sphere rotating in a circle inside of a spinning cone (it remains the same distance from the center of the cone at all times) Then, lets say you put some thing on that sphere, like a ring (ex. bearings that hold more balls together with a ring) or lets say you simply put a HEAVIER sphere into the cone to rotate alongside the first sphere. Now, my question is: would the heavier sphere rotate at the same distance away from the center as the first sphere (Both spheres are experiencing the same outward ACCELERATION) and would the sphere with the ring still continue to spin at the same distance? In my thinking, I would say yes, because both spheres experience the same acceleration, so they should stay at the same distance away from the center (the outward acceleration and gravity cancel out there - where they are rotating) I would say this because of what we see with gravity: (ex. mass does not matter, ACCELERATION acts the same on any object, but can produce a stronger force. (In the case of the spheres, the heavier sphere produces a larger centrifugal force) Am I right? Please help! Any info will be appreciated! Thanks!
716: Hi! I was wondering how close a rotary object would need to be to another stationary surface (the clearance between the two objects) in order to make a watertight "seal" or space. Does it differ with different mediums (ex. not water but oil, or air?) Any info will be appreciated. Thanks!
717: Hi! Thanks for your help on my previous question concerning centrifugal force. I have another question about that: Assuming that one has a cone rotating at some speed on earth's surface, with gravity pointing directy down, would it be possible to have the same spheres that I talked about in my last question support a larger mass? LET ME EXPLAIN: So, you have your cone, and you have a few rotating spheres inside that cone, let's say 4 rotating spheres. Those sphere rotate inside of the cone where gravity and the upward accelerating of the cone cancel out. Now on those spheres is a platform that is allowed to rest on the rotating spheres. The rotating sphere rest inside carved out heim-spheres inside that platform, thus supporting the platform. NOW FOR MY FIRST QUESTION: would the spheres still rotate at the same distance away from the center of the cone? I think yes, because gravity and the upward acceleration of the cone still cancel out. AM I RIGHT? Now let's say a mass is allowed to rest on the rotating platform that is supported by the rotating spheres... Is the entire mass of the spheres, platform, and mass still "cancelled out" due to my thinking in the first question? Now for my last and most important question: What if a non- rotating platform and mass rest upon those rotating spheres, is the entire mass still supported? In ohter words, because the spheres rotate at a point in the cone where gravity is cancelled out due to the cones upward acceleration, the spheres do not have any more measurable weight. But would that still hold true for a non-rotating platform on the rotating spheres, and the mass on the platform? Please let me know. Any info will be accepted, sorry for this super-long question, but THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR YOUR HELP!!!
718: We are not students or teachers from a school, just from life, we just have a question we want answered. What happens when you open a can of soda in space?
719: Hi! I have a question involving pistons... What is the average clearance, or space, between the piston of a car that moves up and down, and the outer part that the piston moves in? The clearance obviously must be small enought to provide an air-tight seal, but I also want to know what the max. possible clearance between two objects can be to still allow an air- tight "seal"? Thanks for your help! I hope to be hearing from you soon.
720: Hi, Did you get these questions?

Would it be possible to make a clearance between two objects so small that it would prevent water from passing between those objects, essentially making the mechanism "water- tight?" If so, how small would the clearance have to be?

Would it be possible to make a clearance between two objects so small that it would prevent air from passing between those objects, essentially making the mechanism "air-tight?" If so, how small would the clearance have to be?

Thanks for your help!

721: Hi! I believe I have a question involving pressure. Here it is: "You know when you have a straw, and there is some liquid in the straw, and you put your finger on top of the straw, the liquid stays suspended inside of the straw, no matter which way you turn the straw, the liquid does not fall out. So... Could this phenomenon be reproduced on a larger scale, or, does this phenomenon even exist on larger scales? How could I suspend liquid inside a container on a larger scale as it is done inside a straw? Thanks for your help!
722: Hi! Do you guys know where I could get a fairly long or comprehensive list of liquids and their densities? Or if you guys have a list? I've been having some trouble finding a good list on the internet. Thanks for your help!
723: What is the mean spacing between air molecules and what expresson relates the spacing to altitude?
724: I and my friend are doing a report on one of the messier galaxies, M104. We have looked online and some sites say that it is in the Virgo constellation, and some say that it is not. Do you know which one's true? Thanks!
725: Do all polymers have the same decay time/process? If not, what makes them different?
726: Is there any polymer with a long (infinite in terms of human life-time)decay time?
727: What is the chemical/physical process to recycle a polymer?
728: What would happen if you opened a jar in outer space and closed it, then brought it back to Earth. Would it explode, implode or nothing? Assume the jar is air tight and of basic 'off the shelf materials'-such as a mason jar.
729: Hi! How are you guys? I need some help: Could you give me (or do you know where I could get) a list of about 5 or 6 (it doesnt hurt if there are more, though) immiscible liquids with densities that vary quite substantially from each other? (They would all need to be liquids at room temperature) I have had some trouble finding liquids on the internet that would REALLY NOT want to mix with each other for a density experiment. I need some liquids that would not mix, or mix VERY little even when they are shaken. Thanks so much for your help!
730: If you were going in a car at the speed of light and threw something out the window would that object be going the speed of light plus the speed of the object? What would happen? We are assuming a car could go the speed of light which we know it can't because it has mass. Anyway--can you help us?
731: Hi! Thank you for your help on previous questions. I am still wondering about the phenomenon that is created in straws when one puts his/her finger on the top, and how those properties may be used in different applications. I now know that the diameter of a tube needs to be relatively small to allow the capillary forces/air to keep the liquid inside. Based on that fact, if I were to have, lets say, a solid cylinder, which would be allowed to rotate within a partial enclosure (think of a rectangular-type thing that would go around the cylinder across the middle of the cylinder, across the entire cylinder) The clearance between the cylinder and that enclosure would be very small, as the diameter of a straw is kept small. The clearance, lets say, is 1mm. Now lets say you add some sort of compartment to one side of the enclosure and fill it with water (SO ONE SIDE OF THE CYLENDER IS IN WATER AND THE OTHER IS NOT) Now you put your hand on the open side of the compartment (like you do on the top of a straw to keep the liquid inside) Would the liquid be kept inside, in other words, would the liquid be prevented from flowing thru the 1mm clearance between the cylinder and the enclosure due to the small clearance (much like the small diameter of a straw - to allow the capillary forces to work) and the "vacuum" provided by a person putting their hand on the other end of the compartment? Thanks for your help, it is sort of hard to explain, I wish I could provide an illustration, but I really need your help in figuring out if this application would work. Thanks!
732: Hi! I have another question relating to the phenomenon that can be demonstrated in straws or small tubes (being able to contain liquids in those tubes by using "vacuum" and capillary forces). Here it is: In this example, lets imagine that a person has a regular straw. But, that straw is stretched outward in the middle to create a larger tube-like "compartment". Basically, the diameter of the straw is small at the ends but is much larger in the middle. Now for the question: Would such a change in the straw's shape or ability to contain more fluid prevent it from holding in that increased amount of fluid thru the use of capillary forces and a "vacuum" provided by putting one's finger on the top end of the straw? In other, simpler words: Would the straw still be able to hold in, lets say, water, if the amount of water was to be increased substantially due to the introduction of the larger, middle diameter, or compartment, of the straw? Furthermore, how could one determine the maximum amount of water weight that it could hold using capillary forces and vacuum alone in a situation like this? How much could the diameter be increased in the middle, how big could the compartment get, while still allowing the weight of the fluid to be supported by the capillary forces and the pressure of the air outside of the straw? Thanks for your help!
733: Hi! Thanks for your help with previous questions. I have a question for you guys involving a compass and the earth's magnetic field. I REALLY want to be SURE about this answer. Would a compass spin around in circles if it were directly on the magnetic North Pole? If not, Why? If so, would there be a way I could reproduce that spinning in some sort of experiment? Maybe like putting the compass (or some sort of charged needle or pole) in a circular magnet... what do you think? Thanks for your help!
734: Is there an existence of nothingness? Can what appears to be an empty container, actually be empty? Is there any possible way to have a unit of space that contains no air? No matter? Just nothing?
735: Hi! Thanks for answering my last question on magnets. This question is sort-of a follow-up question: Are there any circumstances, or can you guys think of any ways, where a compass needle would spin in circles due to its interact with a magnetic field? Maybe if the compass was in a circular magnet or if the needle was slightly off-center to create some sort of net force? Your info is great, thanks!
736: When you pop a balloon that is filled with air, is that an example of an implosion or an explosion?
737: Hi! How are you guys? I have an interesting question that I am struggling with. Here it is: Lets imagine that you have a length of bendable tubing, and you put some water in it and connect the two ends of the tube, making it circular. Everyone knows that the water that you put into the tube will always go to the bottom part of the circle no matter how you turn your circular tube in the vertical position. But why, when you take a clamp and clamp the tube in one area, you can turn the tube any way you want and the water stays in the same area, even if you turn the tube so that the water is on top. It will not fall to the bottom like it did when you did not have the clamp. I did this experiment and am wondering: Why does the water always fall to the bottom when you do not clamp a part of the circular tube; but when the tube is clamped, the water can be made to stay anywhere? Also, can I replicate the behavior of the water when the tube is clamped, without a clamp somehow? Thanks for your help!
738: I need to know the procedure for determining the amount of lead in a given sample of lipstick. I know it is like a microscopic amount .
739: On land all plants appear green, where as aquatic plants vary in color. Why do land plants have one photosynthetic strategy where aquatic plants use different light harvesting strategies?
740: Hi! Hope you guys are having a great day! I have a question involving a recent experiment that I performed: What I wanted to do was to see if I could contain water using capillary forces, etc. in a "hollow, rectangular tube" (imagine a regular straw, but then making it into a square- shaped straw, and then elongating two of the sides of that square that are parrallel to each other to create a rectangular-shaped "straw") Anyway, I wasnt able to make the shape perfect due to the materials that I was using to create the shape. But it did seem to work fairly well, althought water did begin to slowly fall out of the tube when it was in the vertical position due to some air bubbles that I thought might of formed when I was taking the entire tube out of the water. The dimensions of the rectangular part of the tube were 0.5cm by about 1in or so, so I dont think the tube was big enought to prevent the capillary forces from keeping the water in. Do you guys have any idea why the water might be dripping out of the tube? Would you guys suggest making the tube more water/air tight or making a perfect recangular shape to prevent trapping air bubbles? Or maybe making it smaller? Any info will help. Thank you guys so much!
741: Can there be a warm/hot raindrop?
742: Do air particles move faster when they are under pressure?
743: Whose decision is it that our country uses the standard system and not the metric system? I find it confusing that almost every other country uses the metric system except for the United States. Why don't we? If our country ever did switch to the metric system, who would be in charge of confirming that change?
744: In terms of physics, why was it thought that man couldn't travel faster than the speed of sound? Was it the theory of relativity? I can't find info on this anywhere. Maybe you can help me. What was it about the physics of sound that made scientists think that man couldn't travel faster than the speed of sound?
745: Hi! How are you guys? I have a question: How can I calculate the magnetic force at a given distance on a sample of ferrofluid? Thanks for your help!
746: How did Avogadro get 6.022X1023? And what was his constant? Is there a possibility that Avogadro could be wrong?
747: When travelling from Earth to the moon, is there ever a time when you will experience ZERO gravity?
748: Can you explain to me Hess' Law?
749: How do mood rings work?
750: What happens when you put a mento inside of a coke bottle? And why does it create a fountain?
751: How do Scientists calculate how many calories something contains?
752: Can a cloud in the sky freeze?
753: Are whirlpools caused by the centripetal force vectors, which point toward the center? In other words, are force vectors that point toward the centipetal force a direct result of whirlpools?
754: Hi. In physics, we learned that magnetic fields are created by spinning electrons. I don't understand why this happens. Also, I learned that electrons repel each other, so how can two magnetic domains where the only difference is the direction the electrons are spinning attract? I don't really understand how magnets attract. Also, I was wondering how magnetic domains are created? In addition, why are magnetic field lines drawn with arrows? What is moving in the direction of the arrows? Thank you very much.
755: When I look out across the ocean from my house, some days there is so much brown pollution on the horizon, I can barely see Catalina Island. I know the pollution must be there all the time - let's face it, this is L.A., but is there something that happens in the atmosphere (maybe a weather pressure system) that makes pollution look worse on some days rather then others? Thanks for answering my question!
756: What is in fireworks that causes them to make the booming noise and what decides their different colors? This is a project for my chemistry class.
757: Liquid becomes a solid at freezing temperatures, but alcohol (vodca), very much a liquid, does not freeze. Why?
758: Hi! When I read or hear about asteroids, specifically about those that have impacted the earth at sometime in the past, I notice that the authors compare the force that the asteroid impacted the earth with to the strength of the atomic bomb. (Example: The asteroid that killed the dinosaurs impacted the earth with the force of several atomic bombs) Now I know to calculate the force of an object that would hit the earth (f=ma) (correct me if that is not how you calculate the force of an object that would impact earth - must I know the objects speed, etc?) but how do I compare that force to the explosion of an atomic bomb? It would be interesting to see, for example, How the impact of a 10-ton object made of a various material, and the destruction that such an object would produce,would compare to the destruction of an atomic bomb. I would assume that 1 atomic bomb would produce the kind of destruction seen in Japan during WW2? Thank you so much for your help, Happy New Year!
759: Hi! On the subject of space suit insulation: I was wondering, would a space suit insulated completely by a layer of aerogel protect the wearer against the extreme hot and cold temperature in space or on the moon? Would it be superior to the current mode of insulation used at NASA now, with the many layers of material that are used to protect the wearer? Thanks for your help!
760: Where did stars come from and why do we have them?
761: What is color? Why are things the color that they are?
762: After shaking a soda bottle/can, what makes the soda explode out when you open it? Also, after a soda becomes old or sits out for a long time, why does it lose its carbonation/bubbliness?
763: How does Boyles Law apply to the world around us? Were in our every day life is Boyles Law used.
764: Thanks for your help on my previous questions, this is another related question that I was also wondering about: How can one determine the range of destruction (how big of an area will be destroyed, etc...) of an object that would impact the earth? In large scale situations, what would be the affects for countries hundreds or thousands of miles away? How could you know if a country far away from the impact would be safe - or not?
765: When a cup is cold, and creates condensation, where does the drops of water on the outside of the cup come from?
766: Hi there! I was just wondering, where does an atom get its energy from and what makes it so powerful? I hope to hear from you soon please and thank you so much!
767: What would happen if anti matter and hot plasma mix? Would be an explosion and how big would it be? What would be the damage? Please answer honestly; I am just doing a little personal research.
768: Hi! I was wondering, when a person puts a magnet inside a steel armature to increase its magnetic strength, and that assembly is allowed to interact with another magnet that does not have a steel armature, is there a risk that the steel will be attracted by that second magnet and ruin the magnet assembly? Thanks for your help!
769: How does atomic power work and how does it relate to chemistry?
770: Hello, thank for taking your time to answer this question. I was reading this article online:
question What makes this bonding unusual? Furthermore, according to my studies, noble do not like to react with other gasses, so, why is molecular hydrogen reacting Xenon, which is noble gas?
771: Is it possible to propel a car's Internal Combustion Engine using nothing but compressed air?

1)Can a perfect vacuum exist?
-If your answer is no, why can you not consider deep space a vacuum (where there is only about 1 atom per square meter)?; isn't that space between the atoms a vacuum?
-Also, can the space between atoms in the objects around us be considered a perfect vacuum?: ex. a block of steel or wood (or can that neither be proven nor disproven given our knowelege of particles smaller than protons, neutrons and electrons, such as quarks)
-If your answer is no, is another explaination that because if a spcae has no matter in it, then it has a teperature of exactly 0 Kelvin, and if one part of the universe is 0 Kelvin, all of it must be as well (because motion creates heat; and any movement in the universe will be reverberated between atoms) where if the universe was 0 Kelvin, life could not possibly exist.

If a perfect vacuum is not humanly attainable, then:
2)How does a particle accelerator work?... given that you are colliding subatomic particles of matter much smaller than atoms themselves(atoms being the matter that cannot be removed from a space to create a perfect vacuum).
-If you cannot remove particles as large as atoms from a space, how can you possibly keep them from effecting the path of a proton traveling close to the speed of light?If it hits anything at all, wouldn't that ruin the test?

Thank you for your patience.

773: Does air pressure increase or decrease the higher you are in air?
774: Hi! I was wondering: From my understanding of physics and relativity, a person travelling very close to the speed of light would see the universe and history pass at an incredibly fast rate, and if one were to move as fast as a photon, time would essentially stop for them (from our perspective) and they would see the universe and history pass in an instant. But I was wondering, If from a photon's point of view all of time passes in an instant, then what would a tachyon see from it's perspective? I know tachyons are theoretical particles that travel faster than light, but from their perspective, would they see time pass in reverse or in some other weird form? Thanks for your help! Any math or graphs, equations, etc... that may support this idea that you guys can provide will also be greatly appreciated.
775: Hi! When looking at the theories of special and general relativity, it becomes evident that the theoretical possibility of "traveling" into the past using various suitable geometries that may be created is a real one. Also, relativity seems to suggest that traveling faster than light will result to moving backwards in time. Does traveling faster than light result in time travel to the past (according to relativity)? And what mathematical, etc. evidence does relativity provide to support that idea? Furthermore, how would a person be able to calculate the extent to which one would travel into the past (sort of like being able to calculate time dilation between a object moving at speeds just under the speed of light and a non-moving object)? Is there a specific formula or equation that I could use to calculate that? I would assume that in the case of traveling into the past, the "time dilation" would be used in a negative sense, because it is usually meant to calculate how "far" into the future a person would go relative to the earth (in most cases) due to the person's very high speed (close to the speed of light)? I would like to compose a graph of time dilation to the "future" and "past" relative to an object that is moving at speeds close to and beyond the speed of light and a "non-moving" object (time as perceived on earth), if the above ideas suggested by relativity are valid. Of course, that graph would be completely theoretical in its purpose, because an object with mass could never reach or past the speed of light. Nevertheless, I think it would be an interesting way to depict theoretical time travel in a more mathematically and visually understandable way. Thanks for your help!
776: Hi! I just want to make sure: If an object were to somehow have a velocity that is greater than the speed of light (which is impossible as far as we know) would it indeed go back in time? And in some cases be able to interact with its past self, as Anthony (physics) said? Thanks for your help!
777: Hi! Could the formulas to calculate time dilation in the theory of relativity be modified in a way as to be able to calculate how "far" an object would travel into the past given that the object has a certain velocity that is greater than the speed of light? (In the same way that the current formulas allow one to calculate how "far" an object would go into the "future" given that the object has a velocity that is very near the speed of light) If so, what is the modified formula for time dilation (into the "past") due to an object's velocity (greater than c) and gravitational time dilation (that would allow an object to "move" backward in time)? I would assume that the modified gravitational time dilation formula would pertian to super-high gravities such as those in black holes, which may (theoretically)allow an object that is experiencing those gravitational effects to move backward in time (gravity slows time, maybe a super-high gravitational field would reverse time?)? Thank you so much for your help, your answers are GREATLY appreciated!
778: Hi! If light is a constant, and you see it moving at the same speed (c) regardless of your speed, then if you were to travel at the speed of light or beyond, would you see light still moving at 1c faster than you?
779: Hi! Lets say that a rocket is in deep space, and the rocket experiences the gravitational attraction of a very massive star (or some other body). The star begins to accelerate the rocket toward it due to its high gravity. If the rocket continues to accelerate due to the star's gravity over a long period of time, wouldnt it eventually be moving faster than light without needing infinite energy to get it moving at that speed? (gravity does all the work)
780: How do you calculate the speed of an object according to the theory of relativity?
781: Why does the day have 24 hours?
782: I'm doing a science fair on popcorn and I would like to know why is it that a kernel of popcorn pops when heated in the microwave.
783: Which brand of popcorn pops the fastest?
784: What kind of materials can you use to put out fires besides water and a fire extinguisher?
785: I want to make a science project using the model of tsunami. Can you help me to figure out something that involves it?
786: Do grapes explode if you microwave them?
787: What type of soda melts ice the fastest?
788: How would you measure Ultra Violet light on green algae? What units of measurements would you use for measuring Ultra Violet light?

I am teaching my chemistry students about electron transitions in an atom by absorbing or emitting a photon of light. Are there other mechanisms for exciting an electron that do not involve a photon?

My particular question has to do with the burning of metal salts to produce a characteristic spectra. It is clear from the line spectra that we are seeing a quantum effect of the electrons transitioning between levels. What is the mechanism for the electron excitation?


790: When you place a previously opened soda bottle in the the refrigerator, why is it really hard to open afterward?
791: How does the ice in coolers stay cool?
792: What causes 2 books to hold together when their pages are peeled into each other?
793: What causes that shock I feel when my body comes into contact with metal?
794: Hi! What would happen if you were on a treadmill (so you are essentially staying in the same place) and were running at a speed that is equal to the speed of light, or faster? Would time still behave differently for you, or for the rest of the universe (according to your perspective)? I know these are theoretical questions, sort of like the questions einstein asked himself when he was thinking about relativity, but i'd like to know. Thanks for your help!
795: Hi! If one could continue to accelerate at 1g because of gravity (NOT USING ENERGY) couldnt one eventually attain and pass the speed of light? Thanks for your help!
796: Hi! Could you explain the Godel Metric, and other such theories, and how they may allow for time travel to the past? Any examples that you can give for time travel to the past based on these theories will also be greatly appreciated. Thank you!

Hi! I recently watched a you tube video titled: Discovery - world's first time machine. In the video, a scientist by the name of Ronald Mallett discusses how the bending of space-time around a black hole could send a craft back in time without violating the light speed barrier.

Wouldnt this suggest that one could use gravity to send a craft back into time ("exceeds the speed of light from an observers point of view)? Could you explain to me a little bit on the physics of the situation that Ronald Mallett was discussing, and exactly how an object could be considered to be going back in time in the situation that was discussed in the video? (The first 1 minute and 19 seconds of the video) Are there any formulas that I could use from Einsteins theories to calculate or to mathematically verify Ronald Mallett's conclusions?

I'd very much like to have a mathematical understanding of how Ronald concluded that an object in such a situation (or a situation like it) would go back in time according to Einsteins theories. Thank you so much for your help!

798: What is the chemical compound in sunscreen that prevents harmful UV rays from penetrating the skin?
799: How does sunscreen block harmful UV rays from reaching the skin?
800: Could one use gravity to travel at speeds in excess of the speed of light? Even if the mass of the ship increases as it approaches the speed of light, wouldnt that only increase the gravitational attraction, thus accelerating the craft even faster past the speed of light? And back into time?

Is it possible to generate electricity by passing a laser beam, or shooting electrons (or some other charged particle) through a solenoid (not the wire itself, but passing the beam through the solenoid where one would normally find an iron rod)? Or would it be possible to generate electricity by having a laser, or electrons, pass through a magnetic field (Due to Faraday's law of induction)?

802: Hi! If one was to bounce a laser beam, or even individual electrons off of two or more mirrors (sort of like a light clock) would the particles in the beam of light or the electrons ever slow down and stop? (assume the mechanism is in a vacuum) Or would they just continue bouncing forever? Thanks for your help!
803: Hi! Would it be possible to create a sort of "homemade particle accelerator" if one was to take a solenoid, bend it around in a circle, run some electricity through it so a magnetic field could be produced in the solenoid, and have particles race around the circle? Just a thought... Thanks for your answers!
804: Hi! How is coal formed? At what pressures does coal formation occur? What gases are present during coal formation? At what temperatures does coal formation occur? What materials or substances are needed for coal to form? Thank you for your help!
805: Hi! Do "light clocks" (the things that bounce a particle of light between two or more mirrors - has to do with relativity) really exist? Would it be possible to make a "light clock"? Thank you for your help!
806: In Physics class we are talking about electricty and current, and I was wondering, when cell phone chargers are plugged in, even though they aren't in use, there is still electricty that is used from there. So where does all this energy go? Does it just disappear?
807: Hi! When looking at how the "death star" works (from the Star Wars movies) it becomes clear that shooting multiple lasers together at one point to create one beam of energy would be impossible without some sort of lens. (If you take a look at how the "superlaser" works on the death star, the beams of light would not create one beam, instead they would intersect and continue going off on their own path without any change in direction.) Some sort of lens would be needed to direct the multiple lasers into one beam, what kind of lens would do that? Would a double-concave lens placed at where the lasers intersect direct the multiple lasers in a way as to form a single beam? Thank you for your help!
808: Hello! I have recently been working on a paper that suggests a way of disproving the first postulate of the theory of relativity, as well as the equivalence principle. The mechanism that I am proposing is as follows: Imagine that you are in a large box. You don't know if you are moving at constant velocity or if you are at rest. According to the first postulate of relativity, it is impossible to figure out if you are moving uniformly or if you are at rest. Regardless, you try to build a mechanism of distinguishing between constant motion and rest. You design the following mechanism: Knowing that the speed of light is constant, you shoot a photon from one wall of your box to the other, and measure the time it took the photon to reach the second wall. You calculate how long the trip should take (at rest) and how much longer it should take if your box had some forward velocity. Then you compare your calculations to your observations. You assume it should take longer for light to reach the second wall if your box is moving because the speed of light is a constant and because of some principles of simultaneity of relativity. The theory is, if the box is moving, light (being like an arrow - and its speed independent of the speed of the box) would take longer to hit the target (the second wall) because it moves forward during the time light is travelling to hit it. So light catches up to hit it at a time slightly longer than it would take if the "target" did not move. From that info it becomes easy to distinguish if you are at rest or moving; and at what speed you may be moving. Of course, this is relative to the speed of light, but light speed is a universal constant, so I dont think that poses a problem to the theory. Is the assumption that you make correct? Would this be a way in which one could disprove the first postulate of the theory of relativity, as well as the equivalence principle? Can I excpect to receive a Nobel prize anytime soon?! :-) :-) I'd love to hear your opinion. And if it turns out that I'm correct, I'd be glad to send you a copy of my paper as soon as I complete it, for review. If I'm not correct, then at least I'll understand relativity better. Talk to you soon!
809: Hi! In my first attempt to disprove the first postulate of the theory of relativity, I may be incorrect because distances and time change as an object moves. Because of this, it may not be possible for an observer in an inertial frame of reference to detect if they are at rest or moving uniformly in this way. But I do have another way in mind that I would like to ask you guys about, its based on some principles of simultaneity: If an observer is in a box (without knowing that it is moving or at rest) and they have one light bulb on a wall of the box and another light bulb on a second wall (facing each other) The observer turns on both lights at the same time. Wouldnt the observer be able to detect if they were moving or at rest due to when they percieve the light to reach them? If they are moving, light from one light bulb would reach them first, but if they were not moving, light from both light bulbs would reach them at the same time. Is this true? Could this method be implemented in disproving einsteins first postulate? Thank you for your help, I hope to hear from you guys soon!
810: Hi! I've been trying to find the time dilation formula for an object that is accelerating (constant acceleration) but have only found a formula that relates that objects acceleration to another object in uniform motion (on wikipedia) Do you know of another formula that I could use in which I would be able to calculate the time dilation of my accelerating object relative to an object that is at rest (not accelerating)? Or would I just use the given formula and just put the velocity of the object in uniform motion as 0?
811: Hi! How can I calculate the time dilation of an object in a gravitational field relative to an object that is not experiencing gravity? Would I be able to use the gravitational time dilation formula if I only knew the gravitational acceleration that I was experiencing and "my" time? Thank you for your help!
812: Hi! Recently I saw a wikipedia article that gave information on an interesting device called a SMOT (simple magnetic overunity toy). Of course, the toy does not violate the laws of thermodynamics but I thought it was really cool how one can make a metalic sphere go from "point A" to "point B" by slightly tilting two magnets toward each other. I was wondering, how would it be possible to calculate the momentum of a metal ball that passes thru a SMOT device? For the metal ball to accelerate past the point at which the magnetic fields are the strongest, would the momentum of the metal ball need to be stronger than the strength of the magnetic force? How would I be able to calculate the magnetic force on the ball, to compare it to the momentum of the ball?
813: Why doesn't alcohol freeze?
814: When clear water is placed into an ice tray. Why is it that once the ice is frozen it comes out opaque?
815: A work co11egue has asked me to ask , if an astronaut was lost in space would his body decompose?
816: What exactly is carbonation? And does heat have an influential role in the amount of carbonation in a drink?
817: Hi! Do you guys know where I could get some "frictionless" or nearly "frictionless" bearings? I need some for an experiment where I have to essentially eliminate friction. Thank you for your help.

Has increasing our knowledge of the structure of the atom been good for mankind or has it harmed mankind?

Thank You

819: What causes the different forms of air pollution? How can we solve these problems? How is Chemistry involved?
820: When gas, oxygen, and heat are combusted in a car engine, how is it possible that it creates enough energy to move a car that weighs over 3000 pounds?
821: How do trick candles work? When you blow them out, they light up again.
822: Since the exact location of an electron can not be known since the electron is constantly in motion is it possible to tell the direction the electron is moving? Is that direction known theoretically or actually?
823: Why do some candies (like wintergreen lifesavers) spark when chewed?

Hi! Thank you for your help on my last question. I recently viewed a concept for a supposed "perpetual motion" machine. Of course, according to the laws of thermodynamics, it shouldnt be able to work. On the other hand, there doesn't seem to be any flaw in the machine or any mechanical reason that I can think of that would prevent it from working. The design goes like this: There is a pendulum with a metal ball on the outer end, which swings on the axle of an electric generator. The pendulum is put in a vertical position and dropped. It swings about 75% of the way around in a circle as the electric generator generates a given amount of electricity . That amount of electricity is fed into another electric motor/generator with a pendulum of the same dimensions as the first. Except in this case the pendulum is at rest pointing down. The amount of electricity makes the second pendulum swing 50% so that it is in a vertical position, then the second pendulum drops (as the first one did) and the process repeats. The result is that both pendulums continue to rotate indefinitely. It is supposed to work on the principle that the same energy that is obtained from a falling object is the same amount of energy required to raise that falling object back up to its original position. But in the case that I stated, each pendulum swings 75% of the way around, but only need to raise the second pendelum 50% (allowing the motor to work with an efficiency of less than 100%) For example, if the energy generated by the pendulum going 50% of the way around is 1 Volt, then it would require 1 Volt to move that pendulum back up to its original position (but the motor would have to be 100% efficient) but in this case, the pendulum swings about 75% of the way around (so it would produce about 1.5 Volts) that 1.5 Volts is put into the second pendulum that would only require 1 Volt (so you can lose .5 Volts due to inefficiency). Then the second pendulum continues the process by swinging 75%, and feeding the electricity generated into the first pendulum which by now is at rest... etc. What is the flaw in this concept - or is there really no flaw (in that case it would work)? I hope I explained it well enought, but if you guys need clarification, please look at my diagram in teh link below. Thank you so much for your help!

My diagram:

825: Why are the planets round?

There is a spray called Staticide which reduces static in carpets, electronics, etc. How does that product work?

Thank You,

827: What "upper limits" exist on the Periodic Table of elements? Or, specifically, what is the highest possible atomic number that could exist, even for a splitt-second, in some state? And, if so, why?

This is more of a maths question than a science question, but I'll ask here anyway, since I doubt it'll be covered at a High School level:

Why, precisely, is e(pi * i) + 1 = 0 ? (I'm aware that e(pi*x) = sin x + cos x, but I'm not sure why that is the case, either.)

829: I was watching Iron Chef America, and one of the contestants used liquid nitrogen to prepare part of their meal; how does liquid nitrogen work, and is it safe for consumption?
830: Hi! Wouldnt it be possible to exceed the speed of light without violating relativity by making gravity accelerate an object? Because gravity is simply bent space-time, an object wouldnt nessesarily "move" faster than the speed of light, it would be the bent space-time that is allowing it to attain those (relative) speeds. And because space-time can be bent in such ways as to create superluminal escape velocities (black hole escape velocities, for example)it wouldnt have to obey the conventional speed limit of relativity. Would such a thing be possible?
831: Hello! Thank you for your answers to my previous question. I have another question involving relativity: Imagine that somehow, one is able to produce a finite acceleration for a given amount of time, or indefinetly (I know that this would require infinite energy but please bear with me). Using this device, the person accelerates an object. Eventually, the object approaches the speed of light. Given my current knowledge, an outside observer seeing that object would notice that it is constantly approaching the speed of light, but (according to the observer) it would take an infinite amount of time for the object to reach, and pass, the speed of light. Is this correct, why is this? However, the object that is accelerating would notice that it would take a finite amount of time (according to it) to pass the speed of light. I know this is similar to the case in which an object is observed passing the event horizon of a black hole. (an outside observer would have to wait an infinity to see the infalling object pass the event horizon, but the infalling object would pass the horizon in a finite amount of time) Now for my second question: Can the accelerating object (or the object that passes the event horizon) still be considered as traveling back in time (when it passes the speed of light according to it, or when it passes the event horizon according to it)? Why or why not? Thank you for your help.
832: Hello! I have recently tried to calculate the gravity of a black hole at the event horizon. In other words, I want to calculate the surface gravity of an object if the escape velocity to leave that object is the speed of light. But I dont think I did the math right. I believe that the required gravity is less than infinity because there is only infinite gravity at the singularity. How can I determine the gravity of an object when the escape velocity is the speed of light (or more)? Please show how to calculate it. Thank you so much for your help!
833: Hello! What is the formula for time dilation due to the gravity experienced by an object in a gravitational field (relative to an observer that is not in a gravitational field)? Please explain the formula in detail, I have had some trouble finding it (and knowing how to use it) on the internet. Thank you so much for your help!
834: When you freeze a marshmallow why does it get so hard, and then when you expose it to room temperature it changes back to a regular marshmallow?
835: Hello! If one applies an acceleration on an object to produce a force (instead of the other way around) doesn't that mean that it would be possible to have an object with mass reach and exceed the speed of light? To reach this conclusion, I rearranged a variation of the formula f=dp/dt (from special relativity) to solve for a given acceleration. I found that as an objects mass increases (as it approaches the speed of light) the force provided by the constant acceleration should also increase proportionally to maintain that acceleration. At the speed of light, the applied acceleration would impose an infinite force on the object with infinite mass to maintain the acceleration. In my thinking (which is theoretical) If one was to use an acceleration to create a force to apply on an object instead of using a force to create an acceleration on the object then what I just stated above should be possible. Is my thinking correct? I also think that an outside observer would still percieve the accelerating object as requiring a nearly infinite amount of time to reach the speed of light (while according to the accelerating object it requires a finite amount of time to reach the speed of light and surpass it) due to the time dilation effects that also occur at those speeds. Is my thinking correct? Thank you for your help!
836: Hello! I am also wondering, if one was to apply an acceleration that is above the value of "c" on an object to create a force on that object then in that case, wouldn't outside observers as well as the accelerating object agree that it would only take a finite amount of time to reach and surpass the speed of light?
837: Hello! Would a person inside a black hole (a person residing inside the event horizon) see time in the outside universe as passing in reverse? Why?(If they were able to survive inside the event horizon) Thank you so much for your help!
838: Can time dilation be transfered between entangled particles? In other words, if one has two particles that are entangled (based on quantum non-locality) and one particle is placed in a deep gravity well while the other is in deep space, will the particle that experiences time dilation (in the gravity well) relative to an outside observer "transfer" its time dilation to the second particle that is in deep space? So that BOTH of the particle's clocks run "slow"? If so, why? If not, why not? Thank you so much for your help!
839: Hi! I was wondering, what is an electromagnetic field (or magnetic field) actually made of? (What is the field itself "made" of... if anything?) Thank you so much for your time and help!
840: Hi! Thank you for your answers to my previous questions. I recently viewed an episode of the show "Through the wormhole" that dealt with black holes. I think it was called "The riddle of black holes". Anyway, toward the end of the show the apparent similarities between the behavior of black holes and atoms was discussed. If such similarities really exist, wouldn't it be possible to somehow tie the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics together by using that phenomenon?
841: Hi! I have another variation of the time dilation question that has to do with entangled particles: Suppose you have a pair of entangled particles. You put one in a particle accelerator and get it moving at a speed just under the speed of light. However, you take the other entangled particle and set it aside for observation. According to special relativity, the particle in the accelerator should experiences some time dilation due to its very high speed (close to c), and because both of your particles are entangled, the particle you set aside for observation may also experience time dilation (to maintain some sort of symmetry or whatever). So the question is, will you observe the time of the particle you set aside to look at as mysteriously running slower relative to its surroundings (as the clock does on the moving particle)? I understand that you said before that the physics just arent there to make these kinds of predictions (between relativity and QM) but if you were to make an educated guess, would you guess that both entangled particles experience time dilation because of the fact that they are entangled or not? Thank you for your help and opinion! P.S. Just a thought: couldn't such an experiment actually be performed? To my knowledge there are some pretty powerful particle accelerators around the world... if they were to perform this experiment maybe they would be able to finally discover the ties between relativity and QM! Just remember... it was my idea, hahaha. Have a great day!
842: Hi! Based on the principles of quantum non- locality, I know that it is possible to entangle various particles. My question is: Is it also theoretically possible to "entangle" electro- magnetic fields in any way? Or would passing entangled electrons thru a wire or something like that produce an entangled electro-magnetic field? Thank you for your help!
843: Does heat make all things expand and explode?
844: Hello, Im in 6th grade and I just finished reading Michael Crichtons book Timeline. In this book one of the characters states how time does not exist. He states The very concept of time travel makes no sense, since time doesnt flow. The fact that we think time passes is just an accident of our nervous systems-of the way things look to us. In reality, time doesnt pass; we pass. Time itself is invariant. It just is. I was wondering if this was true or not. If it is true wouldnt that make time not a dimension, or not a part of the continuum, and wouldnt that negate relativity. Please respond if you can.
845: Two other friends and I are conducting a science fair project in which the question is: How does different footwear, or lack thereof, affect running ergonomics? There are many tests we can conduct with our own equipment, but a great addition to the project would be access to forceplates and any other instruments to measure weight distribution and or the stresses and forces incurred on the body while in the process of running. If no one working at the university has the means to test these things a nudge in the right direction would be much appreciated!
846: I'd like to know, how to measure the volume or diameter of a droplet of water from a sprinkler. I'm fine if you give it as a formula or description.
847: Hi, I'm a high school student doing a project. How storage temperature affects the pH levels in orange juice?
848: My science teacher gave us an assignment to "adopt" an element. I was wondering if any of you could tell me a little relevant information about my element, Argon. Thank you.
849: I was wondering if someone could give me some info for my project about the element meitnerium. Thanks.
850: Does Argon turn sky blue or lavender when electricty is ran through it? Thanks

Dear UCSB Scientist,
My class and I are learning about seasons and about weather. Today is sunny. We heard that tomorrow there is supposed to be rain. How can weather change so fast?
Thank you so much!

852: If a plant is dead and you put it into a cup with water and food coloring will it still change color?
853: What is the composition of fabric, specifically cotton, wool, fleece, and polyester?
854: What is the melting point of a candle?
855: How does water affect fabric?
856: Do fabrics contain absorbent properties? If so what?
857: What happens to the space inside the balloon when you release the air inside it?

Kangen water? I am sure you have heard about this amazing product that is such a great antioxidant that super hydrates by reducing H2O clusters to 5 or 6 atoms! Is this a scam? Can you change the clustering of H2O by changing the pH?

Hello and hope all is well.

859: Hello- We are doing an osmosis lab involving a decalcified egg in water, salt water and corn syrup to show how concentration affects the movement of water across a membrane. The egg shrinks in salt water and corn syrup and swells in fresh water due to osmosis- pretty straightforward stuff. One of the students asked what would happen if we put the egg in oil as opposed to the other solutions being tested- great idea, so we hypothesized and tested. We supposed that since oil has no water in it, it represents an area of higher concentration, and therefore the water should move out of the egg and into the oil. This did not happen. The egg did not appear to lose any water, and with testing, it actually seems to have gained a bit of mass. What gives? Is this due to the nonpolar nature of the oil? I am stumped and looking for a decent explanation for my students. Thanks for your help!
860: Hello! I was wondering about the following experiment: lets say that you have a laser, and that (single) laser is positioned parallel to one side of a triangle, and perpendicular to the second side, with the hypotenuse being 45 degrees to the left (or right - it doesnt matter) of where the laser would shoot a single photon. This is how the experiment goes: you turn on your laser and it shoots a single particle, moving at the speed of light (which you measure). But, you also record (using another camera or whatever) the reflection of the particle across the hypotenuse. (Or maybe this could be done in a dark room and you just measure the speed of the laser beam/photon across it visually. Another way you could do it is if you measure the speed by having two points on the hypotenuse that measure when light passes across them, and you could measure the time it would take for the reflection to go between those points... that way if you know the distance between them you can calculate the speed of the reflection) Because the hypotenuse is longer than the distance that the particle moved (and was traversed in the same amount of time) the reflection should be measured as moving faster than light, or "back in time". From what I have been able to figure out I dont think you'll have to deal with time dilation effects or anything fancy like that, so: Would this be the case?! Please explain why or why not. Thank you so much for your help!! Have a great day!
861: Hello! Ive heard of a retro causality quantum entanglement experiment that has been proposed by John G. Cramer at the University of Washington. Ive tried to look over some of the theory about it but havent been able to get my hands on too much info... What are your opinions about it? Does it seem that using quantum entanglement you may be able to create a retro causality phenomenon in the way proposed by John Cramer? Thanks for the help!
862: What keeps earth from collapsing in on itself like at the end of a star's life? Is it not big enough or what?
863: Hi, I went to visit the Hoover Dam and I realized that the energy cables were very noisy, like a bee sound. Is this sound caused by a magnetic field? Can you explain to me the reason of that noise?
864: I want to know why we always look at the same face of the moon. Can you explain to me the reason?
865: We are doing art with color paper and bleach. The students want to know why the bleach makes the paper white. Can you explain the chemical reaction behind? Thank you very much.
866: Are all plant cells square and all animal cells more round in shape?
867: Hi! Thanks for answering my previous questions. Considering the fact that a particle moving at (.999)c could be seen as moving at a speed greater than c if observed on the hypotenuse (but contains no information), could not you create a situation where that particle does contain information? This is sort of based on the tachyon antitelephone example: Let's assume that you have one person at the ends of the hypotenuse, person one sends a signal at c (or vc along the hypotenuse, the reply could cover "more" distance in "less" time and appear to go against causality. Is this true? Would such a set-up go against causality (to one extent or the other)? Sorry for the long question, but thank you so much for your help!!
868: Are there any colors that human beings can not see?
869: What would happen if you spilled a glass of water out in space?

In a voltaic pile with copper and zinc as the two metals and with aqueous sodium chloride (salt water) as the electrolyte, what happens to the electrons and ions and what reactions occur?

I understand that in a copper/zinc voltaic pile using sulfuric acid as the electrolyte, the zinc electrode decomposes into positive zinc ions (which dissolve into the electrolyte) and 2 electrons, which travel through the exterior wire to the copper electrode. At the copper electrode, the electrons are then accepted by positive hydrogen ions from the electrolyte solution which form hydrogen gas at the copper electrode.

The problem I see when this is adapted to a sodium chloride electrolyte is that the positive deposited ion would be pure sodium and it seems unlikely that sodium would form in its pure form both because zinc cannot reduce sodium (being lower in the reduction potential list) and because sodium is very hard to obtain in its pure form. Nonetheless, using a sodium chloride electrolyte for a voltaic pile seems to work frequently in many household experiments (according to my research),

So my question is: What is going on? Is there a new, different reaction? What happens to the ions and electrons?

871: We have learned how water evaporates or vaporizes, then later condenses and falls down as rain. We also learned that some gases can be dissolved in rainwater and cause acid rain. Then we did a lab in class and discovered that alcohol evaporates very quickly! Where does all that alcohol go? Can it condense and rain down on us?
872: Why do balloons explode when they are put in soap water?
873: Are nuclear power plants safe?
874: I am wondering if there is a possibility of a limnic eruption in lake Michigan?
875: Hello! Recently I viewed an article on wired.com titled "A User's Guide to Time Travel," of course I can't say that it was very helpful in demonstrating practical time travel, (these kinds of articles never do that, lol) the ideas that it proposed were interesting (I thought the pictures were nice, too). Anyway, on the second page of the article the author talked about a "Gott Shell". Now from what I understand, it would work by producing a time dilation effect because of the incredible mass of the Shell, "propelling" the traveler into the future. In essence the greater the mass, which produces a greater escape velocity, creates a large time dilation effect. (relative to someone outside the sphere, of course) The author mentioned how it could only work in one direction - toward the future. But, after thinking about it, I wondered: What if you got so much mass together that the escape velocity of your Gott Shell exceeded the speed of light (sort of like a black hole, but thats beside the point)? Wouldnt you, due to the fact that youre in the center of the shell, ("experiencing" the time dilation effects) now "move" back in time? Keep in mind that this is purely a thought experiment, and would most likely never be possible in reality. Why or why not? Thanks for your help!!
876: Hello! Recently I also looked at some articles that discussed Quantum Entanglement and "teleportation" in time. Apparently, from what I was able to understand, entanglement can also be used across time (as well as thru space, as we all knew). Have you guys heard of this? What kind of implications may this have, and exactly how do they plan to create entangled particles that are entangled across time? Thanks for your help!!!
877: I have a simple question regarding basic thought experiments to do with special relativity (which we just started in school). The thought experiment our class went through to explain time dilation was of a train travelling at relativistic speeds with a pulse of light moving up and down in a straight line within the train (reflecting off a mirror on the roof). Relative to an outside stationary observer, the light pulse is moving over a greater distance than just up and down (it is travelling the hypotenuse of a right angled triangle because of the train's motion on the x-direction), but because light travels at 'c' in every reference frame, the pulse must still travel at the same speed 'c' relative to the outside observer. Hence, because it travels a greater distance with the same speed, it must take longer to do so and hence time will appear to be running slower within the train - relative to the man outside. I understand the logic behind this however it seems to me that the thought experiment could be turned on its head by changing the direction the pulse is fired at. Say for example that instead of straight up and down, the light pulse is shot in a direction opposite to that of the trains motion, with an x-component equal to the motion of the train (i.e. if the train is travelling right at 0.5 'c', then the light pulse is fired left with an x-component of 0.5 'c'). If this were the case, the stationary man outside would now see the pulse travelling straight up and down relative to him and therefore see the pulse travelling a smaller distance. because the pulse still travels at 'c' relative to the outside observer he will now see the pulse travelling a smaller distance with the same speed, i.e. in a quicker time. To the outside observer, time now looks as if it has sped up inside the train (but of course this must be wrong because 'time dilation' says that time will always slow down for a stationary observer looking into a fast moving reference frame) I am wondering what exactly is wrong with this thought experiment. it uses the same logic as the original thought experiment (which was taught in my syllabus) but achieves the opposite result, it seems to prove time 'contraction' rather than time dilation. Help would be greatly appreciated.
878: Do fractals appear in home grown crystals?
879: Is there a thread that can support human weight (like spidermans' webshooter)?

Thank you so much for your answers. School is going great! I will also discuss this with my professors. But just to clear up some confusion that I had, I always believed that time "stopped" on the event horizon (not the singularity), and the singularity was just, as you said, a point of zero dimensions, infinite gravity, density, etc. (Most people think that this is just where relativity and physics in general breaks down, but I don't know enough to talk about that) I have always compared the event horizon to the speed of light, in other words, if you take into account what an outside observer would see if a person fell into a black hole it would be similar to what they would see if a person began approaching the speed of light. If you look at someone who is continually accelerating and approaching c, you would see them get closer and closer to the speed of light but never actually get there (from your point of view), you would also observe their clocks running differently than yours. Now if you look at someone falling into a black hole, you would see much of the same thing: the person who is falling in continually approaches the event horizon, but never actually gets there (from your point of view) you also, like the speed of light example, see their clock run slower than yours. So I have always thought of the event horizon like reaching the speed of light - if you reach the speed of light time "stops" for you relative to the outside observer, and if you reach the event horizon time "stops" for you relative to an outside observer. But what is nice about a black hole is that the person falling in can actually pass the event horizon (never mind the fact that he or she can never get out - this is purely a thought experiment so we do not have to worry about that). Eventually you reach the singularity, but I don't think we can really describe that point in the detail we want with the physics we have. So what happens between the event horizon and the singularity? Where gravity is strong enough to prevent light from escaping but does not yet equal infinity? This is where I might have gone wrong, but I have always thought of this as "exceeding" the speed of light (because you have past the event horizon, which was like the speed of light). Now we all know that for the person falling in, time would pass at a perfectly "normal" rate, but how would he or she see time in the rest of the universe pass (If they even could see the rest of the universe at this point)? Or how would you see their time pass if you could look into the black hole? Would being in a gravitational field that has an escape velocity greater than c but lower than infinity be equal to a velocity greater than c (or would it have the same effects as a velocity greater than c but less than infinity - because we really cant describe infinity)? The whole point of these questions is to try andm understand if time "travel" to the past is even a remote theoretical possibility using this method.

Thank you again for your help, it is greatly appreciated!

881: Why is it that a lightbulb requires a filament, or a different process, (depending on the type of lightbulb) while a radio transmitter uses an antennae? They are both photons, no?
882: Why is it that quartz vibrates when it is exposed to electricity?
883: What was the reason why Chernobyl power plant had that big accident in the past?
884: When I take the air out of a container with a plastic bag in it the bag inflates. I need to know why and how to explain it for my project.
885: Do you think scientists will ever create a wormhole? And if they are able to create a wormhole how will they control it so as to take us places that humans can live comfortably?
886: For my science project I am doing buckminsterfullerene aka buckyball aka C60. For that project we have to include a quote from an expert of the subject matter. So I was wondering if you have any information on that molecule and maybe some of its uses. Thank You Anna Manfreda Grade 8
887: I've been looking all over the internet to find out why some tsunamis result in drawdown before the surge. I understand the drawdown is the trough of the wave, but how can a trough lead the crest of a wave generated by uplift, like the Sumatra and Japanese quakes? Does drawdown result from the 'backside' of the wave? I'm imagining something like this for the Japanese tsunami--the seafloor uplifted westward, lifting the surface water in the direction of Japan, and the 'fill-in' water created a trough that then was pushed eastward by the uplifted water returning to 'sea level'? Please help me figure this out--my students ask me and I don't know what to tell them... Thanks! RJ
888: How do balls bounce? Does it have to do with gravity?
889: How does a TV send signals from the studio to my living room? Does it break down the picture into microscopic particles?
890: How much Oxygen does the air have in it?
891: How much Oxygen does the air have in it at 20 feet above sea level?
892: How does a nuclear meltdown occur, and how can it be averted?

Hello! Is it possible to convert from the time dilation effects caused by velocity to the time dilation effects caused by gravity? In other words, if one calculates the time dilation effect caused by a given velocity, how can one calculate the gravity needed to create that same effect using acceleration? I dont know if I am explaining this in a way that makes total sense, but I would like to know how to convert time dilation values due to velocity to time dilation values due to gravity. I know that acceleration is velocity changing over time so I assume any conversion would have to take that into consideration, I am just not sure how to due that using the time dilation formulas that I have (for velocity and gravity). Thank you for your help!

894: Hello, I have a question regarding wormholes and quantum entanglement. I know that, theoretically, if one was to take two ends of a wormhole and keep one stationary while one moves around, it would be possible to travel back in time. Could this be duplicated practically by using entangled particles - due to the fact that they are connected instantly much like the two ends of a wormhole? In this experiment, one would keep one particle stationary while moving the other one in a particle accelerator or something like that, to observe the time dilation effects between them (hopefully resulting in some form of backwards time travel effects, like the case with the wormholes). What is your opinion on this? And is it right to compare wormholes to entangled particles because of their similar characteristics (with regard to connecting different points in space - or different particles separated by space) instantly? Thank you for your help!
895: Why is tungsten used for filaments in light bulbs when nichrome's resistivity is so much higher?
896: Hello, I was looking online about the Nernst equation, and someone was talking about the idea that if the value of the reaction quotient ends up being 1, the temperature of the system will have no effect on the cell potential. With the equation, the log of 1 is zero, so I can see where they got that from. However, I would think under Le Chatelier's principle, a change in temperature would still affect the voltage. Now using the relationship between Gibbs free energy (∆G) and ∆G under standard condition- ∆G=∆G(Standard condition)+RT*Ln Q- It appears that when Q=1, the temperature has no effect. Why would this hold true and how would that pertain to the value of the cell potential at different temperatures?
897: What colors of light are used in land plant photosynthesis?
898: Dear Scientists, We have learned about weather and the water cycle. If rain is clear and snow is white, why are rain/snow clouds dark and gray. They almost look black. Thank you, The Students in Room 5
899: Why is the Dead Sea so salty?
900: How are the electrons attached to the atom? Is there a way in which they are arranged around the nucleus?
901: How are scientists able to figure out what the half life of an atom is when a half life can be billions of years? Do you ever completely get rid of radioactive atoms? How are we able to age the oldest rock that is 4 billion years old?
902: How do Auroras(Artic Lights)form?
903: Where does a balloon go when it flies up into the air ? Does it pop or keep on going? Does it run out of helium and just float down or does it go into the atmosphere?
904: Does smoke make the atmosphere thicker?
905: Why is the sky blue?
906: What causes a tornado to reach the ground?
907: Is a tornado more dangerous on the ground?
908: Today in Physics class we learned that a wire with an electric current flowing through it creates a magnetic field. I was wondering why electrical power lines do not repel or attract each other even though they have large amounts of electrical current flowing through them.
909: How fast do rain drops fall?
910: Hello, Recently I was also shown the classic free energy example of a steel ball rolling up a ramp with a magnet on top, only for the steel ball to fall back to its original place... with the process restarting. Of course, this could never work, but I was wondering, what if one was to put a thick copper tube along the ramp, and replace the steel ball with a magnetic ball. By doing this, the eddy currents produced by the steel ball in the copper tube as it is attracted to the top will slow it down. If one makes a hole in the ramp, the slow speed of the magnetic ball should allow it to easily fall through, to its original place. Would the addition of the copper tube (with some tinkering) allow such a device to work? Thank you for your help!! Best,
911: What part of the ear makes a person go deaf?
912: What is the effect of light on the color of grass leaves (as a phenotype)? What is the effect on the color in absence of light?
913: Hello,

I know that time "stops" at the speed of light, but at what gravity does time "stop"...??

To clarify: From my knowledge of special relativity, if an outside observer were to watch someone move at the speed of light (which is impossible, but bear with me for the example's sake), the time for the person moving at the speed of light would "stop" (from the outside observer's point of view). Knowing this, I wonder if this is also somehow applicable in general relativity (in my opinion, there should be some sort of equivalence between the effects of moving at the speed of light (in our example) and a large enough gravitational field. I also think that, because the speed of light is finite, so should the gravitational strength required to "stop" time using gravity be finite). So my question is: how strong does a gravitational field have to be to "stop" time for an object experiencing the gravity (from the perspective of an outside observer, of course)?? Please show the math behind the answer, if possible. Thank you!!

914: Can you guys take a look at the formulas given click here to see to calculate how strong a gravitational field would have to be to stop and reverse time? I need to know if this is a real formula, and if the claims made (that time stops at the event horizon, etc.) on the website are valid. Thank you so much for your help! Best Regards,
915: How do we get marshmallows to expand?

I am doing great, thank you for asking! I also want to thank Anthony and Andy for answering my question! I have tried to calculate the Schwarzschild radius before, but I had some trouble doing it. From what I was doing, I wanted to calculate the gravity of a black hole at the event horizon (I'm also assuming that the gravity of all black holes at their event horizons has the same value) with the assumption that that gravitational strength would be enough to stop time (from an outsider's perspective). I assumed that time would "stop" at the event horizon because, as an object approaches the event horizon, an outside observer perceives it in similar ways to if the object was approaching the speed of light (ex. time slows for the object to almost stopping nearing the horizon, its acceleration "slows", it never actually crosses the horizon... all factors that would also be attributed to that object if it was approaching the speed of light).

Anyway, I'm having trouble with the idea that an outside observer would only see time for the object stop at the singularity (at infinite gravity), when in fact time slows to almost stopping as it gets closer and closer to the event horizon, where gravity is still finite (that's why I assumed it "stops" at the horizon from the perspective of an outside observer). As I was doing some more research, I came upon some information that would describe how far an object would move back in time if it was moving faster than light (using special relativity). I was wondering if I could use the same idea and apply the information to general relativity (using the formulas for general relativity, of course), in order to mathematically calculate the required gravitational strength to stop/reverse time (just like the info in the attachment calculated the required speed to reverse time). On what I read, the author uses the Lorentz transformation to calculate how far back in time an object would go if it moved at a speed greater than the speed of light (from the perspective of an outside observer). Is there a counterpart of the Lorentz transformation in general relativity that I could use in order to calculate the gravity needed to stop/reverse time? If not, what could I use to do such a calculation?

Once again, I would just like to thank you guys for all your help regarding this subject. I only have a limited (but growing!) knowledge of relativity, and your answers have been very important in helping me gain a deeper understanding of how this theory works. Thank you!

Best Regards,

917: After playing around with the formula for gravitational time dilation, I have noticed that, as the gravitational potential equals (- c2/2) time "stops". If you go beyond that time becomes imaginary. Of course, using this formula I'm not able to calculate how far "back" in time an outside observer will perceive someone going if they encounter a gravitational potential of this value (the formula wont let me calculate that). However, I know that, in general relativity, the gravitational potential is replaced by the metric tensor. I assume that if I was to implement the metric tensor I would be able to calculate how far "back" in time someone will travel (from the perspective of an outside observer) in the same way that the author of Space-time physics was able to calculate how far back in time an object will travel if it moves faster than light (from the perspective of an outside observer). I have included another copy of that information in the attachment. What metric tensor do I use to perform the coordinate calculations in order to calculate how far "back" in time an object would go (from the perspective of an outside observer)? How do I perform those calculations? Thank you for the help!

918: Why electric lines do not attract each other?
919: So, if plasmas are super-heated gases, could all matter theoretically be turned into plasma with enough energy input? (ex: CO2? water? gold?) Also, on the opposite end of the spectrum, are the materials that do not form solids, even near Absolute Zero?
920: How does a car cell phone charger work (physics)?
921: Can absolute zero stop time?
922: Is there another way to stop time than traveling at light speed? I learned that mass can't go at light speed unless we have infinite energy (which we don't). If there are other ways of stopping time, won't it be so much easier?
923: Before the Big Bang, was the universe matter or energy?
924: How do photons travel so fast? Is there a way to stop them?
925: If there is no time before the Big Bang, then how can the Big Bang happen? Was not everything stopped?
926: Hello, I saw an article online about these things called "Geons" and was wondering if there has been any real research done regarding them. I have a few questions: Have Geons (geon is an electromagnetic or gravitational wave which is held together in a confined region by the gravitational attraction of its own field energy) ever been observed, or are they purely theoretical? Would it be possible to produce a Geon? Because a Geon is in a confined region, would it have any gravitational effects beyond its region? Is it possible to calculate the nessesary field strength to produce a Geon? Thank you for your help! Best, Fineas
927: If there are people in other universes, and they are watching the Big Bang that created ours. What will they see?
928: How do scientists known what the center of the earth is?
929: How is magma formed?
930: How do you make magma?
931: Why any number to the zero power always gives a one?
932: I have never heard of an event without time passing. If the Big Bang created time and there is no time before the Bang, then the Bang shouldn't even happened, unless there is something special about this event that does not need time to happen.
933: Why the Bode Law fails to predict Neptunes orbit?

This is a sealed room to only grow plants. I will be introducing C02 @ 1500 PPM to maximize growth, and I do not want to ventilate the room and loose my C02. So, I will have to introduce oxygen to the room. I know that we have about 21% in our atmosphere but I do not know what the Oxygen level needs to be in order to grow healthy plants?

This is the last thing I will need to know to finish my set up, everything else is in place and ready for plants.

I hope that you can find an answer for me as I have not been very successful on my own.

Thank you

935: Hello! How are you guys? Im continuing my second year here at PSU and am exited to begin another physics class. Ive been looking over some basic magnetics stuff and came upon a "Fun with Magnets" video while searching the net. The video can be found at the following link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AaXglgoF2eg It was one of several videos that I found while I was searching for some basic magnetism kits, but I found this one the most interesting. Id like to try and make one for a demonstration, and it looks simple enought to build (the creator says it uses permanent magnets), but im still trying to figure out exactly how the magnets are configured to make the cylinder magnet follow the shape of the arc. I was wondering if you guys had any ideas? Thanks a lot and have a great day!
936: I read the news this morning that scientists found some particles (neutrinos) which can travel faster than the speed of light. Is it real and possible?
937: R-410A refrigerant (an azeotropic mixture of Difluoromethane and Pentofluoruethane) has replaced R-22 refrigerant for environmental reasons - What is the quality or aspect of R- 410A which means that it has to operate at a much higher pressure than R-22?
938: Would an emptied soda can implode or explode in space?
939: Why do two air molecules, separating at the same time, and one going along the "straight" bottom of an airplane wing and one going along the curved top of the wing have to arrive at the back of the wing at the same time? Or do they? Isn't that what creates lift?
940: Would light ever stop traveling if there were no objects to absorb the light.
941: What Materials will I need to test the fastest way to heat fizzing water?
942: Does temperature affect the amount of energy a solar panel receives?
943: How far will a homemade fire extinguisher shoot if we change the bottle size or the amount of baking soda?
944: Why is gold stronger than platium?
945: How can I get information or background research for handwriting analysis?
946: How does a boat float if it's heavy?
947: Do Football helmets contribute to head injuries and concussions in the NFL (National Football League)? I wanted to know if you had an instrument that measures force when is hit. Can you tell me what kind of instruments can I use to measure those forces?
948: Are there more hurricanes in the northern hemisphere of the Earth, than in the South? If this is true, can you tell me why?
949: What is the heaviest metal?
950: Since the moon circles the earth once a month why is there not some type of eclipse every month?
951: What will happen to an egg if it is sent to space?
952: How can a heavy boat float on top of water?
953: In General Relativity, can you explain to me in detail about what Albert Einstein proposed saying that gravity is not a force but it is space-time geometry? Would you explain why he proposed that?
954: My science fair project is: What direction do plant roots grow? If I change the postition of my plants I'm seeing if the roots grow with the pull of gravity or not. Where can I find more info?
955: Hello,

Merry Christmas! I hope you guys are all having a happy holiday season!

I have one question:
Would it be possible to repel oil (or some other fluid) with an electrically charged plate/rod?

The oil (fluid) would be electrically charged, in a way similar to the oil-droplets in the Millikan oil drop experiment.


956: Is it possible that the big bang singularity was a super massive black hole that sucked all matter and energy into itself and then burst? This would imply that the universe may have been in existence before and that it contracts and expands repeatedly?
957: Does heat affect surface tension or can substances added to it affect it as well?
958: What is interface tension and how is it related to surface tension?
959: How does gravity affect surface tension?
960: What are the Van der Waal forces and what do they do?
961: Why do Van der Waal forces include all of the intermolecular forces? Why are they called intermolecular forces? What is their purpose?
962: Is interface tension only the contact between two liquids, why?
963: What is surface tension and what makes it increase or decrease?
964: If light is coming from a bunch of diffent angles how will the plant grow?
965: How does reflection happen?
966: Why does different soils effect footprints/tracks? Why does mud shows good footprints/tracks compared to other soils? How does water change the footprint/track? How did you become a scientist in this criteria? How long did it take you to become a scientist?
967: How do you think the barrel length affects the accuracy and range of a projectile? Why do you think this happens? What is your field and how long have you been working in it? If you were to build a air cannon would you build a long medium or short barrel? What do you think would be the beast projectile for a air cannon?
968: If hot air rises, why is sea level warmer?
969: If heat is simply the movement of molecules, then how to infrared cameras, which capture infrared light, manage to see heat? Or phrased differently: How does heat give off infrared?
970: How does a pendulum in a mechanical clock works? Not having electricity, from where does it take its energy?
971: I was wondering how I would determine the path an electron would take through a material if a current was applied. Is this something that could be controlled?
972: How does the type of material affect a piece of clothing's ability to insulate, and how can I test out this insulating ability?
973: Why is the pressure inside a soup bubble greater than the pressure outside?
974: If a fragment from an asteroid falls to Earth and a static electric charge is built up as the fragment falls, does it generate a magnetic field? If so, why does it happen?
975: What are distance, time, spring balance and machine?

What is the fastest and most reliable way to make large sheets of Graphene?
Is Graphene entirely transparent to light?
If you have multiple layers of Graphene would this absorb more light?

Thank you

977: Can you tell me why Hurricane Katrina took effect? Why was Katrina so destructive? Has Katrina been the most destructive and strong hurricane we have had in the world?
978: Are there any plans to try to move the moon back to a closer orbit with the earth, through some kind of gravity manipulation, or other ideas?
979: How much air is in a marshmallow?
980: What is a flame?
981: How do you explain the concept of time?
982: How to forces such as gravity and magnetism work? What makes objects attracted to other objects?
983: Is it possible to convert the energy produced by the pendulum (a giant one) to run a miniature electric generator by using suitable gear? In case if the energy get dissipated, can it be recovered using two like magnet (powerful one), one fixed and the other fixed with the pendulum mass? Please help me out.
984: If water is made up of hydrogen and oxygen, two gasses, then how is it a liquid?
985: When we see any animation about diffusion, it shows a sphere of particles / smell / etc. moving out from a centralized point, from an area of high to low concentration. However, in the case of smell, we also learned that smells are made of particles. Would these particles be affected by gravity? Instead of a sphere, wouldn't all the particles just fall to the ground?
986: Hello, I use a laser to test whether a mixture is heter or homogeneous. I have always used a red laser. This year I have a green laser and the added power is giving me different results. For example, Sunlight dish soap will appear homogeneous with the red laser, but heterogeneous with the green laser. Can you explain this? Thanks.
987: A video said that before the Big Bang, the universe was the size of an atom. Another video said that before the Big Bang, there was no space. If so, where is this atom-sized universe? It is got to be so where?
988: What is Time?
989: We want to know which is faster: electricity or light?
990: Can you explain why the planets are round?
991: We were studying about different kind of lenses. How can contact lenses help people see better, when they are on top of your eyes?
992: What is light and why does it travel so fast?
993: A teacher at this school did a science experiment where he had two balls of different masses go down an incline which was raised about 20cm above the table. The balls were released from the same point on the incline and he assumes they accelerated at the same rate and so when they left the incline they were going at the same speed (I'm not sure this is true). In any case, the ball with the larger mass hit the table at a farther distance than the ball with the smaller mass. Could this be true if they were going at the same speed when they left the incline? It seems to me that they should hit at the same place. I don't think the friction of the air would cause enough resistance to cause any difference. The larger ball would have more momentum but this shouldn't affect the rate at which a ball falls. Am I missing something or what accounts for the different distances the balls go through the air?
994: What is the difference between computer digital signals and T.V. analog signals?
995: I would like to know why water's blue in the ocean and clear in a cup? My teacher lives in by the beach and the color are green, red, gray, black at night. My friend Valerie said that it looks blue because of the sun reflection. What is the waters real color?
996: We want to know is blood blue or red? It looks blue in the inside and on the outside it is red.
997: What happens to light in a black hole? Is there an end to a black hole?
998: I have heard of parallel universes, but I do not understand them. Can you explain these, and can you tell me if there is such a thing?
999: Why is Uranus tilted at a 90 degree angle?
1000: How do you know what planets and stars are made of if you can't actually take samples?
1001: How can you tell how many miles or light years away something is if you can't go there? What sorts of instruments do you use?
1002: Will any of the planets ever go out of orbit?
1003: Why are waves bigger over rocks than just over the sand?
1004: If you built a car that could travel at the speed of light and you turned on your headlights, what would happen and what would we see?
1005: Why is it virtually impossible to travel through time?
1006: Why does Venus have a retro-grade rotation?
1007: Why is the sky blue when you look up, but a bluish-white on the horizon?
1008: How do scientists construct anti-gravity rooms?
1009: How does the gravity of black holes exist without any mass?
1010: If you sent a marshmallow into space without a spacesuit, would it explode or implode?
1011: We have studied a little about atoms and such, and I know that in some kind of nuclear explosions atoms are smashed together to release the energy. My question is: Exactly how are these atoms forced together? Don't the negative electron clouds around them force them apart?
1012: Why can't we see stars in the day time like we do at night?
1013: I was wondering if light have mass or weight? If so, how is it measured?
1014: I know we have a vocal box, but I do not know how the vocal box works. Could you help? We do not have any reference book that I could use to look up this topic.
1015: The physics book explains about electric fields are formed between two charged bodies, and how the electric field lines are used to calculate the force of a charged body. However, our text book states that scientist cannot answer why charged bodies exert forces on each other. Has this been answered recently? Can you theorize why charged bodies do this?
1016: RUST: The other day I was told by a man who does body and fender work on cars that "car cancer" (rust) has to be completely removed and in the really bad places cut out and a new piece of metal welded in or the rust would just continue to destroy a car. I thought that rust was the result of iron and oxygen reacting creating iron oxide! If I cover up the rust with paint or "bondo" (sp?), and air can't get to it (no oxygen so no reaction), why would it continue to get worse?
1017: What makes a supernova? What types of energy does a supernova give out when it explodes?How far does the explosion of the supernova go? How common are supernovas?
1018: I need to know if lightening strikes water (ex. oceans, lakes, etc.)? If it does, does the electrical current fry the fish?
1019: I was wondering how ultrasound works. Ive seen it in T.V. and it looks really weird. When I saw it all I see is something moving, How can you guys tell where the arms and the legs are? Is there a better method for looking inside the stomach without hurting the baby?
1020: How big is the ozone hole? Is the hole getting bigger or smaller? Can the ozone layer/hole be repaired, by nature or otherwise? How long do CFCs take to reach the ozone layer and eat it up? How big will the ozone layer get by the year 2000?How could we stop the ozone hole from getting bigger? Will the ozone hole affect the earth's gravity? What will happen if the hole gets really big? Would we die?
1021: I have a problem, and I need your help to solve it. My teacher took away my laser when I shined it at another student in class, because he said it's bad for our eyes. He said I could get it back if I could find out WHY its bad for our eyes. Does it really hurt you eyes? If it does, why?ps. Please write back fast because the laser isn't mine!
1022: Why is it when I turn on the stove the flame comes out blue? Also sometimes it gets orange on the top? So why's that?
1023: How do airplanes fly? What helps airplanes fly? How do airplanes manage to get in the air? What makes an airplane stay in the air? I got a paper out of the computer that gave me some Information about different pressure on the wings, but not enough to make it clear.
1024: Im interested in airplanes. I want to know how they make the engine balance to the wings because the engine seems heavier than the wings and still keep the airplane on the air?
1025: Do trains have gears? How fast can an old steam train go? Who invented the first train? What train is the fastest today? Why do trains have a side rod?
1026: We are trying to find out how cameras work. We found information about why cameras need light,but wonder what is the difference between video film and rolled film. We also were wondering how the pictures get on the film roll, how much light is needed to take a picture,and what makes the film develop. Finally, our teacher says that digital cameras like one he has dont use film. How do we find out more about the differences????
1027: What technology do they use to make a Roller Coaster? How has the technology of Roller Coasters changed through out the years? How does magnetism make a Roller Coaster work? Do you know of any web sites that tell exactly how a Roller Coasters work?
1028: Can you help me find information on my title: Can a Magnet Erase a Cassette Tape, Floppy Disk, and a Compact Disk, what kind of magnet is used to do so and, how does it erase?
1029: I have a physics student who is researching skipping objects on water (rocks, balls, etc.). We have been looking for areas of research that deal with the factors that effect skipping and have been not too successful. Our question is what actually happens when a flat object is skipped?
1030: Why cant our eye and brain process certain parts of the electromagnetic spectrum? We know that we can see the visible part, and that other animals can process infrared, for instance. What is it that makes our brains different in this respect?
1031: Why do we need lasers? What do we use lasers for? How do you build lasers? Who invented lasers? How big and powerful can lasers be? Why/how do lasers travel over long distances? Are all lasers red? What does the color of the laser mean?Why are lasers dangerous?
1032: This week we have learned about alpha, beta, and gamma nuclear radiation and decay. We know that in beta decay a neutron is lost and a proton is gained, and that the daughter element has one more proton than its parent. For example, when Thorium-234 beta decays into Protactinium-234. This has aroused two questions: If the number of electrons is the same as that of the protons in normal atoms, does the new Pa-234 get a new electron in the electron cloud, and if so, where does it come from? Also what happens to the electrons that are left over when radioactive elements like Uranium-238 alpha decay? Does alpha decay somehow include a loss of 2 electrons so that the daughter element is not an ion?
1033: How did they find atoms?
1034: How does video tape make contact with the VCR?
1035: How are diamonds are made? We have found some information that says they are made by carbon under volcanic pressure,but we just don't understand it.
1036: What kind of fuel does an F-22 Raptor and a F-16 use? (fighter jets) What are the best fighter jet and bomber from your point of view ?
1037: How do we extract Helium (symbol = He) from the Earth's atmosphere?
1038: A student had the question about where the word neap comes from? The dictionary did not make a clear origin for the word.
1039: Is there any correlation between the index of refraction of a material and the density? It seems there might be until I consider the atomic structure, etc.
1040: How does a cellular phone work?
1041: Why do we have toes?
1042: Why are clouds gray?
1043: Does space ever end?
1044: How much pressure is needed to cause a bone fracture?
1045: Why is the sun so hot and bright?
1046: Is there a fourth dimension?
1047: Why is space black?
1048: Why do volcanic clouds of ash cause lightening (like on Mt Pinatubo)?
1049: What created the Big Bang?
1050: I heard that if a person ran around another person at light speed for five minutes, the person in the middle would age fifty years, but the person running would only age 5 minutes. Is that true? If so, why would that happen?
1051: I have learned that Mars has a thinner atmosphere and smaller acceleration due to gravity compared to Earth. If a lander similar to the Pathfinder were to land on Earth in the same way, would it fall faster or slower than the one on Mars?
1052: Is it possible for people to live in space? Why do people want to do that?
1053: What if a big comet hit the Earth? What would happen to us and how are you trying to stop it?
1054: What would cause the magnetic polar caps to switch places?
1055: How are stars formed?
1056: Is there any possible way that people here on Earth could live on other planets like Saturn, Jupiter, or the Sun?
1057: Why do stars twinkle?
1058: How do microwave ovens work?
1059: What causes spontaneous combustion?Extra question from those X-Files fans: Can humans spontaneously combust?
1060: Do we have the technology to freeze people and brind them back to life? What would happen to the water in our body if we were frozen, wouldn't it expand...and isn't this a potential problem to freezing humans?
1061: If you are on the moon, does the Earth have phases similar to moon phases? Would they be the same or reversed?
1062: Why can't we send an astronaut to Jupiter on a satelite or probe? Will we ever be able to send a human to the outer planets?
1063: We've heard that ideas of the curvature of the earth come up when a ship is seen slowly disappearing down the horizon. How can we calculate the distance of the ship?
1064: If CH4 outgases from the ocean bottom in large amounts during an earthquake, can a boat sink in the result less dense water?
1065: When I take a hot shower the mirror fogs up. I was told to run cold water in the shower first and then when I got in to turn the hot water up and the mirror wouldn't fog. This proved to be true. I do not understand - why does cold water makes the difference?
1066: We currently know that Dark Matter is matter that is in outer space and occupies a great deal of matter in the Universe. It could be many things such as planets, dormant stars, or black holes, but we are seeking the truth... What is Dark Matter? What do we need to know about Dark Matter that we dont? Is there any significant information about how it differs from the matter on earth?
1067: We know that plasma is another state of matter besides liquid, solid, and gas. But where is it, where can we see it, and how is it used in our everyday life? We dont think weve ever seen it.
1068: Do crystals form in other rocks other than molten rock?
1069: Has the cure for cancer already been found? On the internet, I found referecnes to the cure for cancer (already detected in the years 1920-1930 by different scientists like George Lakhovsky, Nikkola Tesla and Royal Raymond Rife?). Using a Multi Wave Oscillator they ware able to regenarate the human body cells. Are there any modern science investigations done to confirm or deny this? Is this just a myth?
1070: Why do the sun and moon look bigger when seen on the horizon than they do when high in the sky?
1071: How do we know the extrapolated graph to calculate 0 K is linear all theway? How close are researchers to achieving 0 K experimentally? Is itpossible to achieve it and sustain it? How do they do it if the sensing mechanisms would have to be higher than 0 K? (Like Heisenberguncertainty principle) Is light or the speed of light at all affected at those temperatures(below 4 K?)
1072: I am currently participating in a project where I have to design a space settlement. I would like some data on the materials and the processes being developed/studied here. If you have any such information, could you help me?
1073: Why is the ocean blue? My guess is that shorter wavelength blue light is refracted more by tiny particles. Or, is blue light absorbed and then re- emitted more commonly than higher wavelengths by certain molecules.Are these two interpretations of the same process? Please provide as complicated of an answer as you wish; the more explanatory, the better.
1074: When a skateboard rolls to a stop, is most of its Kinetic Energy (KE) lost as heat in the ground, the wheels' surface, or in the ball bearings...of the wheel. Also, if two skateboards are in motion (A and B), and the wheels, ball bearings,.. of B have a higher heat capacity than A, would this mean that skateboard B would roll longer?
1075: We are discussing Newtons and I was wondering how you measure Newtons. How do you know when you are pushing 40 N agianst someone. What makes a Newton a Newton?
1076: Could a black hole be destroyed if the amount of mass that was sucked in was bigger or about the size of Jupiter?What is a worm hole? How are they formed? Could you enter one, and what would object inside or outside the worm hole look like? What would happen if two black holes were side by side?
1077: Why are red stars cooler than white stars? I thought red things were hot.
1078: How do magnets affect electricity? How does electricity affect magnetic energy? Can motors be improved with either one?
1079: I am currently participating in a project where I have to design a space settlement. I would like some data on quantum computing.
1080: What would happen to me if I went through a black hole? Would I end up in a different universe?
1081: How do we get the satellites to other planets like Jupiter so fast if it takes a regular rocket 5 years to get there?
1082: How do we know how stuff really is out there if it's too far out to explore and would take years to get to?
1083: I am not in school. I am in a nursing home and cannot get to the library so the net is my only way of learing. My question is why are some tides higher than others? Thank you if you can answer me.
1084: How is soda pressurized with carbon dioxide?
1085: Can ALL substances be a solid, liquid and gas if you are allowed to change the temperature and pressure?
1086: Why does mint have a "cool" taste? Is there a solid in the candy that is melting, which uses heat from your body for the phase change?
1087: How do you know how many galaxies there are in the universe?
1088: How did the carbon get in the universe to form the nebulas?
1089: I am doing a report on physics in pool (billiards) for my science class which is due this Friday. I was wondering if you could give me any information on how momentum (such as the conservation of momentum) and collision has to do with physics, and how knowing about how they are connected would help me in my pool game. Any information would be very helpful.
1090: Please answer our question about space. The sun is out in space. Around the earth it gets very cold and the air around us is cold. Out in space is it cold warm or very hot?
1091: I'm doing a report on Ocean waves and we have to interview someone so I thought I could send out these question and see who responded. 1. How do ocean waves fit into physics? (Do they have friction, etc.)2. If you were to draw an ocean wave what would you label?3. how do the waves change with each season?4. If you were to do a presentation to a high school class about this topic what would you do?Thanks!
1092: How are Solar Flares are related to the Magnetic Poles on Earth? How they work? I can't find that answer in any of the books I looked through.
1093: What causes bubbles to form when boiling water? Where are the bubbles coming from?
1094: Why is electricity so powerful? Also, why does electricity like iron & metal?
1095: Why is it that in high power electric wires, the current travels on the outside edge? I have heard that this phenomena is so strong that places like radio stations use copper pipes instead of solid wire.
1096: Why is fire hot? What is a nuclear bomb?
1097: How do hurricanes begin forming?
1098: How do we get electricty? How does it work?
1099: How do Ultraviolet Detecting Beads work? What's the chemistry behind them? UV detecting beads contain a pigment which changes color when exposed to UV light. These beads are sold by Educational Innovations Inc. Their web site is: www.teachersource.com
1100: If I were to dig a hole to the very core of the Earth, then jump, would I float because the gravity is all converging on one spot?
1101: We are studying the Coriolis Effect and the question asked was if you were hovering above Earth in a helicopter would Earth rotate below us and move while we in the helicopter stay in the original place?
1102: Is there any way to create ozone that could be used to fill the holes in the ozone layer?
1103: Why is milk white?
1104: Why does metal, like a fork or aluminum foil spark when placed in a microwave?
1105: If the Titanic was still floating, would a tornado be powerful enough to lift it?
1106: If we send all of our nuclear weaponry at Jupiter could we ignite it to become a star?
1107: What would happen to time if things suddenly stopped moving? What is the relationship between energy and time?
1108: We have learned that there are exceptions to the aufbau principle. How do chemists know the actual electron configurations for elements like chromium, copper, or platinum?
1109: What is the spider silk made of and how can it be so strong to hold a spider?
1110: Have there been documented cases where a person has received radio waves on the metal in their mouth or metal plates in their head? (Or is it even possible for some to receive radio waves in the metal in their head?)
1111: How do scientists know how old a star is?
1112: How do scientists know a black hole is out there?
1113: Is there a plateau in the heating curve as a substance goes from a gas to plasma? Since it's not really a phase change, I wouldn't think you'd see it.
1114: Is lightning understood to flow from the ground up, simply due to the positive/negative convention of electric current?
1115: How does the speedometer in an airplane work? The more I think about it the more impossible it seems. I guess now they just use G.P.S. or something but during WW2 how did the planes know how fast they were going?
1116: If you evacuate water with an oil pump is the heavy bubbling of the water due to the water boiling at room temperature or is the water just degasing ?
1117: What would be the difference between a blackhole with a naked singularity vs. a blackhole with an event horizon. Other than the obvious, what would be difference between those two astronomical anomalies?
1118: If antimatter exists, how could it possibly be contained? If antimatter reacts with matter how could it be contained by matter? I heard that scientists had contained a particle of antimatter at Princeton Physics lab. I was wondering how they did this.
1119: Do all atoms decay? I know "radioactive" atoms do of course, but I don't really understand how some atoms could decay, while others don't.
1120: In the sun, how come hydrogen atoms, the simplest, only form helium? Why aren't other more complex atoms formed in the fusion?
1121: How is light affected by gravity if it has no mass?
1122: How does light energy become mass if E=mc2 states that energy becomes mass when approaching the speed of light (because mass cannot go the speed of light, the energy pushing it becomes mass) when light itself is going the speed of light. How is that energy converted back into mass?
1123: If black holes give of radiation, and will eventually "evaporate" what happens to all the energy and mass inside? (I know we are not sure of what is in a black hole, and what rules of physics rule.)
1124: If black holes pull in light, how can we detect radiation "evaporating" from it? I'm not sure what type of radiation it is (maybe you can clarify that too) but isn't light and whatever is being emitted all part of the same spectrum. Why is only some radiation effected?
1125: How would a liquid nitrogen fueled craft get thrust? What other fuel would be needed to make a reaction? Could liquid nitrogen be used as fuel, or is it impossible to use?
1126: What is the stealthiest design for an aircraft in terms of radar? I have heard that the F-117A was so stealthy that bats cannot see it using their sonar. What causes this stealth ability? Is it possible to fly at supersonic speeds and remain stealth?
1127: How do speedometers in airplanes work? How could you measure the speed of the air when traveling against or with the jet stream.
1128: What state of matter is fire considered to be in?
1129: If one drives through space at light speed and the head lights are turned on, what will happen? Or...if the tail lights are turned on, that what will that look like?
1130: I have heard about a natural nuclear reactor that had formed long ago but was now extinct. Aparently there was a cavity in a rock that was under extreme pressure and heat that caused some radioactive element to explode continuously for thousands of years. I wanted to know whether or not the Radioactive elements that we use in our reactors exist in nature and how these conditions could have come together to create such a rare device in nature?
1131: What makes the Earth's core so magnetic?
1132: How can you calculate your age on the Sun?
1133: Imagine that you make contact with an extraterrestrial intelligence. What units would you use to communicate ideas about how our planet or solar system operates? It seems that the units of time, distance, and mass which we use are based on features of our own system and wouldn't necessarily make sense to an intelligence from somewhere else (e.g. Second, Hour, Day, Year, Lightyear, AU, Kilogram, Meter, are all arbitrary or based on the location or movement of the Earth). What are units which anyone from our universe (but not necessarily our planet) would be able to recognize?
1134: Do black holes really exist? If yes, why we have not found them moving around neighboring galaxies?
1135: Can you hear a space ship in space or a super nova?
1136: What is doublet flow?
1137: What is antimatter?
1138: Are scientists measuring the stress under the Ocean plates closed to the California coast? How do they do that?
1139: How do scientists know that the Earth's core is made out of Iron and not another magnetic metal?
1140: In chemistry class today, we were learning about how fuel works in powering cars and how oil is injected into a cylinder and the sparkplug makes it catch fire and the mini-explosion pushes the piston. Now, my question is, if only a small explosion is needed to push the pistons, why do we use oil and not some other flammable fuel that can do the same job and in more abundance?
1141: What type of sound waves does an accordion produce?

When we spray perfume into the air, we smell the particles of the perfume. Are those particles a liquid or a gas?

Some of us think that it is small, minute droplets of perfume liquid (like steam is condensed water vapor in the form of liquid.

Some of us think that since the perfume is volatile, that the particles that we are smelling are gas particles that have evaporated from the liquid perfume.

Could you please help us with this?

Also, how about the popcorn smell we smell when we microwave popcorn?

Thank you very much!!

1143: Hello! How are you guys? I have a question about a gravitational potential formula I have been using for physics calculations, but I'm not sure if I'm using it for the right applications. I'd like to attach a document showing my work but I cant do it here. Can you please send me an email so I can get it to you guys? Thanks!
1144: This question is not for school. I wanted to now sense you can't look at solar eclipses directly. Can you use sun glasses, 3d glasses or a cell phone to look at them without hurting your eye?
1145: Does water have a "texture"?
1146: When does Argon gas go into the "lasing" phase? What is the typical wavelength(s)of Argon gas during lasing? How much energy at which tempo is needed for lasing?
1147: Do you think we will ever be able to harness and/or contain the energy of antimatter for usage in most areas in a safe manner?
1148: In quantum mechanics . When a photon is created , is it possible to predict the following?: A, its place in the wave pattern (i.e. Does it start existence at the center point or peak of a wave? ) B ,the direction it will travel with in that wave pattern?
1149: I have a question about magnetic surfactants. If one puts a non-magnetic surfactant in water (soap, for example), the surfactant will spread out and form a thin film above the surface of the water. If one was to put a magnetic surfactant in water, however, and stick a magnet in the solution, would the magnetic surfactant concentrate itself on/and around the magnet (moving with the magnet, if it is disturbed)? Or would it diffuse itself through-out the water much like the normal surfactant? Thanks for the help!
1150: I would like to do an experiment at home on how weather affects static electricity. Can you help me get started? How do I do it?
1151: How do divers equalize the pressure in great depths?
1152: Is it possible for auroral activity to slightly activate a florescent light causing it to flicker on and off ?
1153: Are there any known short or long-term health effects from using an ionic hair dryer?
1154: Under which circumstances is that one cans feel heavier in a lift?
1155: Iceland characterizes for its eruptions and earthquakes. How do Icelanders take advantage of Iceland’s volcanic nature?
1156: How many elements are there in the known universe?
1157: I am interested in the low stress mechanical properties of linen, lycra, blended woven, and knitted fabrics. Could you help me?
1158: How long do glow sticks last?
1159: How energy generated by chemical reactions can be converted into light energy in terms of the behavior of electrons? Does a compound that emits red light would require more energy than a compound that emits a violet light?
1160: How would I calculate the magnitude and direction of acceleration of a galaxy moving towards another galaxy? The only values I know are that both galaxies mass = 1.42 x 1042 kg.

1161: If we take water to space, how is the water density affected?
1162: How does the lunar orbit compare to a circular path?
1163: I wish to find out the speed of sound in air, but I am having trouble thinking up an experiment to do so ? What materials will I need and how do you think I can possibly do it at home?
1164: Hi,I have query related to UV index. If there is an UV index of 15 affecting a room made of clear glass, no special coating, no lamination, just simple breakable glass of thickness 3mm, how much UV will pass through and how much will be blocked by this 3mm thick plain, clear, no laminated/coated glass?
1165: How do other planets affect Earth's gravitational pull?
1166: How waves can lead to theories about the internal structure of Earth?
1167: Who finally established that there are things called atoms?
1168: How was the moon created?

How can I determine the magnitude of the vertical (“up”) force that the sphere exerts on the lid, given the radius of the cone, its tangential velocity, and the mass of the sphere (s) (and of course, from that information, the centripetal acceleration experienced by the sphere)?

see figure

I have done the following calculations (shown below) to determine the magnitude of the vertical force, with the help of a professor from school. We made a few assumptions about the rotating sphere in order to simplify the problem, but overall I think the calculations should still approximate a real life situation. I would like to make sure that we have not made any errors, however. Would you guys mind looking at it and making sure our calculations are correct?

Thank you!

∑ FY = (– m*g) – N2M + (N*sinθ) = 0
∑ FX = (N*cosθ) = m*(v2/r)
N2 = (m*g) – (N*sinθ)
(N*cosθ) = (m*v2)/r
N = (m*v2)/(r*cosθ)
N2 = (m*g) – ( ((m*v2)/ (r*cosθ))*sinθ )
N2 = (m*g) – ( ((m*v2)/r) *tanθ)
N2 = m*(g – ((v2/r) *tanθ) )

“Up” Force = N2 = m*(g – ((v2/r)*tanθ) )
Where v equals the tangential velocity of the rotating cone.

1170: How long does it take for water to boil?
1171: When I put some sponge balls in water, why do they stick to each other and to the vessel?

For my 8th grade science project, I have decided to conduct an experiment to see how the temperature of air affects the speed of sound in that medium. I have made some research on the subject, and I have found a design for an experiment to do this test:

I have to insert on one side of a plastic cylinder a speaker, delivering a pulse at a regular rhythm. On the other end will be a microphone connected to an oscilloscope, which will be mounted so that I can adjust its position from the pulse. By moving the microphone enough to change the position of the graph on the oscilloscope, I can find the relationship between the distance of the pulse and the microphone in relation to the increased time. By doing this several times with various distances I can estimate the speed of sound, and by heating or cooling the air in the tube (using applying ice packs on the sides, or heating it with a blow dryer) and measuring the speed of sound at those temperatures, I will be able to see the relationship between the speed of sound in air and the temperature.

Could any of you help me to do this experiment at your lab, where we will need a pulse generator and an oscilloscope? I will take care of the rest of the equipment that I need. I think that this experiment will take a couple of hours and I will do my best while working there.


1173: Can a black hole be created by the Earth's pollution and our radiation?
1174: Why light reflects off mirrors?
1175: What does it mean to have four tides?
1176: Does a candle temperature affect its burning rate?
1177: Does the sun rotate?
1178: Where will an ice cube melt faster, in salt water or in freshwater?
1179: In Social Studies, we are studying landforms but our textbook doesn't tell us anything about volcanoes or canyons. Can you tell us more about these types of landforms?
1180: How does the shape of football affect the distance the ball travels?
1181: What has the units of Newtons and can push and pull a mass?
1182: What would be used for a wave that has the wavelength of about the size of a molecule of water?
1183: How does water absorb heat?
1184: Why does the moon have so many craters?
1185: How does the cardiac muscle contract and relax in a proper way (rhythmically) if it has not bony attachment or nerves?
1186: Why snow looks white while water is colorless?
1187: What would happen if the world rotated in the opposite direction than it already does?
1188: What are the world’s strongest two elements?
1189: What is heat measured with?
1190: How does wearing a seat belt affect the damage to a passenger in a car crash?
1191: Why was hurricane Katrina so devastating?
1192: What causes the water to bubble?
1193: How do mountains change with time?
1194: How much water is in the Atlantic Ocean?
1195: Does the amount of stretch of a rubber band affect the distance a rubber band will travel?

We are doing the science fair at our school and I need to conduct an interview with a scientist by e-mail. The question of my project is: Which color light transmits the most energy and heat?

In the interview, I would like to ask questions like this:

Information about you, like name, email, career field/studies.
What knowledge do you have on energy and the color spectrum?
What could I do to improve this project or expand from it?
What are some similar things that you work with that could help me better understand my project?
Any ideas that could help me will be great.

1197: What popcorn pops the most kernels and what is the reason? For example, brands likeWinn Dixie Popsecret? Or Orville brand?

Hello, my name is Jenna. I am an 8th grade student at La Colina J.H. I am currently working on my science fair project. My Science fair question is:

How does a wetsuit affect drag?

My procedures are:
1.Wear a competition swimsuit.
2. Swim in 25m pool
3. Swim 100m.
4. Measure and document time of 100m swim.
5. Rest 2 minutes.
6. Repeat steps 1-5 nine times.
7. Average the times of all 100m swim sets.
8. After a week of rest, wear a triathlon swimming wetsuit of 3mm thickness neoprene with no arms.
9. Repeat steps 2-7 wearing wetsuit.
My hypothesis is: If the wetsuit does create drag then I think the competitive swimsuit will provide better speed and time then the wetsuit. IF you have the time I would really appreciate answers to these questions.
a. Do my procedures sound like they would work for my experiment?
b. Is there anything I could do to make my experiment better?
c. Would it be better to do five trials of the competition suit and then five trials of the wetsuit on one day then do the same thing a week later?
d. Is there any vital information about drag I should know before conducting my experiment?
e. What is the best way to measure drag?

1199: This question has to do with us learning about atoms and elements and the "families" on the Periodic Table in my Geophysics class (and orbitals, or 'shells'). The question is, "Which of the families has 2 extra protons in the outer shell?"
1200: If we were to communicate with an astronaut on space, would there be a delay? If so, how late would that communication be? And how would they communicate with us?
1201: I am doing an experiment with diamagnetic (repelled by magnets) materials and magnets. I am trying to figure out what kind of easily obtainable, diamagnetic material, is the strongest (by levitation). The materials I am using are: Pyrolitic Carbon, Bismuth, Lead, Graphite, and Copper. I was wondering if you had any of these materials (3x3 inches, 4x4 inches, 5x5 inches, etc., plates approximately 1 mm thick) at UCSB or knew anywhere that might have them (for a cheap price of course). I am looking for 2 plates (all the same size) of each of the materials. If you know anything, then please tell me. Also, I was wondering if you guys have any available mentors. I need a mentor also for my Science Project so if you have anyone available then please tell me. Thanks!
1202: How does a rocket travel from Earth to the moon?
1203: Does the color of a candle affect the rate of burning?
1204: I am doing an experiment on ice cubes melting in salt water or fresh water. I've done the experiment and it melts faster in fresh water. For my project, I need to explain why this happens and why this experiment is helpful to humans. My mom does not know. I also need the name of the person who answers my question. Thank you so much. I know it is late but this project is due Nov. 30.
1205: Is there a speed at which the force of the car's motion makes it so that the seat belt can no longer protect the passenger?
1206: How does magnetism affect Earth?
1207: How to make electricity?
1208: Does the amount of stretch in a rubber affect the distance the rubber band will travel?
1209: How does the sun affect surface ocean currents and deep ocean currents?
1210: How does the moon control the tides? Can you put it into a way that is easy to understand?
1211: How do we know that the earth has a solid core?
1212: Why has x-ray been detected to pass through a black hole?
1213: What type of ion does hydrogen form?
1214: How is that hydrogen and oxygen make a compound?
1215: I was asked on a science test:'True or False: Molecules are moving all the time. I wrote false, because I thought molecules stopped moving at absolute zero. I was marked incorrect, and my teacher showed me that the book said molecules keep moving. Am I right? Do molecules stop moving at absolute zero?
1216: Why is water the only element that is found in 3 states of matter?

1)Is it better to use a bowl or a container to make gelatin?
2)Does it matter what kind of water I use to make gelatin? Or is it better to use faucet or purified water?
3)Where do you work?
4)Is there anything you suggest me that I should include to supplement my background for my experiment on gelatin?

1218: What elements or things besides water can exist in the 3 states, solid,liquid and gas?
1219: Why is it that we have two hydrogen bonding with one oxygen and not four?
1220: How are scientists able to identify which layers of the Earth are solid or liquid using seismic waves?
1221: What materials can make ice melt faster?
1222: If you dig a hole in the center of the Earth and you drop a stone in the hole, what will it happen?
1223: What would happen to a particle if we accelerated it to the speed of light? Will the particle fade or will it turn into energy? PS: I know we can't accelerate particles to the speed of light, but I'm just asking "what if?"

I am doing a Science experiment at La Colina Jr. High School. My experiment is with levitation. I have built my stand and have successfully levitated a magnet. I have thought up some questions for you.

1) About how strong is diamagnetism at it's strongest (how much would a magnet be repelled by a piece of the strongest diamagnetic material in the world, strongest meaning how strongly diamagnetic)?

2) Is everything diamagnetic at least to some extent (besides magnets)?

3) What is a Superconductor?

4) What is the strongest diamagnetic material besides superconductors?

5) What is the study of materials and what kind of job would that be?

6) What career does Diamagnetism/Levitation relate to?

7) Could you tell me about your career at UCSB? And what does it entail?

1225: If I dig a hole through the earth and drop a brick in it, what will it happen?
1226: How would I be able to measure the texture of a cake according to its fluffiness?

My project is what is the fastest way to cool a beverage. The beverages I am using are coke, sprite, cow milk, and goat milk.I am going to put each beverage into 3 coolers. One cooler with ice, another with water and ice, and the last one with water, ice and salt. I have a few questions about my project and about you.

1. What is your career choice?

2. How would I find the starting temperature of the cooler?

3. What do you think will happen?


4. What do you have your crudentials in?

5. How does salt affect the freezing rate?


1) How are microwaves transmitted, and where do the waves come from?

2)How does a microwave oven heat up food?

3)How severe is the radiation from a microwave oven and what is its capable damage?

4)Is it true that if you stand in front of a functioning microwave, then you will get brain cancer?

5)Is there any evidence that the radiation from a microwave oven effected a person\'s brain?

6)What is your current profession and what was your major in college?


1. How does Gravity affect the speed of a parachute falling to the ground?

2 Does the type of material to make the parachute affect the flight pattern?

3. Does wind affect the flight pattern?

4. Does the size of the parachute affect the speed of it falling to the ground?

1230: What is the science behind water freezing?

Dear Scientist,
Could you answer the following questions for me?

What is your major?

How does salt water affect freezing rate?

How does carbonation affect freezing rate?

How does carbonation, salt, and fresh (filtered) water affect the cooling rate in different environments?


I hope you can help me. I am Irish, but I go to school in North London as my parents live here. I am working on an experiment on how to take soap out of water. I have blown air into the soapy water for hours but more and more bubbles seem to appear. I have 2 questions:

1. If I blow air into the water for long enough will doing this take the soap out of the water?

2. If I vacuum the soap bubbles will it burst them?

1233: How does heat transfer?
1234: What is the difference between tsunamis and hurricanes?
1235: What is the main difference between a Newton meter and a spring balance?
1236: Why are crystals important to science?
1237: How did the earth layers form, and how did the dinosaurs become extinct?
1238: Do different colored lights affect how images are seen or interpreted? Can colors show help people visualize images? Does sexuality cause people to like or dislike a color? What effect does environmental color have on someone's mood?
1239: I'm doing my science fair project on black holes. I learned that inside a black hole there is a very strong gravitational pull. My hypothesis is that around the black hole there might be a spinning force (similar to tornadoes)as the galaxy rotates around it. This spinning force should draw objects toward the black hole. Am I on the right track? Do you have any suggestions about how to test my hypothesis?
1240: What is a black hole?
1241: I am doing a science project on which a bat hits a baseball farther, a bat made of wood or aluminum? Do you have any idea of how can I set up my experiment?

According to question: click here please
So since i'm doing 5 cakes using whole eggs and 5 cakes using egg whites. Would I compare the density of the whole egg cake with the density of the egg white cake and then from comparing both densities I would find which one is fluffier right?

1243: My science project is about the conductivity of different metals (such as copper, aluminum, brass, etc.) Which of your topics relates to my question? What can you tell me about the conductivity of metals? How would you test this?
1244: Will a sled with two or more people on it go down a hill faster than a sled with one person on it? Assuming all of the people weigh the same, and the sleds are the same.
1245: Where does the heat go when a surface coated in multi-wall carbon nanotubes absorbes this heat? If we coated a pool cover in the multi-wall carbon nanotubes, would it be possible to channel the heat into a hot tub using copper wires?
1246: How does the oceans current affect the climate of the east coast?
1247: Which color does absorb most heat in color pans?
1248: How is that 1 kg is equal to one Newton and how can I find it?
1249: How to identify the two differences between the properties of the material that has metallic bonds and the materials that have covalent bonds?
1250: Why a mass of 1 kilogram will have a different weight on the moon?
1251: For my science project I am testing to see the most efficient way to generate geothermal energy using a pinwheel and boiling water. The dependent variable is how many times the pinwheel spins in a full circle in a 20 second time span. How many variables do you think are necessary for a decent grade? Is one data table enough or should I have more? What type of graph should I use. Also, could you be sure to finish this before my project is due? The date is January 22, 2013. Thanks!
1252: How does weather affect the clothes we wear?
1253: How does the moon cause high tides?
1254: Is air pressure really "caused" by the weight of air above a body, or is it due to the kinetic energy and of the air molecules at any particular point in the atmosphere?

What is air pressure and absolute pressure?
What is Gear direction?
Why car tire get flat in a busy road?
Why ships do not sink?
Why do flames fire go up?

1256: Which freezes faster, water or salt water?
1257: I am doing a school project on electricity. Any ideas?
1259: How does a nuclear explosion happen?
1260: If you go faster than the speed of light will you go back in time?
1261: How is sound energy used in this world?
1262: Does the strength of a magnet affect its pull?
1263: Why do you weigh less on the moon than on earth?
1264: Why hydrogen have only one atomic number?
1265: What part of a motor transforms electricity into movement? It is not like you sap an RC car and it starts moving.
1266: Why does the ocean get bigger gravitational pull of the moon? Why low and high tides occur throughout a day?
1267: Why are motorists told to check the pressure in car tyres while the tyres are cold - in other words, before they go on a long journey?
1268: When you put your finger over the nozzle of a syringe and try to push the plunger in, it is difficult to do this. Can you explain to me, why?
1269: Do ice cubes melt better in boiling or cold water?
1270: What is a good conductor of heat for pipes in the solar panel?
1271: How do pigments absorb and reflect different wave lengths of light?
1272: In string theory, do we live in a membrane or between membranes?
1273: Why is there no oxygen in space?
1274: Does changing the temperature of a balloon affect the circumference of the balloon?
1275: Why do we float in space?
1276: Why do have to wear a helmet in space?
1277: How do you know for sure that space never ends?
1278: Does fresh water freeze faster than salt water and why?
1279: I know that carbon dioxide freezes at a temperature of -57 degrees and forms dry ice, but in Antartica the temperature is -60 degrees . So, does dry ice forms there? If yes, then how and why?
1280: Have the planets ever lined up? If they have, what was the year?
1281: Is the sun the hottest star in the Universe?
1282: What is a nebula and is it the first part of the sun's life cycle?
1283: Why does Saturn have a ring that floats?
1284: How does the moon control the oceans tides?
1285: What is your frame of reference for what to measure for elevation from on the moon? How does a compass perform in deep space? What does it point to? Best Regards. Also, you guys should watch adventure time. It is majestic.
1286: How are galaxies made? I know we live in the Milky Way.
1288: Does the moon out off heat?
1289: I've been searching for an eco-friendly Science project to do and I can't find one.. Any ideas?
1290: If humans receive biochemical damage from solar radiation what can happen to them?
1291: Why cannot we breath under water?
1292: How do rocks split to make a waterfall?
1293: How does air resistance affect how far a rubber band can go?
1294: What will happen if a human would go through a black hole, what would I see?
1295: How can students avoid getting shocked on plastic slides? What can we build?
1296: How will the type of rubber band ball affects the bounce height?
1297: How does spin affect the trajectory of a kicked soccer ball?
1298: How small can a particle be?
1299: If the universe is expanding, how is that galaxies can collide?
1300: We are learning about flat points on time vs. temp graphs indicating phase transitions. While each transition takes place (ex: freezing) the temperature stays constant, then after it is done, the temperature continues dropping. Once something is solid (ex: iron,) does the temperature keep dropping indefinitely? Is there a phase "colder" than solid? Would there ever be any flat point phase transitions other than plasma- gas, gas - liquid, liquid - solid?
1301: If a smell is made of solid particles floating in the air, if you smell something, does that mean the object being smelled is losing volume and mass?
1302: If air in a tire contracts when it is cold outside (according to your web site), why does a can of soda expand in the freezer? Thank you!
1303: What are different types of Newton meters used for?
1304: Does the sun grow or does it stay how it is right know?
1305: When you go to space, can you get out hydrogen from the sun? How do you get hydrogen on earth?
1306: How do you make a light bulb light up with a battery, a negative and a positive wire, and what kind of battery would you use?
1307: Why is the sun so bright and hot?What instruments do scientists use to study the sun?How big can a solar flare get?
1308: Why is the sun so bright and hot?
1309: How does a galaxy form?
1310: If gravitational force is the result of an object with mass warping space time, is this force omni- directional as it directs its influence on the center of mass?
1311: When you put water on clothing, why does the color look strong?
1312: How earth is different from the other planets?
1313: What things in a house are conductors?
1314: Why do black objects absorb more heat (light) than lighter colored objects? What do wavelengths have to do with it?
1315: Why do planets have different layers?
1316: Why is the temperature inside of a car hotter than the temperature outside on a sunny day?
1317: Why does saltwater heat faster than freshwater? Links would be appreciated.
1318: How many stars are in the galaxy? Is it true that if you go into a black hole, you can still come out?
1319: How is silver made?
1320: How does the type of surface affect the amount of heat absorbed or radiated?
1321: How fast does the space rocket go, so it can get through our atmosphere?
1322: Does different color light change the color of a plants petals or the growth?
1323: Which colors absorb the most heat? Why is this? Does a bright color like yellow absorb a lot of heat?
1324: How do I prove geothermal energy? Is there a way I can turn a light bulb on using geothermal energy?
1325: Why does hot air rise?
1326: Why do mirrors reflect?
1327: I want to ask about the theory of the multiverse system. If the science community feels it exists, how ? If not, what could be the possible boundary of our known universe? and what is the relationship between a multiverse system and quantum mechanics, with emphasis on linear and 3D time frame, random events, etc?
1328: Is it possible to refill the holes of ozone? Can a new compound be discovered which could act as a protective covering for earth from harmful rays of the sun? If this is possible, please tell me the elements which are protective in function to UV rays . Can you send me related web sites where I could learn more?
1329: How would the shuttle cock change its position in air, if it were hit with a small force from a badminton bat?
1330: Why do marshmallows expand in the microwave?

In reference to a previous question click hear to read

In this case we have the same closed, rotating hollow cone whose rotation at some tangential velocity w is perpendicular to the direction of gravity (so the tip of the cone is pointing down, and the cone rotates on a horizontal plane). The incline of the cone is 45 degrees, but I suppose it can be any angle x. The cone has a radius r.

Instead of containing several spheres, like my last question, this cone contains some fluid of known volume, density, and mass. As the cone begins to rotate, the fluid co-rotates with it, climbs up the incline and presses up against the top lid. Eventually the cone's tangential velocity is stabilized and the fluid exerts a constant force on the inside of the cone.

Knowing this information, how does the physics in calculating the x and y force components of the force that the fluid exerts on the inside of the cone change from the case of the rotating spheres? How can one calculate the x and y force components of the force that the fluid exerts on the incline and lid of the cone, respectively?

Thank you for your help!
1332: What does really mean to have 10 dimensions?
1333: So, my students have been working with DC power supplies testing different types of circuits. While doing this we noticed something unusual while connecting two light bulbs in series. Yes, the current is lower than it would be for a single bulb and yes the bulbs are dimmer but they are not equally bright. In fact, one (the first one electrons are passing through) is probably four times as bright. This happened with every single class and every single apparatus. What's up?
1334: What happens to the charge when a spark jumps between two wires?
1335: What is color?
1336: Do basketballs that are fully inflated bounce better than flatter ones?
1337: What makes a basketball to bounce higher?
1338: How do we decide the polarity of a solenoid carrying current?
1339: Why does lightening occur in rainy times?
1340: What are the uses of Electrolysis?
1341: What are the benefits and harms of solar radiation and solar rays?
1342: Why does the earth have to spin?
1343: Why is the sun made up of plasma and nitrogen?
1344: Why do the stars orbit each other?
1345: What is a nucleus?
1346: Why do metals want to return to lower energy state? Does it make them more stable or something? If so, why do they want to be stable?
1347: Why is there no magnetism in the middle of a magnet? Are there no electrons in the middle of the magnet or do they cancel each other out somehow? Thank you!
1348: Hi, I am a parent at Laguna Road Elementary School. I have been reading online about Wi Fi radiation (EMF or high radio frequency) and the health risk in children. I am concern about it and heard that in France they are pursuing "wired" technology in their schools. Our school plans to implement iPads (wireless) next year for each child as part on the 21st Century Technology Initiative. Do you have or know of any research that can help me understand this further? What are the risks since the technology is fairly new? I know that the FTC's guidelines are outdated since their standards are based on the 1950's or something a long time ago. I have looked at EMF portal's website and found things but I think we need someone (ie. Physicist or person who works in the field) who is more knowledgeable to put things in perspective. I think of UV radiation and smoking when I think of WiFi radiation. I would not like to find out years later of the harmful effect. I would rather have it tested out to be safe then use it, if possible. There will be many children affected by this. Please help us understand better.Thank you for your time. Lily
1349: How can light be matter or not?
1350: Old-time kitchen lore suggests that things cook better (evenly and without burning) in heavy cast-iron pots. What desirable characteristics do such pots have?
1351: Let's say you have a magnet levitating off a metallic surface. Classically, there is no work done so there is no change in the energy state of the magnet. We can expect the magnet to float forever. Quantum mechanically, the electrical repulsion is produced by the exchange of virtual photons. A naive picture of this imagines the virtual photons to be like bullets: the magnet stays aloft by shooting these photons like bullets off the surface. We can't expect the magnet to have an infinite supply of bullets. However, unless somehow the magnet never runs out of bullets,(which makes you wonder about energy conservation), the magnet would eventually settle to the ground. So, what is the correct take on this situation? Thank you.
1352: Why does a rainbow occur?
1353: Why does earth produce gravitational force?
1354: Why does milk overflow when boiled ?
1355: How do satellite guided missiles, drones, and intercontinental ballistic missiles work? These are devices that are capable of autonomous flight. How is the technology of these devices related to that of the auto pilot on private and commercial aircrafts?
1356: Thank you very much for opening this fantastic forum to benefit students from all over the world. My question is if the planet Earth emits heat from radioactive decay, I will also be right to say that it emits all the dangerous radiation as well. If so, why are humans more afraid of a nuclear explosion when we have been exposed to dosage and dosage of nuclear radiation naturally? And we seem to careless about it.
1357: What are the materials and the procedures for finding out whether ice melts faster in salt solution or in water?
1358: I understand that a quantum description of gravity would necessitate the transmission of gravity through a mediating particle, the graviton. This makes me wonder about black holes. A black hole would have to be emitting gravitons all the time. It seems to me that an isolated black hole -- even ignoring Hawking radiation -- would have to be losing energy just through the emission of gravitons and thus lose mass. Is this a correct extrapolation? Thank you.
1359: Some defenders of incandescent bulbs claim that the waste heat generated will lessen their heating bill. If 90% or 90w of an 100w incandescent bulb generates x amount of heat how much heat could a 90w Nichrome heater produce?
1360: What is the source of alpha particles in the Rutherford Scattering experiment?
1361: What effect does color have on heat?
1362: Is the pressure of H2 and O2 the same when electrolysis takes place?
1363: Which stars are cooler red or blue?
1364: Can the efficiency of a heat engine exceed that of the Carnot cycle?
1365: If light is non-special, then it has no volume or mass. But how can light exist in the third dimension without volume or mass?
1366: Can you explain to me how electric currents can produce magnetic effects, and how magnets can cause electric currents?
1367: Why light is not matter?
1368: Who discovered electricity? It is super cool but I do not know who discovered it. Does the iPhone use electricity?
1369: How the earth and other planets are circling around the sun, and why they are not going away from it?
1370: Could we make a mode of transportation from one country to another through the interior of earth, by using the gravitational force as it would be faster and fuel efficient?
1371: Do magnets affect electricity?
1372: In sedimentary environment we have depositional, erosional, and equilibrium environments. Using the principle of sequence stratigraphy, how does the MWD/LWD tool delineate whether it is a beach, lacustrine, marine, or swampy environment, by using the gamma ray signature, spontaneous potential, Neutron density and resistivity signatures? Thank you very much.
1373: Why did some ships and planes disappear in the Bermuda Triangle?
1374: How does a talkie-walkie work? What kid of circuits are inside those devices?
1375: Does the color of light affect plant growth?
1376: Why is the sun hot?
1377: How does a rocket travel from Earth to the moon?

Hi, I have a question related to an already posted topic:"Why is tungsten used for filaments in light bulbs when nichrome's resistivity is so much higher?


I understood, after reading your answers, the importance of the high melting point of the material of the filament. In order to get visible electromagnetic waves (i.e. light), we need the material to be at a certain temperature and it is tungsten that can reach that temperature without melting. However I do\'t understand another thing. The power supply is given by a constant VOLTAGE supply, say 120 V (not constant current). Ohm's Law states V=I*R And Joule's effect states Q=I2R By combining these two equations, we get that Q=V2/R. Then, why we would want to have a material with a high resistivity? If V is fixed, then Q actually DECREASES with the higher R. The former equation, I2.R, might be confusing but the thing is that, as said before, I is not fixed, but V is.

So by increasing R, we are decreasing I and that's why I2.R will decrease. In conclusion, I understand that tungsten is a good material because of many of its properties, as the high melting point. But, why to increase the resistance of the filament by increasing its length and decreasing its cross-section since it seems to me that it should be the other way round? Were am I making the mistake? Sincerely

1379: Why does the central US have the most tornadoes in the US? What are the causes? Thanks

I have found myself stuck trying to understand parts of AC generation so I am writing to you to ask if you or anyone you know could possible answer my question.I am finding it hard to understand each magnet poles magnetic effect of the electrons in the coil, how do the electrons decide which way to go inside the coil? So as a guess I would say :- in an alternator before the coil even spins, the magnets lines of force polarizes the two ends of the coil, leaving one end of the coil positively charged and the other negatively charged, then as the coil is spun 180 degrees, the electrons rush to the other side of the coil which switches the polarity.

Does voltage exist between the two terminals?

That potential difference in the generator is between the two sides of the coil, but how is this established? My understanding of potential difference tells me that for there to be a difference in potential there has to be un-even amount of electrons between two points, where one point possesses too many, and the other possessing too little, thus there is a potential difference between the two, in which the electrons will desire to travel from the higher potential to the lower potential point.

I'd really appreciate if you could clear this up for me in the most basic language possible.

Thanks so much in advance.

1381: What kind of storms happen in winter?
1382: What is a storm?
1383: How did the elements came to existence?
1384: How dose the water get attracted to the moon?
1385: Who discovered lighting?
1386: Is the effect of SHAPE of a floating body taken into account by the Archimedes principle?
1387: Why are black colors the best absorber of light/heat?
1388: What makes a ball to stop when it is rolling?
1389: How does it work the test to discover the focal length of a pair of glasses?
1390: Why and how do planets rotate and revolute?
1391: If I were able to construct a 3d LCD cube would it be possible to 1. deflect a laser. 2.If I had the right lenses would it be possible to construct a camera that would be like a fly eyes? Multi-image through a single device?
1392: How are weak nuclear and electromagnetic forces different?
1393: Why is there no snow on the ground near the edges of large lakes?
1394: I have tried to calculate the moon's gravity at 100,000 km distance from its surface by using the inverse square law, but I get confusing results. Please help me.
1395: Does a rocket ship have to orbit the earth to get to the moon?
1396: Will black hole travel like other celestial bodies. Is there a chance of our earth and solar system being attracted by a Black hole.
1397: Hello, I'm working on a project where there's a non-conductive pipe with wires carrying electricity running through it. I'm attempting to connect this pipe to another pipe, like a cross (x), and I was thinking of using magnetism to connect them. Will magnets affect the electric current inside the non-conductive pipe?
1398: Hello, Is Kaluza Klein theory considered a legitimate theory unifying gravity and electromagnetism in a 5D spacetime? Have there been any credible experimental tests of the theory, and if so what did they conclude? Thank you for your help!
1399: Is fire a living or a non-living organism?
1400: I would like to know how does it work the conductivity of electricity in metals and which are the units that scientists use in this process. I would also like to know the several ways for determining electrical conductivity of metals. Thank you.
1401: What would happen if there were an explosion and an implosion at the same time?
1402: Can you explain string theory for me? Thank you.
1403: What are the most influential factors of water tides?
1404: How does a boat float if its heavy?
1405: How long does it take for ice cream to melt in room temperature?
1406: Because paper airplanes are small, would they fly faster? If not, why?
1407: How do sound waves travel?
1408: Why does carbon dioxide in a solid state sublime?
1409: On a molecular level, why does condensation form on the outside of a cold glass of water whereas bubbles form on the inside of a hot glass?
1410: Could any of the "gas giants" (or other planets) in our solar system ever become Sun's? Let's say the Sun burns out, if Earth has somehow been saved from certain demise, could a "gas giant" be ignited as if it were a spare lightbulb? If so, would our solar system change directions and start to rotate around that planet?
1411: Does a basketball go higher or a volleyball?When you throw a basketball or a volleyball ball which one takes more distance?
1412: Who first discovered the proton?
1413: Where does wind come from?
1414: If paper airplanes are small will they fly faster?
1415: I have searched on multiple websites for the answers to these questions, but I can't find them. What do scientists say the density of the earth is? How do scientists actually measure the earth's density?
1416: How does a hurricane form?
1417: I want to know what electrode would I use a mile in the ocean for creating an arc weld? This answer will create my carrier with I graduate.
1418: How much harder an aluminum bat would hit a ball compared to a wooden bat?
1419: Why do we use inner mute to mute a seismic trace, and why do we mute using incidence angle?
1420: How does nuclear fusion fuels our sun?
1421: Do all atoms have the same number of protons?
1422: Does gravity prevent Earth from flying away from the Sun OR flying into the Sun? Please explain answer. Thank you.
1423: Why is there usually at least one hurricane a year?
1424: Why is it that water is less dense in solid form than in liquid form?
1425: Does the solar systems form in the center?
1426: Is there a metal which on conducting a small amount of electricity becomes a magnet?
1427: What makes skies blue?
1428: What makes wind?
1429: If one cone with a diameter of 10 cm and one of 20cm both fall from 2 meters, why will the 20cm one fall slower (focusing on air resistance and surface area)?
1430: How and why do hydrogen and oxygen combine to form water?
1431: How "Avogadro constant" was invented and how scientists calculated it for the first time?
1432: How do particles in a fluid exert pressure on a container?
1433: What causes a spark? Has it something to do with the event when a positive and a negative charge meet?
1434: What pops faster, cold water or hot water?
1435: How often do astronauts die out in space? And if they do what causes them to die? And how long can you live in space and your body is still fully functional?
1436: How many tornadoes do we have every year?
1437: Hi,
I was reading an article on NASA website, talking about the earth speed slowing down; hence days are getting shorter
here is the article

My understanding /conclusion is that eventually and according to laws of Physics, Earth at some point will stop spinning for a moment in time, and then start spinning clockwise instead of counter-clockwise. Is this possible? Thank you.

1438: Hi,
At school we are trying to figure out why do bubbles happen when the water boil? If you could email us back and tell us what happens, that would be awesome. Thanks!

1439: Will a human body explode in space if sent without helmet in space? According to me, internal pressure will be very high and there will be nothing to balance it so it must explode. If no, then why?
1440: Why do we use nuclear energy?
1441: What is the softest metal?
1442: According to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, I can not know the position and momentum (energy) of an electron at the same time. This appears to be the result of the wave-particle duality of the electron. My question is: if I measure the electron\'s position, collapsing its wave function, even though I will not know the momentum (energy) of the electron, will it still behave the exact same as a system? Or will the collapse of the wave function potentially increase, or decrease, the total amount of energy available within the system for the duration of the measurement?
1443: Why do we use nuclear energy? What are some constructive examples of nuclear energy? What are destructive properties of nuclear energy?
1444: How does centrifugal force work?
1445: How does magnetism work?
1446: If a submarine was traveling underwater when a tsunami hit, would that submarine be effected in any way? If so, what can happen?
1447: Why are there moon phases?
1448: What is Buoyancy?
1449: Why does green not absorb red, but red absorbs green?
1450: Aurora Borealis are only formed in Northern/Southern latitudes, why is that? And what will happen if we, places near the equator, which is a bit lower, see those?
1451: How can I get electricity started with just a battery, two wires, and a light bulb?
1452: Are stars hot or cold?
1453: Why is inner core in Earth solid though it has a higher temperature than the liquid outer core?
1454: How do geologist estimate the thickness and temperature of the layers of the earth?
1455: Why are colors the color that they are?
1456: Does Pluto have an atmosphere?
1457: Why is the inner core of the Earth so hot?
1458: Does the color of your eyes change how you see colors in dim lighting? And how does it work?
1459: Why do protons have a positive charge, neutrons have a neutral charge, and electrons have a negative charge?
1460: Is there time travel in space?
1461: What would you need to survive on Venus?
1462: Can you tell time without a clock or watch?
1463: We were looking at the composition of elements in the universe and saw that it is 75% Hydrogen, 23% Helium, 1% Oxygen, and 1% everything else. Why is there so much Oxygen in the universe compared to the other elements?
1464: How far is the very first satellite launched into space?
1465: What solids go through sublimation?
1466: If the moon draws the ocean towards it and causes high tides, why is there a low tide when I can see the moon overhead?
1467: Imagine two astronauts on a rotating space station. The station is rotating about its axis at some rate R clockwise as seen from the perspective of an outside observer (or an observer at the axis). On the station there are two astronauts. One is standing in place and rotating clockwise at the same rate R as the station from the perspective of the outside observer. He experiences some centrifugal force F away from the axis of rotation. The second astronaut, doing some exercise, is running counter-clockwise, at the same rate the station is rotating in the clockwise direction (lets call his rate -R). As seen from the perspective of the outside observer, it seems like the astronaut is jogging in place. Question: Does the second astronaut, rotating at the same rate as the space station but in the opposite direction, still experience the centrifugal force caused by the rotation of the space station?
1468: How do microwaves work?
1469: How is magnetization measured? Is the Earth slowly losing its magnetization due to its composition, the heat of the sun, or both?
1470: How did the moon form and what is our evidence of it?
1471: Does aluminum foil help ice melt faster with direct sunlight?
1472: How much space does the nuclear waste from a power plant take up?
1473: Thank you for your time. I live in Mexicali, Mexico. The temperature here goes from 30F to 70F in Winter, and from 80F to 124F in Summer. I want to install solar cells in my backyard, how does temperature affect the production of electricity?
1474: Sir, I want to become a scientist in the field of Physics. So, in order to do that, what should I do? Which kind of college should I join? What kind of exams should I take? Please help me.
1475: How were sound waves used to figure out the Geology of the Earth?
1476: How does speed and motion affect the rocket balloon experiment?
1477: Why should the ice melt faster in gas, but actually it melts faster in liquid?
1478: How are sound waves used to figure out the geology of the earth?
1479: How it is possible that for every substance the Avogadro number is constant? I mean, how is it possible that 1 mole of Hydrogen molecule and 1 mole of Oxygen molecule have the same number? Please explain to me.
1480: If someone were to continuously float in one spot, would the earth move under them or would they move with the earth?
1481: Does acrylic fabric have good thermal diffusivity?
1482: What exactly is heat?
1483: Why is global warming so confusing?
1484: Hi again, we are studying light energy and my question is why light does not shine through aluminum?
1485: Why is air pressure in outer space less than on earth?
1486: How can I compare between tensile strength of cotton, silk and nylon fibers?
1487: What is the difference between a black hole and a worm hole?
1488: What keeps the earth in orbit?
1489: I understand how gravity is the curvature of spacetime, but what quality of spacetime allows it to move back to exactly how it was before a body of some mass influenced it? What balance keeps spacetime constantly "smooth"?
1490: I performed an experiment using colors to transfer heat form a light bulb to water. Red heated the water the most and purple the least in the experiment, even though purple should have the highest frequency/energy. Why may that be?
1491: What happens (the physics behind) when a balloon filled with hydrogen gas floats?
1492: How much salt do we need in water to make an egg float?
1493: Why do rubber bands stretch?
1494: I want to construct a building with walls that have the ability to magnify its surroundings by at least 5x its size (20 diopter). Estimated wall sizes: 10ft. (h) x 42ft. (w) How big would the curvature need to be? 2. Which lens/material would work? 3. Could water be of any help? Like having to curved walls serve as a container for water. Thank You for you time. Sincerely,
1495: Why does hot water make steam but cold water does not?
1496: I recently read the Planiverse. Would a 2D dimensional universe be possible? And would there be any way for us to see/visit it?
1497: Why do we need nuclear energy?
1498: According to Stephen Hawking, the laws of Physics allow the Big Bang to happen, because the random motion of subatomic particles generated energy to create an explosion. How exactly did these subatomic particles appear. If the Big Bang was caused by the random motion of such small particles, then what created such subatomic particles in the first place, and what came before them. Also, how exactly did the Big Bang generate forces like gravity to come about in the universe?
1499: If we know of sun based systems throughout space, is it possible to have a system based on massive planets or other bodies (excluding black holes,) or would the mass be too great that it collapses in on itself?
1500: If the rest of the universe had earth's gravity, would we be floating? And if so, how high would we float?
1501: How does the Earth heat up?
1502: Is there more than one universe?
1503: If water is made up of hydrogen and oxygen, two gasses, then how is it a liquid?
1504: Is the world ever going to end?
1505: How does a compass work?
1506: Why do cold objects emit vapor as hot objects do?
1507: Why is there nuclear force? What is the physics behind it? I read somewhere this is due to the repulsion between protons.
1508: Can water float on water?
1509: How do crystals get their shape?
1510: Hi, I am a freshman in high-school and I was wondering if magnets can cause any long term affects like cancer or some other type of disease. I would like to hear back. Thank you for your time.
1511: Does blue color absorb heat?
1512: What makes the soda cool faster?
1513: How much water does a paper towel like Bounty brand absorb?
1514: Outside, my mother and I were watching the blood moon of April 15, 2014. The moon is (looks) like it is behind a tree. When it came from behind the clouds, it looked like it lifted. How is this? Is it true? How often is it? Why?
1515: If you let your air out in space will there be a pocket of air in space?
1516: What is the role of heat in a chemical reaction?
1517: Why should a chemical equation be balanced?
1518: Why do fishes die when they're removed from water? I realize they require oxygen like other aerobes, but (obviously) there's oxygen in the air. So what is it about the water itself that keeps them alive?
1519: Does a candle's temperature affect its burn rate?
1520: Dear UCSB, In my science class we we're discussing a topic of hurricanes and I asked a question about Hurricane Sandy and my teacher didn't know the answer. So here my question: How much water does an average hurricane pick up? Thanks
1521: What happens to air density in the atmosphere when air is cool? Please explain to me.
1522: Do contracting objects show red shift?

After reading your article:"Why is it that water freezes on the surface of a lake but not below it?" here I found this very interesting and gave me one more question which should be interesting to others too, I hope.

Question: If warmer water was to be sent from lower down, where it is warmer, to the surface in the form of agitated turbulence, so the water is moving, would this stop the ice forming, so long as the volume of water was great enough to keep ahead of the cold air?

I'm looking at ways to keep breathing holes open for mammals trapped beneath ice during mid winter freezes after seeing the movie "Big Miracle." I'm sure there must be a better way of keeping the ice from freezing up. Even an outboard motor should work better. So far I have thought of lowering a grid of pipes down low and pumping air through the pipes which are full of small holes. The thought was that the air bubbles would bring warmer water to the surface and therefore keep the ice from freezing over. I still haven't been able to find out if the water is warmer at the bottom or half way up yet. I also thought about vertical pipes suspended in the water, going down deep and ending about 10 feet below the surface to insulate the water on its way up but whales and Orcas are likely to break the pipes and hurt themselves. Maybe soft pipes would work? I'm not in the areas you normally answer questions for, I'm in New Zealand, but if someone has time to give me some advice I would really appreciate it, so will the whales who get trapped and die.

1524: How do earthquakes have anything to do with why tsunamis happen?
1525: We estimate the temperature of a star from its color. But what if the star is moving away from us at a constant rate? Then, its light would be red shifted. So, how will we know its temperature?
1526: Does the length of a bat affect how far a baseball will travel?
1527: What color paper will transfer the most thermal energy?
1528: Why and how do crystals form?
1529: How does the sun heat the Earth?
1530: When two ice cubes are kept in contact, they will attract each other, why?
1531: Why does air becomes spherical when it is injected into water?
1532: Do you know how long it takes to grow sugar crystals in different types of water?
1533: When light goes through a prism, why does it exit like a rainbow?
1534: What is blood pressure?
1535: Hello, It is my understanding that compounds cannot be separated by physical means. Yet when NaCl is put in water, it dissolves. As I understand it, dissolving separates the compound into ions. Is this not a physical separation of the compound? I'm confused. Please help me as usual. Thank you.
1536: How does the Sun heat the Earth?
1537: What happens inside a can of soda when it is shaken up?
1538: Why is the equator hot?
1539: In what way are oxygen and carbon similar? Is it their weight or the number of atoms, or density?
1540: What is inside a magnet?
1541: Does ice melt faster in saltwater or in freshwater?
1542: Can you please explain holographic and anthropic principles with easy examples?
1543: How does the Sun have a gravitational force? Doesn't gravity depend on an atmosphere?
1544: Who discovered x rays?
1545: Though very little water is required for photosynthesis, then why do we give so much of water to plants ?
1546: How do clouds contain water? And how do clouds absorb water?
1547: What will be the state of water if we freeze further negative temperature below the ice state limit? Could it exist as liquid again or stay being solid ice?
1548: I know this question had often been asked but I don't get to understand it. What do mean when we say that space is expanding? I think that space is not a physical entity that can expand. Space is just (apparently) "nothingness". Please solve my confusion.
1549: Why only silicon chip is used in computers? Does it have any special property?
1550: What is the life of a rare earth magnet under normal conditions (heat, atmospheric temperature assumed to be constant at say 25 degrees)? What will be the life of the same magnet when kept in repelling state with another identical magnet at a distance of less then 1mm, will they lose their strength fast enough, say within a month (assuming the size of the magnet is about 50mm X 25mm X 2.5mm)?
1551: When drilling stopped in 1994, the hole was over 7 miles deep (12,262 meters),(572°F), that's pretty HOT! My question is that if that's the deepest humankind has gone, 7 miles deep & Earth has continental crust of 35-40km which is 21-24 miles thick (33,796 meters). How do we know Earth's insides, like how were told in the books & by the professors that there is a mantle & a core beneath Earth's crust when we haven't gone that deep? It is easy to go deep into space because it's empty, but going deep into Earth, theirs a lot of pressure.
1552: How can energy be generated by nuclear fusion or the opposite of fusion?
1553: Why does the mass of a particle changes when its speed changes?
1554: Does food coloring affect plants? If it does, how?
1555: Does the material the container is made of affect its ability to retain heat?
1556: What force makes earth stay on its orbit?
1557: I put 8 oz. of water in a cup and added enough ice to make it 12 oz. When the ice melted it was still 12 oz. So if the polar ices melted, would it not cause flooding because it is all the same volume?
1558: Is there any particle faster than light? if so, what is it? Is neutrino faster than light?
1559: Why is an atom electrically neutral?
1560: How earthquakes' waves provide information about the interior of the earth?
1561: Why is it colder at a higher altitude when technically it is closer to the sun?
1562: How fast can a rocket go?
1563: Why the sun does not fall on the earth?
1564: What is the total charge on any atom?
1565: Is light matter?
1566: Why is weather important in people's lives?
1567: How are stars aligned?
1568: Can you explain to me why is a ball on a string like a planet in its orbit?
1569: Why is it necessary for an electric current to produce a magnetic field?
1570: Is Earth's core as hot as the surface of the sun?
1571: Why water level does not change when salt is added?
1572: What is the highest frequency that most humans can hear?
1573: How does the type of fabric affect the ability to insulate?
1574: I was wondering if there are billions of stars in the galaxy and we are inside of it, why do we see dark nights? Wouldn't the space always be bright? Thanks
1575: What is the Shape of Our Universe, and where is it situated? I would also like to know what is there outside the Universe?
1576: Why does tides occur on seas and oceans but not on ponds and lakes?
1577: Do earthquakes cause floods?
1578: How does heat come in the atmosphere?
1579: What makes a planet different from a star?
1580: How far away are stars?
1581: How can there be gravitational pull in space but no gravity?
1582: There is an article on your site about the gravitational pull of the planets upon each other. My question is what happens when the earth passes through the gravitational field between the sun and another big planet such as Jupiter or Saturn. So there would be some gravity between the earth and Jupiter, but there would also be gravity between the sun and Jupiter and the earth would be passing through this field. Can this be measured? What happens? Casey the Curious.
1583: What evidence shows that there has been a continental drift?
1584: What are the uses of crystals?
1585: If light is matter, wouldn't that mean that dark rooms contain less matter than light rooms?
1586: Molecules of gas strike with each other. Can they produce spark flame due to collision?
1587: In a water molecule, why do the lone pairs take up positions above oxygen? Couldn't they take up positions on both sides of oxygen?
1588: What is the main causer for the cyclones occurring over US?
1589: Why does the water condense after evaporating?
1590: Hi, I am doing a science report and I need some help. I keep looking at website but none of them are on liquid conductivity. I came across this website and I am wondering if you had any information about liquid conductivity. If you do, thank you. Thanks,
1591: How does the sun warm the earth ?
1592: Why will Tungsten glow brighter than Nichrome though? I don't understand.
1593: What kind of paper absorbs more heat? What color paper absorbs the most heat? Does paper absorb heat under a light bulb?
1594: Why the earth favors things with lowest energy? Could you please explain to me? Thank you.
1595: How does heat affect the volume of gas in a balloon?
1596: If everything in the universe is made of atoms, why does everything look and fell so different?
1597: what happens during lightning?
1598: Where does lightning come from?
1599: How do scientists determine the age of rock layers and fossils?
1600: My son Max is investigating which materials are the best conductors. He built a circuit with a 6V battery and a light bulb, hoping to distinguish which materials are the best conductors by the brightness of the light bulb. The experiment worked, but the results were not satisfactory to Max. The ligh bulb was either on or off, and it was difficult to tell if one material was better than the other. He asked if there was a way to measure the conductivity of materials with another instrument. I purchased a multimeter from Radio Shack hoping to measure the conductivity/resistance of the materials. However, I am not sure I am properly operating the instrument. We removed the test material from the circuit and set the multimeter to the OHMS setting. The results for the metals (copper, aluminum foil, a nickel, and a penny) bounce all over the place and often end at zero, and the non-conductors do not show any change on the screen so the end result is also zero.I would really like to help Max find more specific results, but I am not sure what else to do. Is there a particular bulb that would show more variety in the intensity? He has shown such a curiosity about this. I sincerely hope there is a way to help him! Thank you for your time. Max's mom.
1601: I have children in Grades P-2. One of my young students asked me if the earth is round because of gravity, how come the other planets are round that have no gravity - I tried to explain the mass and gases idea to them and they looked at me as if I was from another planet. How do I explain the reasons planets are round in simple terms they will understand. Please keep in mind these are 4-6 years old children.
1602: Why can't an exact electron location be determined?
1603: How was our Earth made?
1604: How the earth spins on its axis and keeps a steady orbit around the sun?
1605: Can magnetic fields pass through glass?
1606: I color is just certain light reflecting off a certain object(example: if something is orange, it reflects "orange" light), then is there really any color? Would the question be not "What Color is it?" but "What Type of light is being reflected?"
1607: How do dogs hear better than humans?
1608: Is it possible to take electricity from lightning?
1609: How does light travel? Why is it not stationary?
1610: How long does it take for a rocket to get into space?
1611: How much insulation does a glass cup have? Is it better than a plastic cup? Why or why not?
1612: Why does the ocean seem to rise at night time?
1613: Why hot air rise, and cold air does stay at the bottom?
1614: What happens on a molecular level inside a balloon as it inflates?
1615: How do boats float on water when they are so heavy?
1616: Hello, Science Line,
Although Nitrogen can combine with chemicals to produce unpleasant byproducts as a result of fuel combustion (nitrogen oxides in smog, etc.), I was wondering if atmospheric nitrogen can actually be harnessed (somewhat like atmospheric oxygen) to produce power in any way? Although nitrogen has a strong tendency for inertness, since it makes up the bulk of air, it is a shame that it cannot be harnessed somehow -- are there any oxidizers/fuels which can be made to react energetically/explosively with nitrogen gas, especially under heat and/or pressure? Thank you very much.

1617: How does water and air act like a heat reservoir?
1618: Why do crystals form in water? What do you do in your lab with others? Me and my dad are interested in what you do.
1619: Is our sun really a star?
1620: How does a pendulum clock work?
1621: Would a black hole be able to eat an object many times bigger than its own mass? If not, what would the reaction be?
1622: What would the reaction be if a black hole crossed paths with another black hole of the same size?
1623: Can you explain how lightning occurs in a simple way so that I can understand it?
1624: Why does the moon turn red at times? And why is the sky blue? Can the sky turn into another color, and if so what color?
1625: What type of material keeps liquids hot for longer time?
1626: Why does the inner core is solid state though the temperature is very high?
1627: Hi, I am Ahsley,an I wanted to ask you that are real scientists this question. Why is it that people say do not wear black in summer? Please reply back, it is for my science experiment and I am putting all my effort to at least get second place, thank you.
1628: What powers a battery? What is inside it?
1629: What things do people make out off nuclear energy?
1630: Can I have the purpose of the science project? "how salty does the sea have to be for an egg to float"?
1631: What would happen to the moon if the earth is gone? Will the moon find another planet to circle around? If yes, which would be that planet? Would the moon go on in the same circle without a planet? Will the moon be gone before us or will be death with us? What will happen?
1632: When and where are lasers used?
1633: Hello. I am 9 years old. I did a test to see which would freeze first, ocean, tap or pool water. I did it twice and both times the ocean water froze first. It isn't suppose to. Can you help me answer why this happened? I used 8 oz of each water and put them in plastic water bottles. I checked on them every 30 min. I noticed the the ocean water got thick and slushy. It formed a top layer of ice then it seemed to freeze from inside out. The pool and tap water froze from the top down first then the sides and bottom started to freeze. My science fair is coming up and I can't explain why this happened. Thank you!
1634: How different is the sky in the morning and the sky at night? Why we can not see the stars in the morning or in the day?
1635: How does gravity work? How does gravity keep things on the ground? And how does it keep planets in orbit?

Answers written on January 27th, 2015

1636: How does the moon control the tides?
1637: What effect does a prism have on white light?
1638: My group and I are doing a science project about which angle receives the most solar power and we would like some information about what you guys know and if you have anything please contact me and any detail would be fine thank you.
1639: What angle from a solar panel receives the most power from the sun? My groups hypotheses is a 60* angle but so far from now a 90* angle is receiving more power, WHY?`
1640: How would the air move over the earth's surface if the earth did not spin on its axis?
1641: What happens if a hole is dug through the diameter of the earth and a stone is dropped on it?
1642: How does space never end?
1643: What makes ice melt?
1644: Why does the Earth rotate on an axis?
1645: How dose weather affect our daily lives?
1646: What is the difference in between a copper wire and a coil wire when considering magnetic effect of electricity?
1647: How are emeralds formed?
1648: Can liquid nitrogen freeze fire?
1649: Why rigid bodies do not feel atmospheric pressure?
1650: Why do an object move when a force is applied on it, while newton's third law says action is equal to reaction?
1651: What is found on the outside of a nucleus?
1652: What would happen if the sun exploded?
1653: Are there stars bigger than the sun?
1654: How does extreme weather effect climate change?
1655: Why are all of the Earth's layers circular?
1656: Why does hot air rise?
1657: What are diamonds made of?
1658: How can we measure the speed of light?
1659: What is the principle of piezoelectric transducers?
1660: Why all animal eggs are in oval shape only?
1661: What would happen if earth lost its magnetic field and could it be caused by humans?
1662: How long would it take to travel one light year at one tenth the speed of light? I have been getting ten years, though I heard light years are different than other ways of measuring distance. I just need a proffessional view on this.
1663: How do astronomers predict eclipses?
1664: Do all the planets take the same time to revolve around the sun?
1665: Without any example, could you tell me how do scientists measure gravity?
1666: How did Apollo 2 get off the moon? Doesn't rocket fuel require oxygen to work?
1667: Tides are formed by the gravitational pull of moon. How does the water get attracted by the moon even though the gravitational pull of earth is greater than that of the moon?

I am a year 7 student and I am doing a project on Gamma Radiation and I was wondering if you could please answer a few questions for me? My questions are:

When does gamma radiation occur and is gamma radiation dangerous?

What is the difference between alpha and beta particles?

1669: What is the reason fireflies emit light and how does it work?
1670: Do all planets rotate from left to right?
1671: How does the ice on the north and south poles trigger the movement of ocean currents?
1672: How was the sun formed?
1673: What is the safest place to be if a supernova occurs?
1674: How does Ferro fluid Work?
1675: Is Venus hotter than Mercury because it is full of carbon dioxide or because it does not have an atmosphere?
1676: Why can't humans go to Jupiter, and why isn't it safe to go there?
1677: What is the difference between gamma particle and gamma rays? Are thee the same thing or not ? This confuses me.
1678: Scientists claim to be true that GRAVITY IS THE WEAKEST OF ALL THE 4 FUNDAMENTAL FORCES OF NATURE! Now here's my question:
Being the weakest of all the 4 fundamental forces of nature, why is it that the gravity of black holes can bend even space, time and light? If it is true that gravity is the weakest force, then the black holes are violating the laws of classical mechanics! Is it correct to say that gravity is the weakest force?

1679: How many times has the earth experienced complete ice cap melt? Is there a pattern?
1680: Why a black hole is actually black? Why light when enters into it does not bright inside?
1681: How the heat of sun come in earth when there is no medium?
1682: Does the sun have an explosion every day?
1683: Why does not all rising air form clouds?
1684: What things reflect light?
1685: In an electric circuit with an ammeter, a bulb and other necessary components, when current is passed, will the bulb glow as soon as it crosses the ammeter or will it glow only after the current completes flowing through the entire circuit?
1686: Which one is faster electricity or air?
1687: I know that different colors have different wavelengths, with the color blue having a shorter wavelength than other colors. My question is: When light is reflected off the surface of the ocean, does this shorten or lengthen the wavelength of the colors in the light spectrum? Thank you so much for your time!
1688: Why do crystals grow in water?
1689: Leaves of plants like cabbage are purple in color, then how are they able to carry out photosynthesis?
1690: How many stars are there?
1691: Water is made of 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom. Hydrogen peroxide is made of 2 hydrogen atoms and 2 oxygen atoms. As water and hydrogen peroxide are made of the same types of atoms, can they be considered similar substances?
1692: Is it correct that if a substance does not hold one of its electrons tightly, then it will conduct electricity because flowing electrons create electrical current?
1693: Hello, I am in 7th grade and was in Science class while thinking, Man to Mars communication. My question would be, while Man is on Mars will they be able to communicate back to family and friends? I know they will be able to back to the Space Station but I was curious about the family and friends part. If so, will this be freely chosen times to talk or schedule time? Thanks,
1694: If two balloons contain the same volume of air from our lungs, and one balloon is heated and the other is cooled, will one rise and the other drop? Why?
1695: I am doing a science experiment on magnets and magnetism. I was wondering: What affects magnetism? I was also wondering: What is attracted to magnets? My final question is: What makes objects attract to magnets?
1696: In alpha decay, an atom spits out two protons and two neutrons. However, if it does not lose two electrons as well, then it is no longer an atom, it is an ion. How does this work? In beta decay, an atom spits out an electron and an anti- neutrino from one of the neutrons in the nucleus, while retaining the proton from it, but if this is true, and the atom does not somehow gain two electrons, then there are two protons more than electrons and it is no longer an atom. How does this work? Also, when I was reading the answers to the other questions about the types of decay and how they work, I noticed that there was some mention of an electron cloud. What is it, and how is it scientifically valid to assume that it is really there?
1697: Why is the earth round and not flat? How are volcanoes formed?
1698: What are sugar crystals made of?
1699: Why does soil heats up faster than sand?
1700: How does magma go up and explode into the air out of a volcano?
1701: Does the percentage of oxygen in air decrease when you go below sea-level?
1702: What does reflect mean?
1703: How can balanced equations be used to calculate the volume of gases formed in chemical reactions?
1704: What would happen if the sun and moon collided?
1705: Is electricity and clouds a form of matter and why?
1706: Is there some other planet with an atmosphere that we can breathe?
1707: If you are trying to find the bottom of the sea the water is black, Why is that? How far is the bottom of the sea? Well bye and thanks for letting me use this program.
1708: How fast do meteors travel? How far is Mars from Earth, and how fast can we get there?
1709: Hello, I attend 7th grade at Eisenhower Middle School in Albuquerque, New Mexico. I am doing a project in which I have to use bio mimicry (mimicking nature to solve human problems) to solve a food system problem. My group and I would like to solve the problem we have that so much water is in the world, yet very little of it is fresh. We know that there have already been desalination plants invented, but they aren't very efficient. We were thinking about making a desalination plant that is based off the salt glands that can be found in many sea birds. This may be a more efficient way of taking the salt out of water. We have been doing much research over the course of the past week, but many of the articles and videos that we are trying to read are too difficult for us to understand. I was wondering if you could put in simple language the processes used by the birds to desalinate their water. Thank You!
1710: Through which materials does magnetism pass?
1711: What will happen with the hot water in the sun when it evaporates?
1712: How is oxygen released in the air?
1713: Why can't we feel the Earth move?
1714: Why don't asteroids get pulled into Earth's gravitational pole?
1715: How long has gravity been on earth?
1716: Why don't asteroids get pulled into Earth's gravity?
1717: What made Earth's atmosphere? Can it make more atmospheres?
1718: Does space have a floor or is it just like an endless pit? If it does have a floor then, what is it?
1719: Theoretically asking, what would happen if the sun were just removed? Not explode, just completely vanish. Would each planet continue a tangential orbit and become like meteors or would they change their orbits to Jupiter, knowing it has great mass. My physics class is presently talking about this sort of subject and it interest me quite a bit.
1720: Why is there a storm in Jupiter?
1721: How many volcanoes are in Mercury?
1722: If the core of the Earth is super hot and the mantle is liquid magma, why is the crust so much cooler?
1723: Why does Earth have a moon and not Venus or Mars? And why Saturn has rings and not the inner planets?
1724: Why is it hotter in the equator than the poles? 😜😍 thanks hope you answer
1725: What is the hottest star? Is there a hottest star in the universe or when a new one is born will it become the hottest star?
1726: An element's properties are defined by the number of protons that it has, which also has the same number of electrons. Therefore, since if an atom loses/gains neutrons it becomes an isotope, which doesn't change its properties. Therefore, my questions are: Does the proton have particles within it, sort of like DNA, that define the properties of an element? Do these particles, if they exist, have a relationship with the electron?
1727: Why does neon glow?
1728: If you traveled through the center of the earth, you might feel like you are falling downwards, but when you reach the surface on the other side, would you still feel like falling?
1729: Why salt will make water freeze slower than the normal water?
1730: Why does green light slow down more than orange light does when passing through an object?
1731: Do clouds move?
1732: Why aren't plants black? In theory, a black plant would absorb light from all wavelengths. However green plants (i.e. plants that reflect rather than absorb green) seem to have enjoyed an evolutionary advantage. According to Darwin they must have been the most fit, but what made them the most fit?
1733: Who and how discovered electricity?
1734: If you place a water balloon in a low pressure environment, will that push all of the air out of the balloon? If not, would there possibly be another way to remove the air from the filled water balloon?
1735: How does light move?
1736: I have heard that the icecaps and such are not melting and instead they have doubled in size since the last two years. Is this true? I heard that it was sponsored and they basically lied to the public and if there is any chance for us to go into another ice age, it is higher now. But not in a very very very long time. Can you explain?
1737: If I heat 10ml of water in a soda can on a Bunsen burner until steaming and then I invert the can into ice water, is there any chemical reaction taking place in order to implode?
1738: Does anything else other than the moon control the tides? Does a certain life force live that controls the tides but makes it seem like the moon? Can another life force control the tides?
1739: Where does electricity start?
1740: When I raced a derby car, I was told that adding a fender for the front side of the rolling wheels would deflect the oncoming air (from the car's point of view) allowing the car to go faster. However, when I recently saw a formula for drag, I noticed a "speed of the media" component. Thinking through the speed of the wheel from the body point of view, the forward surface of the wheel above the axle is rotating into the oncoming air at faster than the forward linear motion of the car body, and the forward surface of the wheel below the axle is traveling forward at a slower rate than the body of the car (the tread touches the track). This leads me to ask: Are fenders only aerodynamically effective for shielding the forward surface of the upper half of the rolling wheel, and counterproductive for shielding the front surface of the lower half of the rolling wheel?
1741: What is the size of a star?? And why a star is looking so little & blinking?
1742: Why does the sun have sunspots even doe the sun is the sun?
1743: What creates Earth's magnetic field?
1744: In books it says if the earths temperature rises 3 1/2 degrees the pole ice caps would melt but how is that possible if the temperature changes more than 3 degrees all the time?
1745: What evidence is there for continental movement?
1746: Why is mass not always measured by weight?
1747: If you wanted to enjoy longer periods of daylight in the summertime would you head closer to the equator or farther from it? Why?
1748: Hi, I'm helping my young neighbor to determine what his "small fist" item is. It looks like a dark rock with a crusting on it - very hard, can't be broken open with a sledge hammer. Machine shop grinding of one edge took an extremely long time, again, very hard. very dense and heavy, very heavy, perhaps heavier than lead. Please give us some advice. What can this material be?
1749: As a scene shown in interstellar movie, there are two different time dilation in two different planet having different gravity. Is that true? And if it is true, is its due to gravity or location and speed or orbiting of that planet? Thanks.
1750: Does an atom live forever?
1751: How do scientists use earthquakes to determine what the earth's interior is made of?
1752: What causes weather changes? Is the world a real sphere, and if so how did it get that shape?
1753: Trying to find out what happens when you put corks in fresh water and salt water?
1754: What would happen if you went into space and shot a bullet toward Earth?
1755: As a physics teacher I've always been puzzled by the movement of weather systems from west to east. Seems to me the rotation of the Earth and the low frictional drag on the atmosphere would result in a east to west movement?
1756: Why do chlorophyll makes plants look green if light is not green?
1757: What is current electricity?
1758: Can rocks cause a magnet feeling like you might observe when putting two magnets together?
1759: How does liquid density affect buoyancy?
1760: Why there are oceans on Earth, but no other planets?
1761: When is that space dust and gases become a star?
1762: Was Jupiter ever a solid planet?
1763: How are black holes made?
1764: I have to do the science fair research and bibliography for the 4th grade. My question is: Does the flavor of ice cream affect how fast it melts? Thank you for your help.
1765: What happens when the sun dies?
1766: How does a magnifying glass work?
1767: How do people determine how old fossils are?
1768: What is conduction?
1769: How is that Rutherford led to discover the nucleus?
1770: Why and how does the atmosphere help the earth?
1771: Why is water called a heat reservoir?
1772: How is thermal energy used?
1773: How deadly is Mars?
1774: Why does ice cream melt?
1775: If I use a balance pan what physical property of the object am I measuring?
1776: Why do scientists believe the earth's outer core to be molten, or liquid metal?
1777: What is radiation?
1778: Evidently when water turns from a liquid to a gas its volume increases 1600 times. This is was causes steam engines to work. If a person has a container where all of the moisture is taken out of it, and then water is injected into the container, when it evaporates, does the water expand 1600 times? If the container were under pressure, would the water remain liquid?
1779: I recently learned that the velocity of blood moving in veins is faster than that in capillaries, but the blood pressure in veins is much lower than that of any other blood vessel. Since veins have a relatively high blood velocity (at least compared to capillaries), shouldn't they also have a higher blood pressure? Why don't velocity and pressure in fluids go hand in hand?
1780: What is the largest magnet in the world?
1781: How does the angle of light affect surface temperature?
1782: How can a plane take off at the equator and fly to the North Pole? When we know the equator is moving faster than the north pole. I know part of the reason is conservation of momentum, we keep the momentum of the earth when we take off in a plane, which is why a plane traveling say 300 miles per hour can fly and get some where, even though the earth is revolving at about 1000 miles per hour at the Equator. So, relative to the earth we are only traveling 300 miles per hour. That is also the reason why when I jump in the air the earth has not moved all of a sudden a 1000 miles in the direction it is spinning.
1783: My question is what similarities do you think there are in how water and air move around Earth?
1784: If a solid has a 180g on the moon? Would it have the same weight on Earth as on the moon?
1785: What would happen to the thermohaline circulation if the Earth rotated in the opposite direction? Which would be climate changes on our planet?
1786: How does the force of gravity exerted by the Sun on Jupiter compare to the force of gravity exerted by Jupiter on the Sun?
1787: How can you cause fission to common molecular structures or is it only possible with plutonium?
1788: If you were to cut up a piece of fruit, which has cells in it, would you be cutting apart molecules then too? How about atoms? And if you cut apart the atoms that make up the organelles of a cell, why don't we hear as big of an explosion as we do when we are splitting atoms up in bombs?
1789: What would happen to the ocean without heat from the sun?
1790: One of my students recently heard on NPR about how transpiration of trees in the Amazon Rain Forest directly affects the weather and climate in region. She is wondering how this occurs. Could you shed some light on this and how the climate will change as a result of deforestation in that area? Thank you!
1791: How is antimatter made?
1792: I want to know about NASA. Can you tell me about it?
1793: Does one of the gas giants have any destroyed moons?
1794: If space is constantly expanding, what exists beyond its boundaries? What is space expanding into?
1795: What is Heat Transfer ?
1796: What is water made out of?
1797: How will the melting of the glaciers on Greenland and Antarctica affect global circulation?
1798: If I was kicking a soccer ball on another planet in our solar system, besides gravity what other factors would impact its flight path? For example, is the drag the same? (Assuming the ball pressure remains constant. ) Where would I find estimates of planetary differences in drag? Thank you for your consideration of my question. Regards.
1799: Why is it hard to shoot a flat basket ball?
1800: Have been elements made / discovered since 2000? How many and which are they ? Why do they have substituting names in case they don't exist?
1801: Is the sky bluer when you look straight up at it or from far away?
1802: If the sun is a star, why doesn't it explode?
1803: Will a soccer ball bounce more times on natural soccer field style cut grass or artificial turf? In our experiment, natural grass had more bounces. That surprised us. Why would natural grass be bouncier? I can't find anything explaining why that happened scientifically. There is tons of info on why balls bounce and the physics behind it, but no info on why the bounce is different. We thought artificial grass would bounce more because of the rubber. I am thinking the natural grass surface is harder so that would make the ball bounce more, but not sure how to explain that scientifically.
1804: What is the difference between elastic potential energy and other forms of potential energy?
1805: Does the magnetic field affect gravity?
1806: What does it cause a magnet to move an object when the magnet moves?
1807: If a cloud of hydrogen and helium were squeezed together until it heated to a temperature of about 10 million °C, what would happened?
1808: Why are cells small?
1809: I heard that when particles are accelerated to light speed (300000 km/h), then collide, it opens a warp in spacetime, like a miniature black hole. Is this true? Also, could we use this information to tell what is in a black hole?
1810: If the statement "Heat Rises" is true...then, why is the north colder than the south?
1811: If the moon has so little gravity how does it have such a force on our tides?
1812: What is the term that describes a focal point for formation of crystals? For example, the stick or string used to make rock candy, or the pine needles lying on top of my pond.
1813: Are tachyons real?
1814: Is WiFi matter?
1815: What is in a Bounce sheet that we put in the dryer to reduce the static electricity?
1816: Is electricity matter? I have found many different websites that say it is, but others say that it isn't. Would you please clear this up?
1817: Why do we get heat from lights?
1818: Do ocean wind/currents affect temperature?
1819: How can we know that something is matter or not?
1820: If a tree falls in a forest does it make sound?
1821: Why don't we collapse under the weight of the atmosphere?
1822: Why does liquid magnet (ferro-fluid) spike up when it feels a magnet?
1823: How does an electric current attract paper clips?
1824: What is a ferro-fluid?
1825: Why do waves change speed as they travel through earths layers?
1826: How long does it take the sun's light to reach Earth?
1827: How did Ernest Rutherford discover the proton? What was his experiment?
1828: How do scientists know all about the earth?
1829: If objects are closer to each other, how does it effect the force of attraction/repulsion?
1830: What would happen if the universe exploded?
1831: I'm a teacher and I've discussed this question with my department and we haven't come to a consensus. Is it possible for a sedimentary rock to become an igneous without becoming metamorphic first? Since melting is not instantaneous, would it technically become metamorphic before igneous, even if melting happens rapidly?
1832: A few years ago, I witnessed a demonstration where a Flask was continuously filled from an Oxygen Bottle (Welding System) at a low flow After it was filled with the Gas a steel spatula was lower down the neck of the flask. This spatula was half filled with what I believe where carbon or graphite granules. The spatula was tapped on the inside wall of the flask and small amounts of carbon would fall to the base of the flask When tapping the side of the glass and when falling to the base of the flask, they flashed and burnt. You could continue to do this until the spatula was empty. I have tried to replicate this but to no avail. Do you know the SECRET or am I missing something Maybe the carbon had an additive? Can you give an explanation so that I can replicate this test? I need it to show our artisans the hazards of working with Oxygen (Concentrated). Hope you can help. Regards
1833: I'm doing a project on supercells for science class and some information I get have phrases I don't understand. For example, what is a flank line? Some websites state it's really an important part of understanding what makes supercell storms unique.
1834: What is a volcanic lighting and how does it happen?
1835: How does a fire rainbow sit in the sky all bunched up unlike a normal rainbow?
1836: How are solar flares related to the magnetic plea on Earth? How do they work?
1837: Do heavier objects fall in less time?
1838: To my understanding, General Relativity allows matter to bends space-time with it's density and collection of mass. If this is the reason as to why planets orbit around stars, why don't they lose energy and fall into the strongest density point? Is there a force that prevents orbiting objects from oscillating inward, or are they already doing it at a incredibly slow rate?
1839: Why can light pass through glass?
1840: How dose a magnet work?
1841: What natural elements float with buoyancy?
1842: Why should we explore Saturn?
1843: Why does it happen an eclipse between the moon and the sun?
1844: Why do astronomers use astronomical units to measure distances in our solar system?
1845: How does the quantity of sugar affect the time for sugar crystals to form?
1846: What is gravitational pull on Earth?
1847: Which is more dangerous, a deep earthquake or a shallow earthquake?
1848: I recently read here that high performance military jets use kerosene for fuel due to it's higher energy density. If these planes can use kerosene, why do 'normal' jet engines use high octane jet fuel? Am I missing something? Thanks!
1849: Please tell me specifically how the colors reflect, and absorb heat?
1850: How do magnifiers make things look bigger or more clear?
1851: Which planet is lighter, Saturn or Neptune?
1852: Is every star a planet?
1853: My teacher put carbon dioxide in one balloon and air in another balloon. When he dropped the two balloons from the ceiling, the carbon dioxide balloon always landed first. I thought they should land at the same time. Why is that?
1854: Dear science line, I am doing the P.Y.P exhibition and my group is working on nuclear power and control. We were wondering why do we have nuclear power and weapons? Sincerely, Aiden.
1855: I have few questions to ask about for my project which is a solar cooker. Firstly, I would like to know any materials that are suitable to absorb heat. The solar cooker that I'm about to make has to only heat or boil the water so I would love to know any material that is suitable to absorb heat. Next, I made a thermal paste (toothpaste and Vaseline) but it didn't seem to work. I am sure that the quantity used is correct so I would love to know any alternative paste that I can use instead. If possible please give any relevant information regarding this project. To build this project I'm not allowed to use metal, mirror and glass. Thank you very much and hope you could answer me as fast as possible.
1856: Do we have to worry? Is the sun going to explode before we die?
1857: What is in saltwater to make it take a long time to freeze?
1858: Do you weigh one sixth of what you weigh on earth when you are on the moon?
1859: My son is doing a science experiment on which color of shirt dries the fastest - black, red, blue, white. Of course he hypothesized that the black shirt would dry the fastest. He also got many helpful info regarding his topic on your wonderful site.BUT, he really have to perform the procedure and test by measuring the amount of moisture on all shirts when left outside to dry. What would be the best way to measure the amount of moisture? He thought about getting a soil or wood/humidity meter but he is not sure if that would work, he plans on sticking it to the fabric, wrapping it around, but it might not give an accurate reading. He did further research and came across a portable moisture meter that is industrial grade and is used in the textile industry (this would really work because the device has a ring that can be gently rubbed on the cloth and has an indicator if its wet or dry) but the $$$$ is way out of reach---starts at $1200! So he saw your site and is asking for your help on other ways to measure the moisture content of a 100% cotton shirt. Thanks in advance for your help.
1860: Are black holes an illusion?
1861: How do deep sea fishes survive in such water pressure?
1862: How salty dose the ocean have to be for an egg to float?
1863: If we throw a ball vertically downwards on the ground, is the force of that ball absorbed by the ground?
1864: Between which lines on a ray diagram will you measure an angle of reflection?
1865: Can we use nuclear energy in our homes?
1866: What are steam engines made of?
1867: If light is traveling at 186000 mph and is absolute. How can it reflect without being shattered into other elements or destroying the object it hit? Also how can it reflect and maintain its same speed and frequency?
1868: Do objects in darker color reflect or absorb the most light?
1869: If Earth were to lose its magnetic field, how fast would the atmosphere leak into space? Will it take days, months, years for the gasses to be blown away by the solar winds?
1870: How did the sun form?
1871: Which color of filters block ultraviolet light?
1872: What is weather?
1873: Why is the sun growing?
1874: Can moss determine direction when you are lost?
1875: What effects does sunlight have on colors (particularly black or dark)?
1876: What is a virtual particle and its relationship with quantum field theory?
1877: Does the color of the light bulb affect the temperature around it?
1878: What is an acid?
1879: How does thermal conductivity varies in different types of metals: copper, aluminum, steel wires?
1880: How long does it take to get to Titan from Earth in a rocket that's going 2,500 miles per hour?
1881: What is a Planck unit?
1882: If you had an object hovering in a school bus and the school bus moved. Would the object move with the air in the bus or hit the back window? Also, would the outcome be different if the windows were open or closed?
1883: Why does tapping a soda can minimize explosions? Does tapping the sides also help?
1884: Why the speed of light is the absolute speed limit in the universe?
1885: Does carbonation affect how fast a liquid evaporates?
1886: What is a submarine made of. And how could we make it better?
1887: When water is boiling, what is it precisely that is inside the bubbles being produced? What substance and what phase?
1888: What type of damage can tornadoes do?
1889: Suppose a tank of carbon gas in a hospital has a leak. Will the gas be found near the floor or near the ceiling? Why?
1890: Questions for expert regarding Climate Change.
1.What are a couple of examples of how animals have changed because of climate change?
2. What is some evidence that proves that climate change is happening?
3. Can people die because of too much carbon in the atmosphere?
4. Where is climate change effecting in the world the most?
In your opinion, can climate change be stopped?
5. What year is climate change going to stop?
We are in an investigation project for school and are trying to get these questions answered by Tuesday, May 31. If you are able to answer them, we would REALLY appreciate it and were wondering if we could also add a picture of you as our expert that we asked questions from. If that is fine, can you also send a picture with your answers. We are using our teachers email because we do not have one. Thank you sooooo much.

1891: Why does sand react to lighting?
1892: How does gravity affect plants and NON-Living things?
1893: Will an iPhone charge with a watermelon?
1894: On a weather map , how can you tell what direction a front is moving?

1. How do tsunamis happen?
2. How long do tsunamis last?
3. What is the difference between a tsunami and a hurricane?
4. What are the similarities of a hurricane and a tsunami?
5. Where do tsunamis happen most in the world?
6. Which is most destructive, a tsunami or a hurricane?

1896: Hello, I was reading the Q&A about how gold was formed. It seems there are "theories" of gold being formed in a supernova explosion. Is this theory or fact?
1897: After the Big Bang, they say the Universe expanded (inflation) and cooled. Isn't heat the energy that makes molecules move faster? How can a universe "cool" if it's not made up of atoms? Can energy "cool"? As the universe cooled, did energy convert into more Hydrogen gas or did all the Hydrogen in the Universe get created from the start? When the energy of the Big Bang "cooled", did it coalesce into matter?
1898: If you could somehow create a 'vacuum' around your home, would that stop the transfer of heat and cold in and out of the structure?
1899: Why was the Big Bang?
1900: What does it happen after the magma is formed?
1901: How and why does conductive ink conduct? Is it possible that someday this conductive ink will replace copper, gold or silver on board circuits?
1902: Why will a person/animal (i.e. dog) continue to travel in a straight line while jumping (assuming initial trajectory to be a straight line) despite twisting motion? (i.e. attempt to twist left/right when viewed from above)? Intuitively I know it is not possible to alter the trajectory without input of an external force, I just don't know how to really explain it.
1903: About how much oxygen will be needed as a fuel in order to get to Jupiter or Pluto ?
1904: Hi,I just thought of one reason why ships and aircraft sink in Bermuda triangle. I thought that probably because ships are made up of metals and magnets attract metals, is there the possibility that there are magnets inside the sea that are capable of attracting ships? In that case, I don't know how magnets came there.
1905: I am doing a research project that has to do with finding how efficient certain substances are at lowering the freezing point of water (freezing point depression) compared to other substances. So far, my research has showed that I can use the formula "ΔTF = KF · b · I" for ideal solutions. If the solution isn't ideal, then the ΔTF is altered from the standard calculation. What solutes can I mix with water that would result in an ideal or near-ideal solution?
1906: I wonder why we have thunders?
1907: What is the eye of the storm?
1908: How do tornadoes form?
1909: Does the size of the moon effect how big the ocean waves are?
1910: Why is the sea really clear in some places and not in others?
1911: How do stars ignite?
1912: Is there any life outside our solar system? How will we know? When will we be able to know?
1913: Is the universe endless? And if it isn't how big is it and is it just a big wall or like a planet?
1914: Why is some ice dark blue while others are light blue or white?
1915: How does a television remote send a signal to the receiver, and how does the receiver pick up the signal?
1916: Why do clouds appear to have a fluffy kind of look?
1917: Does science have an estimate on the size of Outer Space, and if so how far?
1918: If we cant see atoms how do we know about them or how can we even see them?
1919: Why does a soccer curve when you kick it? How does it happen?
1920: I wonder why the water is warmer in certain parts of the world.
1921: Why does the gravity lessen in space? Is it because we are going away from the earth? Then why don't we just float away on the earth? Is it because of the atmosphere protecting us? If so, What if the Atmosphere didn't exist?
1922: I have always wondered that when the world spins why people do not feel it spinning.
1923: Why does the moon change shapes?
1924: How does a ball curve through the air?
1925: Why does gravity make you fall?
1926: Why does nitrogen freeze everything that it touches?
1927: How does the moon affect the tide?
1928: Why is glass so brittle?
1929: How do we know about atoms? How do we know they are there?
1930: How was everything on Earth created form two asteroids "hitting" each other?
1931: How do earthquakes form?
1932: Is our air from our breath hot or cold? If the air that comes out from our breath is hot then why we try to blow the hot food to make it cooler? But if it is cold, so why then when we feel cold we start to blow our hands to get warmer?
1933: Can you tell me how water is bonded together and the unique properties that result from those bonds?
1934: Does space ever end?
1935: If you brought a moon rock home to earth, and took it out of it's vacuum container, would it explode or implode?
1936: Will the prolonged drought in California affect the propagation of different waves during an earthquake? Would the significant drop in soil moisture make the strata more or less rigid thereby affecting the velocity of the different waves associated with the quake? This question was asked by a colleague of mine while researching the Earth Science standards for Next Generation Science Standard, so it's more advanced than a normal question from a high school student!
1937: What keeps earth from falling into the sun?
1938: What factors keep a planet in orbit around the sun?
1939: How do voices work?
1940: Can matter be created or destroyed when a chemical change occurs?
1941: How does the sun produce wind and surface ocean currents on earth?
1942: Why are semi metals (conductors) used in making photo electric cells ,transistors and microchips in computers?
1943: How much force does it take to hit a tennis ball? And if that is not good enough, how much force does it take to break a defective tennis ball?
1944: What are the three reasons Pluto is no longer considered a planet?
1945: Does the moon rotates South to North or North to South?
1946: If the universe is in a constant quest to reach an equilibrium, and lets say it finally does reach this point, what will happen?
1947: Is the Coriolis force affected by climate change on Earth?
1948: Does the color of a shirt affect the amount of heat it absorbs?
1949: Is there really two suns being discovered around planet Earth? If so where are they siting? Please send pics or video links. Thank you!
1950: Does temperature impact a balloon?
1951: Can you give me examples for chemical and physical properties and changes?
1952: Are the ocean tides and waves connected to the planets and stars?
1953: I wonder if vinegar and baking soda will blow up a balloon without exploding, and turning into a chemical reaction?
1954: If the sun ever blow up, will people still be on Earth or will it be the end of the world?
1955: If you deliberately drilled a huge hole at the North Pole, and allowed all the earth's magma to spill out, as the earth tilted, could the weight shift, cause the earth to "flip" upside down, thus causing a reversal? Sounds plausible to me.
1956: If a plant is placed upside-down, which direction will the stem grow as a result of gravitropism?
1957: How does temperature affect the growth of sugar crystals?
1958: Where do the lithosphere and the asthenosphere do coposition?
1959: In space gravitational force acts, then why we can not write with pencil /pen in space(outside the earths orbit)?
1960: Why doesn't dry ice melt?
1961: Can you explain to me how a thermometer works in terms of molecules and conduction?
1962: What is density?
1963: When a LED bulb is touching lemon juice will the bulb glow?
1964: Will helium gas, CO2, or nitrogen affect the size of a marshmallow, and how?
1965: What makes lava hot?
1966: How long does it take for frozen yogurt to melt in room temperature?
1967: How does electricity affect magnets?
1968: Why does our moon "control" tide waves? It just plain out baffles me.
1969: What would be the devastation of the most powerful nuclear bomb dropped on New York City, within 2 miles, within 6 miles, within 10 miles, within 30 miles?
1970: What are some ways that you can prevent conduction from happening? What are some materials that can help insulate things?
1971: When do people use nuclear energy?
1972: How can energy be stored?
1973: Does a baseball go farther with a metal or wood bat?
1974: How does electricity flow from a Lemon to a Light Bulb?
1975: If the Earth gained mass as it was going around the the sun - would the Earth have to speed up or slow down to stay in orbit?
1976: How do colors absorb light?
1977: Why is the sun the major source of energy for wind, air, and ocean currents?
1978: Where does the wind come from on Mars?
1979: If objects of similar size and mass are thrown as hard as possible, such as a tennis ball and a baseball, which will travel a farther distance? How does mass affect the distance? Do lighter objects travel farther or heavier objects?
1980: Why do different colors of light have different energy levels?
1981: Does a hard boiled egg float at the same salt concentration as an uncooked one?
1982: Why will not the water be pulled out of the earth?
1983: Is the colored light the result of an electron moving to or from the ground state?
1984: What are the ocean currents that affect the United States?
1985: What things in the 1960's finally helped to give Wegener's theory the proof it needed?
1986: How do we get wind?
1987: Which freezes faster Tap water, distilled water or salt water? Would like some information on each to be able to show the difference in the three waters that would support which one would freeze first, second and third. Thank you!
1988: I've heard that the moon pulls at the water on Earth, creating waves. How does it do that and why doesn't it effect smaller water sources such as puddles/streams?
1989: How do things explode?
1990: Can air temperature affect the cooking efficiency of a solar oven?
1991: How salty does the sea have to be for an egg to float?
1992: I tested the electrical output of fruits and the kiwi put out the most, why?
1993: When oxygen and hydrogen are gases, and they they combine, why do they create liquids, at room temperature?
1994: Who discovered the electron?
1995: I don't understand how nothing can stop instantly. I was told that if a bullet going 1000 mph was fired at a wall, even when it hit the wall, it would have to go through all the speeds from 1000-0. It couldn't instantly go from 1000->0. What really trips me out is how can the bullet be going 999 mph if, in fact, the bullet is not moving (since it hit the wall)?
1996: Why Carnot engines can never exist?
1997: If when you look, light goes from your eyes to an object back to you eyes. Then wouldn't it be possible to combine the electrons and neutrons so stuff would grow out from where you are looking. True you could\'t see it grow, that would be cool but it would be a faster way to make stuff made out of one material? What I'm trying to say is that you look at a spray or whatever, it would look white and when you look away or when it runs out or whatever there would be a wall of whatever element you made bigger depending on where you looked. I hope you try, research or just honor my request.
1998: Why is it not possible to see around corners?
1999: How to things that are so small and so limited in variety, such as quarks, protons, electrons, neutrons, and nucleotides, make up things that are so complicated and completely different, like elements and DNA?
2000: What keep the water hot?
2001: How were the galaxies and space created?
2002: If you could find a substance that repels oxygen and nitrogen to a certain degree, could you make that substance able to float? If you could stick it to stuff, could we have floating cars, amusement parks, and everything else you could imagine?
2003: If we traveled to the center of the earth, how often could we go?
2004: Did the Apollo spacecraft fly in a straight line before entering the moon's orbit? I was told the spacecraft kind of travels like a sailboat tacking through the water. Sometimes the Apollo would be on course then off course. Actually I was explained the Apollo traveled only "on course" 2% of the time.
2005: Is it possible to make a black hole stretch and if so how?
2006: I am a 7th grade student at New Braunfels Middle School in New Braunfels, Texas. My partner and I are doing an English Language Arts project on the environment. We are required to contact an outside expert on a topic of our choosing. We have chosen Ozone Layer Depletion as our topic. We have come up with the following questions in need for your help:
1) Why is there a hole in the ozone layer over the coldest continent?
2) If we didn't have the ozone to protect us, how would our population suffer?
3) What are the best remedies to stop ozone layer depletion?

2007: Who discovered that black light absorbs heat better than lighter lights?
2008: What happens to an object that absorbs a lot of light?
2009: How running water under a sheet of ice can be colder than the freezing temperature? For instance, I have heard that fast moving water in a creek that is frozen over can be 20F. Is that correct? Thank you.
2010: Can a tsunami be big enough to hit the middle of a country at is biggest size?
2011: What would happen if all convection currents on Earth stopped?
2012: How much time does it take for an ice cube to melt completely?
2013: Does the sun explode?
2014: How does the sun's gravity affect the other planet's orbit?
2015: Why does the earth have different layers?
2016: What is a molecule of uranium made of?
2017: What things can change into three states of matter other than water?
2018: How the extreme weather affects non-living things?
2019: Does light have any effect on how much a crystal grows?
2020: Why do boats and planes disappear?
2021: Do electromagnetic fields affect the growth of the plants?
2022: What are the two boundaries where volcanoes form?
2023: What would happen if there was no sun in the universe, not even stars?
2024: Tell me about tornadoes.
2025: Why do liquids freeze?
2026: Does the consistency of an object increase or decrease magnification, thus play a role in refraction?
2027: Is there radiation in lightning?
2028: How does the sun heat the earth?
2029: We are doing a project involving Ferro fluid. We have a couple of questions for you. 1. What is the level of magnetism in Ferro fluid? 2. What properties will disrupt the magnet field?
2030: What material makes ice melt?
2031: What makes salt crystals form faster or slower?
2032: I have been searching for an answer to this question for quite some time. Do different colors 'reflect' heat at different rates? I am not talking about light at all. In a dark room, will different colors reflect HEAT at different rates? I believe that I know the answer, but have not been able to find it anywhere.
2033: Why does big planets have rings and small ones don't?
2034: There are red blood cells filled with oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body. There is a lot of oxygen in other red blood cells and very little in other body cells. There is more carbon dioxide in the body cells than in the blood cells. How does the carbon dioxide and oxygen move to where they need to go? Is it by osmosis, by diffusion or any other process?
2035: I am doing a presentation, and I can't find anything on how color affects size. If I have a white object it will appear smaller than a black one, right? I tried but am not finding a reason!
2036: What are the atoms doing in rainbows?
2037: What color of crayon would melt the fastest in an oven set on 170 degrees or lower? Thank you so much.
2038: Will a cork boat float?
2039: Dear Scientists: I've been learning about how gravity works, and I wanted to know this: If little things are attracted to huge things, would tiny particles always be flying towards us? Please help. Thank you!
2040: What kind of energy is a conveyor belt transferring into a different kind of energy?
2041: Atoms can be broken down into Protons, Electrons, and Neutrons; and protons can be broken down into quarks; can quarks be broken down?
2042: How do chemicals explode?
2043: How does food coloring go through a stem of a flower?
2044: How can you measure air?
2045: How does the magnetism on Earth affect every atom on Earth? Does this magnetism affects in the same way if I am at the North of the Equator or at the South of it?
2046: How does the magnetism on Earth affect every atom on Earth? Does this magnetism affects in the same way at the North of the Equator or at the South of it?
2047: If a comet is half the size of the earth and it comes too close to it, would it cause any disruption to the earth at all?
2048: When a cup is cold and creates condensation, where does the drops of water on the outside of the cup come from?
2049: How does "chemically and electrically neutral" differ?
2050: Why doesn't Earth's atmospheric pressure crush our bodies?
2051: Why does a soda fizz more when you shake it compared to when you don't shake it?
2052: Are the waves that produce an earthquake in a resonant state? If not, what would it be the effect of the earthquake if the waves were in a resonant state?
2053: Why doesn't the ocean freeze?
2054: If you drop a magnet, will it always fall on the same side?
2055: How are molecules made?
2056: How do planets get their color?
2057: How is the rotation of Jupiter?
2058: What happens to the dust that is part of the molecules that form a star?
2059: Why are elements neutral before they react?
2060: Why there is a need of potential difference for the flow of charges or electricity?
2061: Hello I am looking for someone who could you help me I am trying to find out what is the lowest temperature silver will melt ice? And also if any other metal or plastic has a lower melting point than silver to melt ice; thank you.
2062: Do you think that if we move to Mars and don't get swallowed up by the sun, then we could move to another galaxy by the time the sun completely explodes?
2063: How do the areas of sunlight in the two hemisphere change over the year?
2064: There was an earthquake a few days ago and it was reported to take effect at 13 kilometers west of Isla Vista. What caused this earthquake?
2065: Which metal is not only dense and heavy like osmium, but is also most resilient? In other words, does osmium's density make it the metal with the strongest atom bonds, or will it crack if struck hard enough, like tungsten for instance?If weight, density, AND impact resilience are the criterion, what metal is strongest?
2066: Is California moving?
2067: Could you shrink a whole tank in to a 3 cm key chain but have the tank loose 123,999.5 pounds?
2068: How the discovery of gun powder came about?
2069: How does visible light work? How is it that color goes from waves to visible color in our sight?
2070: At which point do Newton’s physics laws differ from Quantum Physics?
2071: What evidence do you scientists give of the states of matter?
2072: There are 2 suns, both following a parallel path through the universe at the exact same distance apart, both of these stars are equal in mass to the size of Earth's sun. A planet with equal mass to Earth orbits both suns. How would I determine the eccentricity, speed, and habitable zone of the orbit? If the planet sits at a similar axial tilt to Earth, and spins at the same speed, would the two stars make a difference to the ecology/climate/length of days on the planet?
2073: Can atmospheric pressure crush a vacuum iron sphere and a glass bottle?
2074: We can not see molecules but how do we know that they are present?
2075: Is there any substance which can be found in three states of matter like water?
2076: According to the third Newton's law: every action has an equal and opposite reaction. Then, both action should get cancelled and the body should remain constant. My question is, why does a bullet move from a gun according to this law?
2077: Invisible ink seems to work only on paper. Can you use it on real objects by coloring them thus making them invisible. Is there another way to hide something in plain sight and reveal it only if you have a special light?
2078: Why does lemon juice produce electricity?
2079: How do winds form?
2080: What evidence is there that proves the age of the universe?
2081: What is the difference between gases blue and yellow?
2082: How do scientists predict when a solar eclipse is coming?
2083: I live in Oregon, and plan to be in an area where the Eclipse will be in its 100% Totality. For the duration of the 100% Totality (about a minute), is it okay to look directly at the Eclipse? From your website here it appears that there could be a danger.
2084: Why are some solar eclipses longer than others?
2085: Is it possible to magnetically levitate a human (or a frog or a tree or other things like that) without the assistance if any metal objects?
2086: How are stars, planets, moons, and nebula made?
2087: Why are there black holes in space?
2088: Is fire a living?
2089: How does gravity work?
2090: Why does thunder make sound and lighting doesn't?
2091: What is the universe expanding into? And whatever it is expanding into, does it go on forever?
2092: How small do things can get?
2093: S or p waves travel around the world, slow and fast through different materials. Having the two small waves hit each other over a region with an active fault, could the area be at a higher risk for a local quake?
2094: Hi, my name is Praize and I am an 8th grade student at Glen Taylor School. I am conducting a research on mountains. I would like to know if you are able to provide me with information on Why Is There Little Air On Mountains? Please contact me as soon as possible. Thank you.
2095: I wonder how the solar eclipse started.
2096: I was wondering, how do radios work?
2097: My question to you is, can there ever be a man made substitute for water that give us the same benefits of water? I thought of this question because I once heard that if water did not have exactly what it has right now, we would not be able to rely on it and we would not be able to live. I wanted to know if that was true and if we could use an alternative for every single molecule that water has. In my opinion, it would be awesome if people that did not have access to fresh water could have another option to gain the nutrients and hydration that water provides
2098: Will there ever be a way to create wormholes to different planets or places?
2099: Why is measuring and finding the volume or mass of something important to Science?
2100: What would happen if the earth's axis spun the opposite way?
2101: How are planets discovered?
2102: What do you know about the density of Earth as you go toward the center? Why is this reasonable?
2103: Why doesn't lightening occur any time it is windy?
2104: Is it possible to create a working star destroyer in real life?
2105: How does color affect temperature in a building? What exactly happens in scientific terms?
2106: Will there ever be a time in the future where the sun will be harmful to humans, and if so, when will it be?
2107: Why/how do stars explode?
2108: Why does my hair stand on end when I take off my hat on a cold, dry day?
2109: How many atoms take up a square inch of the world?
2110: In regards to a material being flammable or combustible (i.e. if a higher than normal concentration of oxygen is present, something that is considered a combustible could now be considered flammable). What is the assumed normal oxygen concentration (expressed as a percentage) in the atmosphere?
2111: Is the earthquake which recently took place in Mexico City related to the previous one close to the Ithsmus of Tehuantepec?
2112: What happens when warm air rises and cold air sinks?
2113: If there are stationary fronts, when the two fronts stay in the spot, what makes the weather go into a stop, and how do the fronts move away?
2114: Would different colors of light from a LED light give off different amounts of heat? (temperature wise)
2115: How small can things get?
2116: Why cannot we imagine a new color?
2117: When will Jupiter's gravity pull us closer to outer space? Please answer back this question is important for the jeopardy of the world civilization. I am 12 years old.
2118: How does the shape of an object with similar mass affect its ability to float?
2119: Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 are forever drifting satellites that were sent into space in the 1970's. Even today, 43 years later, they still have the ability to transmit to Earth even though they travel around a million miles per day (so by now Voyager 1 would be around 15.7 billion miles away from Earth). How can they still transmit information to Earth today from such an incredulous amount of miles away? How did they create the technology to be able to have Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 still be able to transmit despite their far distance from Earth?
2120: I am a grade six student at Sir William Osler elementary, in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. This school term I will be conducting a scientific experiment for my class science fair. The topic I have selected is regarding the productivity of solar panels under different so-called “filters” of light. Such filters are transparent plastic sheets colored red, yellow, and blue. In my current project, I will be testing the productivity of my solar cells under such circumstances. The experiment will be carried out in 10 to 15 trials in the next three weeks.

I am writing this letter of inquiry in hope that I may have the opportunity to ask you several questions pertaining to my project as I have found it is in your area of expertise.

Is it possible that different silicon compositions could make two-axes oriented arrays more efficient? Possibly any theoretical work yourself may have done?

2121: I am a grade six student at Sir William Osler elementary, in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. This school term I will be conducting a scientific experiment for my class science fair. The topic I have selected is regarding the productivity of solar panels under different so-called “filters” of light. Such filters are transparent plastic sheets colored red, yellow, and blue. In my current project, I will be testing the productivity of my solar cells under such circumstances. The experiment will be carried out in 10 to 15 trials in the next three weeks.

I am writing this letter of inquiry in hope that I may have the opportunity to ask you several questions pertaining to my project as I have found it is in your area of expertise.

Do you see any possible advances being made in the near future regarding different spectrums of light being most effective toward solar panel efficiency? Have you possibly made any advances in the topic yourself?


I am a grade six student at Sir William Osler elementary, in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. This school term I will be conducting a scientific experiment for my class science fair. The topic I have selected is regarding the productivity of solar panels under different so-called “filters” of light. Such filters are transparent plastic sheets colored red, yellow, and blue. In my current project, I will be testing the productivity of my solar cells under such circumstances. The experiment will be carried out in 10 to 15 trials in the next three weeks.

I am writing this letter of inquiry in hope that I may have the opportunity to ask you several questions pertaining to my project as I have found it is in your area of expertise.

It is public knowledge that numerous solar energy companies have been known to purchase power batteries from other energy companies such as hydro, wind, and even coal in periods where their arrays aren’t producing much. What is your stance on the topic? Do you see a solution to this crisis?


I am a grade six student at Sir William Osler elementary, in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. This school term I will be conducting a scientific experiment for my class science fair. The topic I have selected is regarding the productivity of solar panels under different so-called “filters” of light. Such filters are transparent plastic sheets colored red, yellow, and blue. In my current project, I will be testing the productivity of my solar cells under such circumstances. The experiment will be carried out in 10 to 15 trials in the next three weeks.

I am writing this letter of inquiry in hope that I may have the opportunity to ask you several questions pertaining to my project as I have found it is in your area of expertise.

What is your personal opinion on solar panel technology becoming a mainstream power option? Would you suggest a junction or hybrid between renewable energy industries or is that just a fantasy?

2124: Hi my name is Damien and I wanted to ask: how long until the Earth is gone? The moon is moving 2 centimeters a year and eventually it will probably hit a planet and then that planet would explode and I want to know how long it will take. Thank you for listening and I hope you can answer this question.
2125: Does salt dissolve quicker in room temperature than in cold water?
2126: What is displacement?
2127: Is the only way to make an explosion with the ingredients Baking soda and Vinegar?
2128: Why are we only able to push so far on the plunger of a syringe when we put our finger over the nozzle?
2129: If you traveled straight through the center of the Earth and out the other side, what would you pass through along the way?
2130: How does the surface of the ground affect a runner's speed?
2131: Hi, I am in love with your website and use it constantly for school science projects. We are studying asthenosphere and earth science, but I have a question. How is ooblec physically different from it?
2132: If the earth spin the opposite direction wouldn't that change gravity and the way things will go? If the spinning of the earth go to the east, and if we would change the way it could put the gravity out.
2133: What type of mixture do you think is created when the water and gelatin are mixed together?
2134: What makes light move, is it possible right now to find the source of what makes light move and stop it?
2135: What kind of heat do white stars emit and how hot are they?
2136: What temperature does a glass filled with ice have to be at to make droplets appear on the glass?
2137: Which produces more condensation, hot water or cold water?
2138: How quickly can the nervous system relay messages?
2139: What is photo electron spectroscopy?
2140: Why is there zero degree (temperature) in space?
2141: Does the color inside a cup affect the change in temperature of its content?
2142: Why is the water warmer than the air at night?
2143: Does the moon have more gravity than Earth because it has no atmosphere?
2144: What happens to objects that are exposed to the sun, and why?
2145: How many coins does it take to make a battery?
2146: How much heat does a red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, black, and pink light give off? Thanks!
2147: How do the ice cap and liquid water interact?
2148: What are the stages or steps of a tsunami?
2149: I just read answers to some questions on your forum.
I am confused by your statement that ancient rocks were formed at a certain time by comparing lead to uranium ratios. How can this be if the uranium must have been formed in prior supernovae explosions that seeded the nebula from whence the solar system was formed? It seems we are ignoring the time between this previous supernova and the forming of said rock. Much thanks for any thoughts as this has been bugging me for quite some time.
2150: Hi,
We are currently studying atoms and the periodic table. A student asked a question today that I thought was quite perplexing. Since an atom is mostly empty space between its nucleus and electrons, what exactly is that "empty space?" From my amateur point of view it can't be a vacuum, can it? And, there can't be matter of any sort because we're on such a small scale (and atoms make up matter). Thanks for the help. Love the site. Confused by the empty, PJ Creek 8th grade science teacher.

2151: Why does electricity have power?
2152: Which ice cream flavor will melt the fastest and why?
2153: Which balloon will pop first, a balloon with hot water or a balloon with cold water or a balloon with soda?
2154: What is the physical state of fire?
2155: What is the opposite of condensation?
2156: Hi. Why can only Fe, Co and Ni be magnetic? This question is common and on the web exist many answers about this question. Most of these answers pay attention to unpaired electrons of d shell. I agree to pay attention to unpaired electrons, but I believe there are other aspects that are as important as unpaired electrons. In other words, I think that unpaired electrons alone can't be enough reason for this question. First of all it's necessary to remember that the magnet is a ferromagnetism material. Other aspects: Cr and Mn have unpaired electrons more than Fe. So why can 't Cr and Mn be magnetic like Fe. We know Cr is anti-fero-magnetic. In addition we know Mo isn't anti-fero-magnetic like Cr. It is paramagnetic while both of them have a number of unpaired electrons. So in addition to unpaired electrons there are others factors such that they are effective in creating magnetism. What factors are effective in creating magnetic properties? And how?
2157: When was lithium made geologically speaking?
2158: Since Ocean acidification is becoming a bigger problem, is there any way to take CO2 molecules from H20?
2159: Why is it colder in the northern cities, such as: New York than in the southern cities, such as: Houston, TX during the winter months?
2160: What is static electricity?
2161: Is water wet?
2162: What is the universe made of?
2163: What is drag in aircraft, rockets or spacecraft like compared to drag for these on earth? How is the air/wind different?
2164: If spiders's web is so strong then how is it broken so easily?
2165: Does an egg float?
2166: How do you know about the water cycle?
2167: Do candles burn longer when they are in hot or cold air?
2168: Why does the earth have more gravity than the moon when the moon is or used to be a part of the earth?
2169: What happens to oxygen at -183 degrees Celsius?
2170: How was the atmosphere made around Earth, and how is it made?
2171: A student was wondering how much an increase of energy a 2 degree change would be. This question is in context of climate change and the goals of the Paris Climate agreement. Obviously if we go to zero degrees Celsius we don't have absolute zero energy. So if the Earth's average energy goes up by 2 degrees from pre-industrial levels how much of a percentage increase is that to Earth's energy budget?
2172: Can two water molecules be used to make two oxygen and two hydrogen molecules?
2173: How do the Earth's continental and oceanic crust compare in density?
2174: I have several questions. 1.-How do infrared photons (e.g. from a heat lamp) make molecules move? 2.- How do photons make water molecules leave the liquid state (i.e. why does water boil?)
2175: Why does a non-stretchable balloon (i.e.one with rigid walls so that its volume stays constant) rise when heated?
2176: During a fog bank in the ocean, what is the temperature of the water when the fog bank is happening ? What is the temperature of the air during a fog bank?
2177: Does atoms, neutrons, protons, nucleus have anything to do with the chemical reaction of vinegar and baking soda, and if so, why?
2178: What is the nature of wool from the materials point of view? Wool can be itchy for some people, and synthetic materials are not, why is this?
2179: How does the composition and phases of earth's inner layers generate a magnetic field?
2180: Why is it important for planes and pilots to know about the atmosphere?
2181: How does the Earth stay sturdy if the majority of its insides are liquid?
2182: How does water's heat capacity contribute to wind patterns in California?
2183: Why does black attracts heat and white reflects heat?
2184: Is it true that emeralds are formed when two continental plates hit each other?
2185: I have a 10 years old, 4th grader that is interested in using the liquid in a straw as a project. What direction should he go to make a simple project that everyone might understand? Thanks for your time.
2186: Would their be anyway for fire to be in space and put it inside a gas planet like Jupiter? And would the components Jupiter is made of explode if fire did catch the planet? What would be the result? Please answer my question. Thank You.
2187: How is a mineral formed?
2188: How is the earth floating in space?
2189: Is wool a good conductor of heat? Why or why not?
2190: How can humans be impacted by extreme weather?
2191: Is there sound in space? If a person could survive in space without oxygen or a helmet, could we hear one another?
2192: Why does time seem to go by so slowly when your young and seem to go by so quickly the older you are? Is this in any relation to how time speeds up in space versus on Earth?
2193: If a person broke the light barrier, what would happen around them, and too them?
2194: Could it be that the white hole will never be physical found in this universe,since this universe is already occupied after big bang? Is it possible that the business end of a black hole can only establish a big bang where there is void?
2195: Is it physically possible to make a relay that could, magnetically or electrically, or any other form really, slingshot a spacecraft from one point and stop a spacecraft at the next? If so, could it still be energy efficient? Is there some way to absorb the energy the spacecraft had when it was shot, and therefore be able to use that energy again to sling another craft?
2196: How long does it take for 100 mL of water to evaporate under a lamp? What is the evaporation speed for water?
2197: What is Roygbiv?
2198: I have been curious for many years how all of the anti-matter in the universe disappeared. I just read another article that indicates this is an active area of research. I often read descriptions of the early universe that follow a common progression: universe begins as a dense 1” wide point, space is created, inflation occurs, elements occur as universe expands and cools. So my questions are: 1. Why is there no mention of anti-matter in these early steps? 2. Wouldn’t we expect it to exist as soon as elements condensed? 3. If it did exist, and if it was annihilated through a succession of reactions, wouldn’t that process deserve a footnote in the description of the process? 4. How long would it take to convert all of the matter/anti-matter into matter? 5. How many reactions would be required to perform the conversion? It seems we are missing an important step in the process the early universe followed. I understand that scientists don’t like to speculate, but this seems like a good time to. I have asked my friend Joel about this, but he said we don't know. Can’t we at least acknowledge the elephant in the room? Thanks.
2199: How do headphones work?
2200: What is a subduction zone?
2201: I am doing a science fair project and I am trying to see how will different types of soda affect how far a soda car will go. Can you help me find out what carbon dioxide does to soda? Your friend,
2202: How can robots walk?
2203: How do trains move?
2204: If a planet in the universe breaks out of gravity and collides with another, will it affect Earth?
2205: How are minerals made? Where can they be found?
2206: How are the rocks an minerals made?
2207: Is the inner core a hot liquid metal?
2208: What is the relationship between nuclear energy and electrical energy?
2209: What is dark matter, and how is it related to negative Kelvin?
2210: How does water molecules float up if the reason why they float up is because of heated molecules?
2211: Why is the solar system flat?
2212: If a person had their own magnetic field, how would that affect them and everything around them in relation the the earth's magnetic field?
2213: How will the sun explode some day?
2214: What is the effect of salt on the temperature of water?
2215: Does dark hair retain more heat, or becomes hotter than blond or fair hair when out in the sun?
2216: How does emission of carbon dioxide lead to global warming?
2217: What prevents a water balloon from popping?
2218: Hi, I am a teacher for the Algebra Academy Summer Program. Our project this year is to build and launch hot air balloons. We try to apply some basic math and physics to our projects. I found the following information ZOnline: Given a helium filled balloon surrounded by the atmosphere (air), gravity will pull harder on the air than the helium filled balloon. This more dense air pushes the helium filled balloon up. I agree that gravity is pulling on both the helium and air, but I have a hard time understanding how gravity can pull harder on one thing compared to another thing. I appreciate how the on line person explained why the helium balloon goes up, but I need to know/ be able to explain to myself and ultimately my students what this means (gravity pulling harder on one thing compared to another thing). Thank you. Johnny, Algebra Academy.
2219: What is sound?
2220: What tools are used to find the layers of the earth if scientists can't go to the core?
2221: My name is David and I live in North Florida. I could use some help with information to help me with a project I have going. I am trying to construct a VERY efficient solar oven. The oven will mostly be comprised of three metal boxes of different sizes, one inside another, inside another. I intend to put them together in such a way so that the heat from the outermost box will be reflected toward the next box and the heat from that box will be reflected again toward the inmost box. I think this will concentrate the heat. The boxes will not directly touch each other. I plan to paint each box flat black on the outside and put reflective aluminum foil on the surface of the inside of each box. The question I have is this; since the inside of the boxes will be in the dark when the oven door is closed, will the heat still be reflected in such a way as to concentrate it toward the center, or does this type of reflective action have anything to do with heat created by light only? Does a reflective surface reflect heat even when there is no light involved? I would greatly appreciate any advice from someone who knows about thermodynamics. Thank you so much. Sincerely, David in Florida.
2222: How does a lemon produce electricity?
2223: My name is David and I live in North Florida. I could use some help with information to help me with a project I have going. I am trying to construct a VERY efficient solar oven. The oven will mostly be comprised of three metal boxes of different sizes, one inside another, inside another. I intend to put them together in such a way so that the heat from the outermost box will be reflected toward the next box and the heat from that box will be reflected again toward the inmost box. I think this will concentrate the heat. The boxes will not directly touch each other. I plan to paint each box flat black on the outside and put reflective aluminum foil on the surface of the inside of each box. The question I have is this; since the inside of the boxes will be in the dark when the oven door is closed, will the heat still be reflected in such a way as to concentrate it toward the center, or does this type of reflective action have anything to do with heat created by light only? Does a reflective surface reflect heat even when there is no light involved? I would greatly appreciate any advice from someone who knows about thermodynamics. Thank you so much. Sincerely, David in Florida.
2224: Can you see through water in a glass and why?
2225: I was wondering why iron is so abundant in the outer core?
2226: I was wondering how long would it take to reach Jupiter if you traveled at 100 km/h (freeway speed)?
2227: What would happen if you heated a metal way past its melting point?
2228: Since the sun is white does that make it every color or no color?
2229: Where does hot air rise and cold air fall? Because I have looked, and looked but I can't find an answer.
2230: What is the scope to unify all the four fundamental force of nature through string theory?
2231: Why it is windy by the sea side?
2232: How does the transfer of electrons in the Kastle-Meyer Blood Detection Test exactly work?
2233: In a circuit, if current is increased, heat will increase (heat is directly proportional to square of current) but if current increases ,resistance will decrease (resistance is inversely proportional to current) but if resistance decreases heat will decrease (heat is directly proportional to resistance)tell me whether heat is increased or decreased?
2234: I have a very simple question, why does an induced coil always produce AC current in a generator regardless of the orientation of the magnets? I always thought the change in the direction of current was caused by the shift in the magnetic field caused by the rotation of the magnets North and South poles, but that is not the case; my question is why does the current reverse when the field change?
2235: Is there a pocket of air under frozen lake water?
2236: In Jupiter, the hydrogen in the atmosphere is in the gas phase. As you go towards the center of Jupiter, the hydrogen undergoes a phase transition to the liquid phase. Why does this happen?
2237: Where do we get our supply of oxygen?
2238: When will a balloon filled with water pop if you put it close to fire?
2239: How can I make north and south magnet liquid?
2240: How can you determine the age of sea glass?
2241: From the physical sciences perspective, how can you explain a shadow?
2242: How does the sun warm the earth?
2243: Are objects that are submerged in water wet, while they are still in the water, or do they become wet, when once they reach and break through the surface of the water?
2244: What is the probability of a human being able to survive the gravitational pull of the earth yet along with the exact amount of centrifugal force not to fly off the earth---what is the probability of getting that delicate balance of gravitational force and centrifugal force to support human life?
2245: What dimension is light?
2246: If humans can't see air, can fish see water?
2247: Which melts slowest: ice cream, ice milk, or sherbet?
2248: I thought the hottest desert on Earth was the Lut Desert in Iran. More than 159 degrees according to my research. Isn't this so?
2249: The temperature of liquid nitrogen is 86K. What is this temperature in deg. C?
2250: A few billion years after the Big Bang, the universe started accelerating. What could have universally affected matter in such a manner that all matter was sped up? Would it not have required an energetic force that could have affected all matter at once?
2251: I read the article on the New York Times about the work of Simon Gilroy. I love plants and I would like to know when he mentions that plants deliver Calcium to their leaves in case of danger, where do they take this Calcium, it is stored there or does it come from the soil right at that moment?
2252: How is that the Caribbean islands, the Gulf of Mexico and the East Coast get all the hurricanes? How we do not get any here in the West Coast of California?
2253: What is the most amount of hurricanes ever to happen at one point in time?
2254: Why and how is broken glass and irregular object?
2255: We all know that atoms are spherical in shape. So, even if they are packed together there must be some space lying between them. So this space needs to be vacuum. And since vacuum contains dark energy, can we find all the things we need to know about vacuum by just looking between the atoms rather than going into the space?
2256: How does the color of a fabric affect its drying time?
2257: This concept of heat and colors is really interesting. I have a mirror in my bedroom and it reflects a lot of heat so I covered it with a blue-green towel. Will this work in reducing heat or is the mirror still harmful even if it is covered with a towel?
2258: When a balloon is taken near a fire, it may burst. Why?
2259: How does a cable work?
2260: Why does the earth have an iron-rich core?
2261: What colors will light grow fastest in and why?
2262: How does color affect heating by absorption of light?
2263: I wonder why the sun produces light?
2264: How do rainbows happen?
2265: Why is air at sea level denser than air at high altitudes?
2266: Can black holes slingshot space shuttles further?
2267: What is exotic matter, can we harvest it, and how can we use it to our advantage?
2268: Why does Earth continue to orbit the Sun without stopping?
2269: Is a strand of human hair stronger than a strand of steel the same size?
2270: How is it possible that volcano dust can travel thousands of miles somewhere else?
2271: If there were no gravity at all will still be planets and the sun and if yes the, how and will we still be alive and were would we be or go?
2272: What would happen if a planet was destroyed?
2273: First of all I am very excited to be able to have someone probably understand this question. I know very strange things happen at Absolute Zero, and we haven’t gotten there... yet. If we got there and we put a human in a chamber that happened to be absolute zero, then wouldn’t their perception of time stop? I know that molecules don’t completely stop, but they still slow down enough to be considered still. I know that they would die very quick but I still want to know.
2274: What are atoms made of?
2275: Lemon Juice electricity.
2276: Can any element be in the plasma state?
2277: How can the change of one Proton, or Electron in a single atom, change the physical properties of it? How to these charges stay together, without floating away from the nucleus?
2278: How did the balls of gas that created our stars stay in the same place? Do stars in the galaxy have a gravitational pull?
2279: In what ways do atoms or molecules move?
2280: What would happen if a nucleus only consisted of protons ? Would it produce charge? Or will it split the nucleus or stored things (in which the protons are stored)?
2281: What is the scientific reason to is water wet? And Is water wet?
2282: Where is the heat coming from for the convection?
2283: How to make spider web at home by using chemicals?
2284: What happens when a hot molecule reaches a cold one?
2285: What is the difference between the theory of continental drift and the theory of plate tectonics?
2286: What are those chemicals from which spiders make their web?
2287: Is it TRUE that originally, before the invention of the 3-prong, (grounded outlets for homes) that the ground-pin was mounted at the TOP of the triangle, the TOP of the 3 "holes"?
2288: Why does temperature make energy?
2289: What speed do mountains grow at?
2290: What are the forces that drive continental drift?
2291: How much thermal energy does the copper absorb?
2292: Is fire alive or not?
2293: Which subatomic particle is the boss of the atom?
2294: What makes supercells?
2295: How can an egg break from 4 ft high?
2296: Does an ice cube melt faster at room temperature or in tap water?
2297: How does a Canada Dry and apple battery work? (You basically just have a plate and pour Canada Dry on it and then put an apple on the plate, (I know part of it is electrolytes). Can you explain?
2298: How does the type of container affect ice cream melting time?
2299: Will an ice cube melt faster in purified water, salty water or sugar water?
2300: Is odor a chemical property?
2301: Is water wet?
2302: How much harder an aluminum bat would hit a ball compared to a wooden bat?
2303: Who is Albert Einstein?
2304: Trying to display refraction of light with a PRISM - we get perfect refraction with sunlight but are unable to find a light source other than sunlight that can display the entire spectrum of visible light. Can you please suggest a light source that comes close to sunlight for refraction purposes? This is needed for a science demonstration where sunlight is not available. Please assist.
2305: Is it possible that the big bang occurred as a result of virtual particles?
2306: Does an electric current in a closed circuit flow in faster or slower while passing through 7 individual fluctuating magnetic fields?
2307: If you collect the steam from a pot of boiling water in a container then place the container in the fridge, what would you observe on opening the container two hours later? Why would this be so?
2308: Why does plastic wrap evaporate more water than foil?
2309: Why does reflection occur only in transparent things?
2310: Why is it colder at the bottom of the pool than the top of the pool?
2311: Where is the squid's funnel located?
2312: Why do electrons and protons have to always be in equal numbers?
2313: Is baking soda and vinegar mixed together an endothermic or an exothermic reaction?
2314: Does the sun heat salt water and freshwater at the same rate?
2315: Does the color of light affect plant growth? THANK YOU UCSB ScienceLine
2316: Why is it so cold these days in the northeast of the United States of America?
2317: How wide is our Galaxy?
2318: How does a geologist use density to tell the difference between gold and pyrite?
2319: How does the number of fins on a straw rocket effect its flight?
2320: How do you make a heavier object decelerate faster than a feather?
2321: To make a rubber band plane fly, is there a limit to the number of twists, for both the speed and the distance. I am using a 1/8 x 3 1/2 band.
2322: Why is the temperature of the atmosphere 1700 degree Celsius?
2323: Can a needle be thrown all sides through a magnet?
2324: Our 2.5 acre pond dried up in the extreme heat this past summer, through evaporation and I have some questions. Our pond is not only filled by rainwater and runoff, but by a pond above our pond. When the creek between the ponds dries up, we have discovered that the rainfall is not enough to keep our pond full. If we add aerators to our pond with the intent of bringing colder water to the surface, will the water in our pond remain for a longer time?
2325: Hello! My name is Chloe and my class has been working on energy. I have been studying electricity and I know that lightning is static electricity, when electrons expand they cause the thing to melt, and that static electricity was found in 600 b.c. Oh also I'm in 4th grade.I need your help, I want to know more about electricity. I want to know, are there more types of electricity? Can you survive being struck by lightning? Is it possible for the whole world to run out of electricity? I need to know. If you could help me that be great. Thanks a lot for taking time to help. Sincerely Chloe.
2326: Dear Expert, My name is Anton I am a 4th grade student at Stratham Memorial School. I am researching about thermal, geothermal and biomass energy with a couple of friends. I've learned that a snowman has more thermal energy than a hot cup of chocolate, because the snowman is bigger. I have also learned that conductors are the best way to make heat. Metal is a good conductor. Rubber and plastic are insulators. They don’t let thermal energy pass through them easily. I learned a very interesting fact about geothermal energy, when tectonic plates separate some of the heat from the earth's core rises. I also have some questions to ask you.
1. If aluminum foil is a type of metal why doesn’t it get hot when you use it for cooking?
2. What are the three types of heat transfers?
3. How does convection current work in a pot of boiling water?
And last how do you make heat resistant clothes and what do you make them out of?
Thank you for taking your time to help me research. Please contact my teacher , or mail a response to my school (39 Gifford Farm Rd. Stratham, NH 03885). Thank you! Sincerely,

2327: Dear someone who knows about electricity , My name is Adriana and I am a 4th grade student at Stratham Memorial School, in Stratham NH. My class has been researching all forms of energy trying the answer the question, What is energy, and how does it affect us?
I am focusing on electricity. I have learned a lot in my research, like electricity is in our bodies, it makes our heart beat, muscles move and flows through our nerves. Electricity starts with atoms, atoms have three smaller parts in them. One of them is called electrons. Electrons can move very fast from one to another. Moving electrons create energy. Moving electrons can carry electricity to different places. This is called a electric current. Benjamin Franklin was not the first person to discover electricity. Someone named William Gilbert and Sir Thomas Browne were the first scientists to use the term electricity. So they should get the credit for discovering electricity, not Benjamin Franklin. I have a few questions I hope you can answer,
1.Why does electricity conduct through metal?
2.What is electromagnetism and how does it affect us in our lives?
3.How are electronics still using energy even if they are plugged in but turned off?.
I really appreciate you taking the time to help me. You can reply in a email to my teacher, in a letter to my school, (39 Gifford Farm Rd. Stratham, NH 03885). Thank you! Sincerely, Adriana

2328: So, I have no classes regarding physics, or nano tech, but these are the paths I want to go in life. I have a few theories on how to make nano-tech even smaller, by "Shrinking" the atoms in the objects themselves. So I was wondering, if we could get it to work, what would be the effect it had mathematically? What would be the effects of shrinking the electron cloud to make the atom smaller on matter?
2329: Does a fast moving river respond to environment? Would you say that a fast moving river grows and develops over time? Thanks!
2330: Can one say the occurrence of white holes is related to a single point in a spinning black hole? The white holes can form only when the singularity in the black hole is a ring and not a point, right?
2331: Are there some events which can change the rate of isotope decay? For example: I recently heard that scientists now believe that some time in the distant past there occurred a massive solar storm, many times greater than any we have ever recorded, and that the earth was bombarded by massive amounts of solar radiation. Might this have altered the rate of decay of carbon 14 isotopes, for example?
2332: How do the particles of a liquid exert pressure on a container?
2333: How do door handles give out static electricity?
2334: What would the temperature be if the earth was inverted upside down?
2335: Which frozen desert melts the slowest ice cream, frozen yogurt, or sorbet?
2336: Can negative gravity exist?
2337: Can you use the gravity of a planet, to accelerate past the speed of light?
2338: What kind of salt is being used in the floating egg experiment? (Table/Iodized/Sea salt?)
2339: What do you think, would happen if all the atoms didn't need to gain or losing electrons, and were happy just the way they are in their neutral form?
2340: I have a question whose answer will settle an argument that my friend and I are having regarding atmosphere and gravity. The question is: Would we bounce around, as astronauts do on the moon, if we had no atmosphere? (if we were able to survive without an atmosphere that is, so purely theoretical) I explained to my friend that gravity is not dependent on the atmosphere, in fact gravity is what keeps the atmosphere from ‘floating’ away into space. I also explained that we would still be held to the ground because of gravity even without an atmosphere. He, however, is of the opinion that if Earth had no atmosphere, we would be able to bounce around – he thinks that the atmosphere is what keeps gravity ‘in’ instead of vice versa.
2341: How do the electron reflect the light in a particular frequency and direction? How many of the electrons do reflect the light in one atom?
2342: Is there a reason why water seems to curl around itself when it is being poured? Like when pouring water from a gallon to a bottle and there is a sort of braiding pattern which can be extended if the gallon is raised and the distance between the two increases. Also, is there a way to predict it, or are there too many variables?
2343: How can lights turn on and off when you flip a light switch?
2344: Why does Uranus have rings? What would Earth be like if Venus was not there?
2345: Why is slime always stretchy and sticky? What is a polymer? I saw that word in my slime research and want to know more.
2346: How was Earth made?
2347: What muscles and part of the brain do basketball players use to dribble?
2348: Why does metal skate on ice? I want to know about ice skating fast.
2349: Why does Saturn have rings, and does Neptune really have rings?
2350: How do you get electricity from acid? I would like to know more about electricity from an acidic fruit.
2351: Has anyone thought about neutral electrons? Neutral photons? Photons are positive and negative in one. Why not neutral? If the sun has neutrons in the center with no charge it would appear empty and heavy.
2352: Why are all the planets in the shape of a sphere? Why are orbits also round?
2353: Can a large speaker magnet sitting on top of a generator damage it?
2354: How does the mantle affect the movement of the crust?
2355: Hello, I have a question about whether any attempt has been made to boil sea water using parabolic mirrors and then use that steam to condense it to get water or use that steam to generate power (via turning a turbine)? Thank you for your help.
2356: Why does salt water melt faster then fresh water?
2357: I am doing a SAE project and want to see what would happen if I watered radishes with colored water as they grew. I can't find much on it and need to write a proposal before I start. What process will the plants be taking when it interacts with the colored water( the colored water will range from powdered drink mix, to food-dyed water?)
2358: Let's say I have water which is A and B is a shirt. If neither A or B is wet then how does B get wet?
2359: Do microwaves produce light energy?
2360: I think you are wrong about the densest metal/substance here. A while ago I read about a substance that had been developed and it weighed over 13 pounds per cubic inch. What is that substance?
2361: Can gems that miners find on the surface of the earth be found deep into the ocean? If yes, are they the same?
2362: I was read that we have magnets N45 to 50,000x more powerful than the earth. My question is if we have magnetic fields so powerful then why is there magnetic fields so small in comparison to the earth's field which is huge but not so strong? How strong is the magnetic force that holds atoms together 00.03645 Gauss? Also I would like to try to build a permanent magnet motor to power a generator, is it possible?
2363: Why can we see through glass if it is made out of sand?
2364: Hi there! I am interested in teaching second graders about why a fully inflated ball bounces better than a less inflated ball. I saw you already have this question on your website and I'm wondering if you can explain this in second grade terms. Thank you so much!
2365: My neighbor is purchasing a deck canopy tent. His choice of colors are white or blue. I suggested that white will attract less heat from the sun than blue. Is this correct
2366: Can you explain the Higgs boson also known as the ‘god particle’ in simple words? Is it true that it was the “fuse” of the Big Bang?
2367: If a rocket takes off from the moon with the same amount of fuel as from Earth, will it get to a much higher speed in space?
2368: I understand that the movement of sodium ions drives the transcellular transport of water. Why water follows sodium?
2369: I am trying to figure out why the sheet magnets I am using to hold my cutting dies in place lose their magnetic properties. Found this on the Internet, figured you probably wouldn’t answer but thought it couldn’t hurt to ask. They are being run through an electric die cutting machine now. It uses rollers and pressure to move and cut the material. Could this be what is degrading the magnets?
2370: Could you please refer to me a chart of gases in the stratosphere? The question comes from this observation: if the troposphere is comprised of 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, .09% Argon, along with other trace gases, what are the relative percentages for gases in the stratosphere considering that Ozone is most prominent in the stratosphere? Would seem that percentage of Nitrogen, Oxygen, etc., would be decreased by presence of more Ozone? Have searched wide for the answer. Hope you can help. Thank you.
2371: What is the opposite of condensation?
2372: How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in oxygen?
2373: If I mix sugar into some water, which is the solvent and which is the solute?
2374: Why do we feel as if we weight the same on Venus as we do on Earth? Do we weight the same in both places?
2375: I had a discussion at a dinner party last evening and stated that hot water freezes faster than cold. My friends thought that was absolutely incorrect. Will it?
Also, I stated that molecules grow when heated, but have since changed my mind to say that the movement of molecules is affected by heat which means a hot molecule will move faster and affect its surroundings which takes up more space...indicating the heated molecule got larger. Theoretically, is the latter of the two statements above correct? Thanking you in advance.

2376: Hello! I am trying to wrap my head around about the difference between Gibbs free energy and enthalpy so that I can teach it correctly. This is the mental hurdle that I can't get over: If Gibbs Free energy is supposed to account for only free energy available for work, shouldn't the value for the delta G of something be greater (more positive) than that of enthalpy, thus indicating that it is less likely to happen? I understand that this isn't the case, so I just need help with learning how to think in the correct way. Thanks! Mr. G (a science teacher).
2377: What is the density of an egg?
2378: How does the type of container affect the ice creams melting time?
2379: How do you know that space doesn't have a floor at the bottom?
2380: What happens to a marshmallow when you put it in a vacuum sealer container?
2381: How do we know we all see colors the same? I could see green as what you see as blue, but, since it is always that way. Would we ever Know?
2382: Why is there no air in space?
2383: How to stop soda from exploding?
2384: What liquid makes ice melt the fastest?
2385: How does the amount of air pressure in a basketball affect a person's shot?
2386: I am looking into questions about science I have had for a while which deal with Old Earth Theory. I was wondering if you could explain how scientists derived the half life formulas for radio isotopic decay, how it works, and how they know that other factors (temperature, geological patterns, weather patterns, other radiation present such as ultraviolet rays) have not affected their data. Is there anything known to the science community that affects the validity of different dating methods like Rb-87/St-87 dating, Argon-Argon dating, and Carbon dating? Thank you for your time.
2387: How does the type of material affect the way your boat floats?
2388: Why do some minerals refract light better than others?
2389: Is air an object?
2390: Ways in which weather affect our daily lives.
2391: How does the shape of the foil affect density?
2392: Which frozen dessert melts slowest : ice cream, frozen yogurt or sorbet?
2393: If the 10 dimensions of string theory are correct, would time travel theoretically be possible because of the 5th-10th dimensions? If so, what means of transportation could we use?
2394: You state that Gold, which is (Au) 196.97, #79 on the periodic table, is 1209 pounds per cubic foot. However, Lead is 207.2, #82 on the periodic table, is only 706 pounds per cubic foot. Why isn't Lead heavier per cubic foot than Gold since it's a heavier element?
2395: What would happen if you inhaled an atom of anti-oxygen? (Meaning the antimatter equivalent of an oxygen atom).
2396: What will happen if there were ONLY negatively charged particles in the atom?
2397: In an estuary, does the fresh water float over the salt water? If so, why is it that the water in the estuary tastes salty? would you not be tasting the water that is on top and therefore the fresh water?
2398: How much does the temperature rise in a room according to the number of people who are in it?
2399: Why do we weigh less on the moon than we weigh on earth?
2400: If an element looses an electron, after loosing it, where does that electron goes?
2401: What are the differences between steam and water vapor, and what is the best term to use to describe the white cloud of water droplets above a boiling kettle?
2402: What is the path the moon travels around the earth?
2403: Is there a law of physics on how balls bounce differently?
2404: What are the differences between heat and temperature?
2405: How does the spiraling motion of a well thrown football affect the distance of the throw?
2406: What force holds galaxies together?
2407: If Chlorophyll is a chemical pigment why do plants still reflect green light to make it appear as green instead of the chemical itself?
2408: How are very strong magnets made?
2409: How do batteries affect the speed or energy an object has?
2410: What is sound energy used for?
2411: Do basketball that are fully inflated bounce better than flatter ones?
2412: What is the best paper to build paper rockets/paper airplanes?
2413: Which cookie sheet is the best one to help bake? What kind of material, shape, color?
2414: What are the reasons the atmosphere is important, and why?
2415: Why are eclipses limited to solar & lunar names? Is galactic the meaning of solar? So what other 2 celestial bodies would be in a solar eclipse with us; hence the power of three rule, cosmic clouds, a universe, a sun, a comet. My question is why we can not sense life outside planet Earth & guessed one possibility is we're all eclipsing each other right now?
2416: Hello, my name is Jan and I go to Ventura Charter School. I’m in seventh grade. I am working on a project for school to investigate Careers and Topics for future study. The topic that I want to know more about is Quantum Physics and Technology. I want to know if this subject would be interesting for me to study in college. My specific research question for this project is, “Is Quantum Physics worth understanding, and if so why?”. Part of my research requires me to interview a scientist on this topic, and I would greatly appreciate if you would help me with my interview questions below. I thank you in advance for taking the time to answer the questions.

1.What is an interesting phenomenon in Quantum Physics to you?
2.How is Quantum Physics different from classical physics?
3.How can Quantum Technology help us in the future, such as time travel and computers?
4.What do we not know about Quantum Physics?
5.Is there a simple demo I can experiment with and include in a presentation to my class that would relate to Quantum Physics?

2417: Could the Light generated from Cherenkov radiation be used to generate power?
2418: What would happen if you were to put a magnet in hot or cold water?
2419: Hello , my name is Jim , I was wondering if you might have access to notes on early studies of harnessing electricity on trial and error and maybe you could email me some direction on what books or literature to look into. Thank you for your time, I just thought it would be some fun reading.
2420: If I change the material of the ball or the type of the ball, will it affect how far the ball goes on a flat surface off a ramp?
2421: Does a heavier object touch the ground faster than a lighter object?
2422: Is the earth core a solid or something other then that? Is the mantle the layer that crates magnetic fields?
2423: Why do Earth have layers?
2424: The first law of thermodynamics tells us that matter cannot be created or destroyed. It cannot come from nothing and it cannot disappear. Do nuclear reactions, which do satisfy the 1st law, have the same number of each type of atom entering and leaving the reactions?
2425: How high does a baseball go when bounced?
2426: Rust is made up of what compound?
2427: How are black holes created?
2428: I am wondering how we know what’s at the core of the earth, and what you scientists used to figure this out?
2429: How do we see color?
2430: I wonder, how are waves in the ocean made?
2431: Are there any elements that we have not discovered yet and aren’t on the periodic table of elements?
2432: Why are we able to float on water when we are lying down, and not when we are standing?
2433: Why do we get the most fog in the months of June and July, when December and January are the months of year where there is the most moisture/humidity in the air? (And rainfall)
2434: If it took 3 days for the Apollo astronauts to travel to the Moon, what was their average speed in units of km per hour, km per second and miles per hour?
2435: How are objects thrown by a catapult affected, according to the laws of Physics?
2436: I wanted to know that what happen when 2 or more strong atoms collide. Is it possible to make a speed warm with the help of collided atoms? I know that the energy the atoms give away can make a wormhole that can connect with multi universe if we use the energy in the right way, the collided atoms can give us the mass of the energy which can be calculated d = c × t.
2437: How did the Big Bang happen? If it did, how did the thing that made it happen?
2438: What type of minerals are formed to make emeralds?
2439: How long does it take vanilla ice cream to melt in a metal container, plastic container and a cardboard container?
2440: There was a pond with about 10 to 12 feet of water in it; divers in a search and rescue mission were working all night in wet suits and very cold temperatures. The ambient air temperature was 29 to 31 degrees during the search. One official said the water was 24 degrees when the first dive team went in. Could a pond be 24 degrees and not be frozen?
2441: Could you explain explain the relation between color and heat absorption?
2442: Why do different colors absorb different amounts of heat?
2443: Which liquid does ice melt the fastest in?
2444: If the earth's core provides heat that drives plate tectonics, what would eventually happen if the earth's core cooled down?
2445: Is it possible to make an invisible cloak with the new existing materials? If not, how could be possible to make an invisible cloak?
2446: Can ice melt in saltwater faster than in freshwater?
2447: Could you explain to me in a simple way what the scientific base for quantum computers is? What is the difference between them and the computers we use nowadays? When will we be able to use quantum computers? Thank you for your time.
2448: Hi, I am an 8th grade student who is taking living environment. In the cellular respiration and photosynthesis explanation for plants, some information says the plant “makes” energy. Although it might turn stored energy into usable energy, energy cannot be created nor destroyed.What do you mean when saying that a plant “makes” energy? Just wanted to clear up any further misconceptions as it is just a minor detail that could lead to someone seeking information having the wrong idea. I appreciate your time and help your website has given me!
2449: What happens if you put hot water into a balloon and then put it over a flame of a candle?
2450: What makes things sink?
2451: I am curious about experiments confirming or refuting the block universe (based on Einstein-Minkowski spacetime). Since relativity predicts that moving away from an object looks at the object's past and moving toward an object looks at the object's future; and since satellites can move at high velocities (c/10,000 or higher) and look at distant objects of variable intensity (fast radio bursts), it seems that we can now confirm or refute this feature of Relativity. Right? Why haven't these experiments been done? Why is the existence of the block universe still an open question?
2452: What are the differences between warm air and cold air?
2453: What kind of planets are in the universe?
2454: What kind of planets are in the universe besides the dwarf planets?
2455: What would happen if you are in a hurricane or a tsunami?
2456: Which are the processes that indicate an increase of molecule movement?
2457: Do objects float better in saltwater or freshwater?
2458: Can we convert the EPE of a stretched rubber band (x=10 cm) to the Work that is done as the rubber band is launched? (Work = Force x distance traveled through the air)? Or do these two things not correlate? I thought the EPE should be similar to Work done (not while being stretched, but while flying through the air). But when we converted cm to m, we got vastly different values (recorded in Joules). Help!
2459: Can you make a hurricane by putting a lot of hot water in the sea?
2460: How are atomic nucleus and a cell nucleus same?
2461: What is considered a moon?
2462: How does hot air rise and why?
2463: What is the process called when hot air sinks and cold air rises?
2464: Could you explain about electron distribution, why electrons in the first filled shell have to move after to the next shell? Concerning the electron configuration “k” shell, I understand that it has s-sub orbitals. A “l” shell has s, p, sub orbitals, “m” shell has s,p,d sub orbitals. Br(35) 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 4p^5... Here after 3p^6 we move to 3d sub orbital (electron distribution rule) but we moved to 4s orbital, why? Could you explain clearly?
2465: Why do scientists believe the inner-core is solid?
2466: Why does more muscle mean more strength? And how can we test that our body has a pull on it (gravitational, depending on our mass)?
2467: Is it possible to create a water-implosion demonstration in a children's garden? If so, can you help with the design?
2468: Do heavier objects fall faster than lighter objects?
2469: What happens if the world collapses?
2470: Can Di-nitrogen (N2) be used as fuel?
2471: What causes a rolling ball to stop?
2472: Through what process does hydrogen nuclei form a helium nucleus?
2473: What do the nucleus in atoms contain?
2474: I need help in answering a question.  If light travels until striking an object, but a mirror reflects light, would not a light travel forever inside a mirrored sphere? 
2475: How many protons,electrons and neutrons are in hydrogen?
2476: Hi! When we cover the top of the straw the water doesn’t flow. How does it happen and why this topic is important?
2477: What is the primary way we use electromagnetic force?
2478: What I was wondering was how does air have space?
2479: If light is infinite it would mean it couldn't be measured and it ceases when the source stops. Just because it travels an infinite distance doesn't make it infinite. If a man lived forever and traveled in space no matter what speed and nothing to stop him, would that make him infinite?
2480: At what temperature does iron turn into a gas?
2481: What is the universe made of?
2482: If darker colors absorb the sun, and the shade is a dark color, why does the shade keep us cool/cold?
2483: Why there is a leap year, is it because of Earth's rotation? What is one pattern we observe because of Earth's rotation?
2484: Does the sun heat the air in our atmosphere directly?
2485: Hi, I was wondering what planet has the most gravitational pull on the earth.
2486: What does nuclear fission have to do with the birth of stars?
2487: How does earth impact our every day lives?
2488: What is the best theory about why we exist in the universe?
2489: Can you give me some examples of when light hits the surface, what happens?
2490: How does the density of an object affect whether it floats or not?
2491: What is the influence of Coriolis force on weather systems?
2492: What is a force? What do they do?
2493: Can a force do a thing it is not supposed to do?
2494: How is gravity affected by the mass of an object?
2495: What is the unit of measurement for force?
2496: Why and how is there no gravity in space?
2497: What are the equations of motion? Can you mention three of them?
2498: Imagine a column of air that extends from the top of this flower all the way to the upper edge of the atmosphere. Even though it is made up of air, this column has an enormous weight. Why doesn’t the air pressure crush this tiny flower?
2499: What exactly happens when rocks hit each other and create a spark?
2500: How high does the troposphere go and how cold can it get there?
2501: Can you explain to me what a material's scientist does?
2502: Is time travel possible or is it anything that can travel faster than light?
2503: What is inside a black hole?
2504: What does a magnet have that electricity does not have?
2505: Which air molecules are denser, cold air molecules or warm air molecules?
2506: What is fire? Which state of matter is fire? Are fire and combustion the same?
2507: Why do untethered objects float away in Space?
2508: Which of the two colors can get hotter, pink or green?
2509: Are all earthquakes powerful?
2510: If I have a sealed Steel box of a certain size and a Glass/ Plexiglass box of the same size, in sunlight, which would produce higher internal temp after a set amount of time?
2511: My question involves a syringe to inject a liquid with trapped air between the plunger and liquid. If trapped air is left in place between the plunger and liquid, does the force necessary to expel the liquid increase at all? A disadvantage (or advantage) depending on the usage is there is obviously more plunger "play" causing it to bounce back if you let up. Just curious if the air being compressed as the plunger is pushed, is not only pushing against the liquid but to a degree, also against the plunger itself, adding to the force required to expel the liquid vs. first getting rid of the air.
2512: Is the galaxy time different to earth time?
2513: Can the nuclear atom be contained into stable condition?
2514: How far does light travel to?
2515: How did the atomic bomb hold the pressure before exploding on impact?
2516: Does silk have the strength to make an armor as the Mongols used to have?
2517: How did the nuclear atom become into a power source?
2518: Everyone says magnetic fields pass through wood. I'm curious if wood causes magnetic fields to weaken, bend, or resist the source of the field in any way. For example, if a current through a wire generates a field, and that wire is placed on wood as opposed to being suspended mid air, does the surface cause the field to change its shape, slow down, or otherwise cause an opposing force that could impact the flow of electrons that cause the field in the first place?
2519: How much gas exists in space? Does enough gas exists in phenomena that contains or draw gas that would change the color of light emitted from a laser?
2520: Is cold air denser and heavier?
2521: Why is the sun a star if stars shine at night? Why is the sun the only star during the day?
2522: How does weather work from rainy to sunny?
2523: How does the sun become a day time star?
2524: What is the smallest thing you can see with a microscope?
2525: What is the Higgs Boson?
2526: How does a hydro flask keep liquid cold/hot, and could it keep a solid food warm/cold (like a burrito)?
2527: Hi,I would like to know if the quasars generate ionizing photons of specific wavelength in a constant manner? For e.g. Ly alpha ionizing photons xx numbers, Ly beta ionizing photons xx numbers or CIIi ionizing photons xx numbers and etc? If yes, can I calculate the ionizing photons of each individual elements wavelength?
2528: For another question that you had posted can you fire a bullet in outer space? Only in low earth orbit because the primer in a bullet need static electricity to ignite.
2529: What is the best theory of the Big Bang?
2530: Does the atmosphere help keep Earth's water?
2531: Can you explain in simple words how the quantum computer works?
2532: How can I prove here at home that the earth has magnetism?
2533: Are all the planets rotating at the same speed around the sun?
2534: Continuation of Are minerals from Earth elements or compounds? Why are they called minerals?
2535: I have several questions:
1. Is light matter or not, why?
2.Can light depend on gravity?
3.Is electron matter or not?
4.Can we see an electron?
5. A wave is matter or not?
6. Why we cannot see behind a wall if the wall is made of atoms?

2536: What are the properties of metal that make it shiny? Why can metal reflect light or an image (when applied in a mirror) where other materials cannot?
2537: After you have pushed the plunger in. What causes it to move back out when you release it?
2538: The earth tilts at an angle, is it possible that some day this angle increases and the weather changes drastically?
2539: What would happen to a spherical magnet if it was put inside of a hollow electromagnetic sphere? Would it go to the middle and spin freely?, or would it just find the closest surface and stick to it?
2540: Which are the types of light energy we cannot see and where can they be found?
2541: What is the science behind El Niño and La Niña affecting the weather and how frequently do we get them?
2542: Is the graviton real or just a theory? What evidence do you have?
2543: When meet, chicken or fish are frozen, what happens at the molecular level? Is it the same for vegetables and bread? Do crystals form during the process?
2544: Are all objects on Earth constantly radiating particles harmful for living things?
2545: How long would it take an object weighing 613 kg to free fall through Mars atmosphere before hitting the surface?
2546: What are sparks on a molecular level? And why do different substances have different ignition temperatures?
2547: Could it be possible that a black hole is made up of atoms which have very high atomic number and higher atomic number will exert more force on its shell?
2548: Does a wood bat hit the ball farther than an aluminum bat? Why?
2549: If a basketball is flat (it won\'t bounce) and we pump it up with air. After it is pumped with air, will the ball have more, less, or the same amount of mass as before air was added?​
2550: I have a pipe carrying electrical wiring from point a to point b. I was wondering if it is safe to have fairly heavy magnets attached to a pipe that houses electrical wiring? The magnets are N42 with a 28 lb. pull if that helps. Thank you!
2551: Hello, could you tell me really simply how hurricane Katrina evolved and where she moved to and in what way?
2552: What will happen when the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies clash together?
2553: If time and space are connected then how does a very massive object such as a black hole affect time?
2554: Why do scientists consider the earth's magnetic field to be a contributing factor instead of potentially viewing its changes as another symptom of the human element?
2555: Imagine that it is a cold, winter day. I take a hot shower and the mirror in the bathroom fogs up. I get out and draw the image of a heart on the mirror, but I wonder, how did the fog get there in the first place? In a submicroscopic level, what happen in the process?
2556: What is the role of Geology for having a nuclear plant someplace? What makes it impossible to have one nuclear plant somewhere? What are the requirements to choose the place where the plant should be installed?
2557: What makes a black hole? What activates it?
2558: How do dolphins talk to each other?
2559: Why are rainbows always red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple and in that order?
2560: At this moment how far is science to the measurement of the graviton? What is supposed to be the graviton's size compared to other known particles?
2561: If nothing can travel faster than the speed of light [c] then how is it possible that near the cosmological horizon we observe galaxies expanding away from us faster than the speed of light? What is the speed at which the universe is expanding? Is it possible for the speed of light to change? Do we have any evidence that would suggest this speed has not always been static? How is it possible for the speed of light to be the same in every frame of reference? If two particles are traveling at the speed of light and each particle observes the other what would they see? The other speeding passed them? Does this represent the limits of our current understanding? Is the faster than light receding galaxy explained somehow by our perspective with said galaxy traveling at a certain rate in addition to the expansion rate giving the appearance of faster than light speeds?
2562: Is it possible to use an inert gas in the tires of an amphibious airplane so that they become less buoyant?
2563: What is a similarity between oxygen and carbon dioxide?
2564: At what point do the laws of Physics diverge from the Einsteins' theory. How can Einstein's theory become a law?
2565: How is global warming affecting the ocean currents? How these ocean currents regulate Earth's climate?
2566: Where was aerogel invented? How strong is it? What are its applications?
2567: Considering plant bio-acoustics, how plants grow their roots into silence? And the animacy of plants that could be considered, wouldn't a tree that fell in a forest make a sound and be 'heard'?
2568: What is the reason light can travel so fast, the fastest speed we know?
2569: Is there such a thing as negative pressure?
2570: Can you explain the theory behind super conductive refrigeration, one that utilizes a refrigerant, and also what types of metal would most likely be involved in this that can achieve superconductivity but do not have to be exposed to Sub-Zero temperatures? And, what is the most likely temperature that these metals must retain in order to continue functioning as a superconductive metal?
2571: Is it possible to see the orbitals of any atom?
2572: Does our sun orbit? What does it orbit? At what speed does the sun orbit?
2573: How well does a helmet protect the head? How much of the energy of a blow can be absorbed by the helmet before it breaks? What materials are helmets made of?
2574: What happens to the micro-structure of the N95 masks if we carefully wash them? Are the fibers destroyed?
2575: How do volume and mass change the results of a baking soda and vinegar rocket? How does the ratio between the reactants affect the gas pressure? How do valence electrons work in this reaction? How do the double replacement of Na+ and H- work?
2576: If you put salt on ice or in water what will happen?
2577: Is blood considered a liquid? What are the dynamic properties of blood?
2578: I am teaching 8th grade Science. I do not have a Science degree/background. Why can't light escape a black-hole? Since gravity is the attraction between all matter, that means light has properties of/is matter, right?
2579: If I am weightless while falling why am I still falling?
2580: Good Afternoon,
Thank you for your wonderful website. I had a question I would like your help with. There is an old text (a few thousand years old) which says that the amount a person can lift himself is a third of what he can carry when someone else lifts an object an puts it onto him. Could you figure out what this may have been referring to? Certainly their build (and the muscles they worked on) may have been very different than the muscles we focus on nowadays. Perhaps when one carries things on his back they are able to carry more? Thank you for your help.

2581: What do scientists know about the force of gravity? What causes the force of gravity on Earth?
2582: Why do beams of light pass through the transparent object like glass, air etc.? Why do beams of light not pass through the opaque object like walls, planets, etc.? Do beams of light pass through the plasma state of matter? If yes or no, why?
2583: Could the constant movement of waves in the ocean be used to generate energy? If so, why don't we do that and use that energy?
2584: Dear UCSB ScienceLine,
I stumbled across the UCSB ScienceLine page

We know that there is air pressure on top of us all the time. But is the same amount of pressure on us inside a building as outside? Here are some pressures the Answers do not seem to address:
image here.

This graphic is from: Flow control in buildings

2585: What elements can exist in 3 states?
2586: Does a basketball with more air pumped into it shoot farther than one with less air in it?
2587: How much radiation do we receive from the soil on Earth? How harmful is it for our bodies?
2588: I am wondering if it would be possible someday to power airplanes with solar cells only. If yes, how far are scientists from that to be a reality?
2589: Is it possible to reach great depths under the ocean by heavy enough mass falling, causing vaporization by friction of this mass? Or by the water displacement caused by the mass falling? On this note, would something as a Rupert’s Drop, dropped from above the body water, when it is rapidly cooled and immersed, be capable of handling pressure to such extent?
2590: What is the meaning of the number (percentage) in sunscreen bottles? Does the number have something to do with the hours it protects the skin? Does a 50% protection means 50% protection of the UV rays reaching the skin, or does it mean 5 hours or protection during the day? Please explain. If we are using sunscreen almost everyday, we should know more about it. Thank you.
2591: When we are talking about the general forces of an atom, specifically weak force, one of my students asked if the changing of subatomic particles into another subatomic particle is an example of Bose/Einstein condensate/absolute zero particle. Thanks!
2592: What happens when you spin a magnet about the axis running through the two poles, and then move it sideways through a magnetic field?
2593: What are electron shells made of? Where does matter come from?
2594: Hello! I am a SBHS student. I used to attend the annual Santa Barbara kite festival until Covid hit. Recently, the science fair was eliminated from Santa Barbara junior high. So, I was thinking of creating and sponsoring a kite flying day that taught the physics behind kite making and flying. It would honor Jose Hernandez, the former NASA astronaut and UCSB alumnus. I wanted to get your thoughts or ideas about this? Thanks.
2595: What makes a fiber strong?
2596: What is heat transfer and what is radiation?
2597: How do supernovas occur and when?
2598: How are sound waves scientific, and what amount of matter do they have?
2599: What is an insulator?
2600: Does electric charge always travel through a conductor? Why or why not?
2601: If the nozzle of a syringe is covered, are the pressure applied to a plunger of a syringe by your thumb, and the reverse pressure or the plunger against your thumb the same, as the internal pressure of the syringe barrel?
2602: An object with less mass will go farther than an object with more mass?
2603: How do physicists change ideas into mathematical formulas?
2604: Jack did an experiment for color affect heating by absorption of light? We were only able to find a Red colored Incandescent 60 W. When doing the experiment on the 100% cotton, white was hotter when measured than the black, but red was still the coolest. Is this because the wavelengths were not let through for the rest of the colors? Thanks for the help
2605: How will people discover that water is not wet, even though they get wet from the water?
2606: Which frozen dessert melts the slowest: ice cream, frozen yogurt, or sorbet?
2607: What type of force or frequency is causing a guitar strings to constantly change elasticity? Three or four times a minute, while I am playing, the strings change from limber to stiff to limber to stiff. It is very frustrating. when the strings are stiff they sound less musical. I live in N.E. Tennessee, and am unsure if the problem is local. It happens on acoustic guitar, even at a distance from power lines and buildings. Thank you for your time.
2608: Why is snow white color?

I will appreciate it if someone looks over the following calculation. Thank you! So I've heard that bananas have tiny amounts of radiation in them, due to potassium, and if you eat too many bananas you can die of radiation poisoning. Of course the next logical step is to ask the question, how many bananas do I need to power my house? We start by getting two values, the radiation energy emitted by a banana and the amount of electricity the average American house needs. According to Wikipedia, a banana emits .1 microsieverts of radiation. According to the US department of energy the average American household uses 893 KWH a month. Therefore we just have to convert 893 KWH into its equivalent in microsieverts, multiply by 10, and get the amount of bananas required to power the average American house for a month.

893 KWH = 3.66 joules, one sievert is equal to 1 joule of energy, therefore we require 3.66 sieverts, which is 3.612 microsieverts, multiply by ten is 3.613 microsieverts, which means that it takes 3.613 bananas to power the average American household for a month. (That's a lot of bananas)Thank you for reading this calculation. It's probably wrong (the joule to sievert conversion is really iffy). Please correct me on any errors. Thank you :)

2610: Is water wet?
2611: How do you know the Fading Fireball of the Big Bang is actually the Big Bang?
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